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Gardening
Nevil Alphonso
Assistant Director of Agriculture

Home Gardening
What, Why & How
?

A Home Garden
should be a feature
of every house,
whether you live in
a village, city , or
you own a house or
a flat.

Home Gardening. What?


A piece of land around the
house on which different
crops are grown.

It is a land that is developed


by the members of the
family to grow vegetables,
fruits, etc. to supplement
the immediate needs of the
kitchen.

Home Gardening. What?


It

also includes
growing of
flowers & other
ornamental
plants to create
a scenic, cool &
refreshing
surrounding.

Home Gardening Why?


Supplies fresh vegetables & fruits.
Saves money for family.
Imp. Sources of vitamins, calcium,
minerals, proteins, etc. Ensures
healthy diet for the family.

Very healthy hobby.


Spare time can be productively
utilized.

It makes your surroundings


cheerful, cool and scenic.

Home gardening Why?


(Contd.)

Working in the garden can


create a sense of cooperation
among the family members.
It provides light & pleasant
recreation after a days hard
work.
HG can recycle household &
kitchen waste to produce
valuable manure by
composting.

Home gardening. Why?


(contd)

It is a dream of every family to


consume fresh vegetables free from
chemicals.

Market vegetables.. are commercially


grown sprayed with chemicals.

These chemicals are harmful to the


health of the consumers

We buy these rot-free glossy


vegetables & fruits from the market
without knowing that they are
chemically treated.

Home gardening. Why?


(contd)

Its only your Home


garden that can give
you fresh vegetables
& fruits.

Home gardening. Why?


(contd)

It not only ensures


balanced diet, but
also a delicate
psychology behind
the taste.
Vegetables grown by
you will always taste
better than the best
variety purchased
from the market.

Home Gardening. How?


Seed Sowing
Direct sowing
e.g. Bhendi, radish,
cucumber, cluster beans,
gourds, pumpkin, leafy
vegetables, etc.

Transplanting.
e.g. Chilly, brinjal, knol-khol,
tomato, onion,etc.

Seed sowing for


Transplanting

(a) Preparation of nursery bed

Select an open space.


Dig soil, crush the clods, remove
the weeds, stones, etc.

Add well decomposed manure &


neem cake powder (100 gms /
sq.mt.) & sand.

Prepare raised bed of 10 to 15 cms


height from ground level.

Level the bed, press gently & water


few hours before sowing.

Seed sowing for


Transplanting
(b) Sowing

Open small furrows on the


bed with a stick, at a
distance of 5 cms between
2 rows and to a desired
depth.

Sow the seeds in furrow


and gently cover it with a
thin layer of soil after
sowing.

Avoid thick sowing.

Seed sowing for Transplanting


(b) Sowing

Depth of sowing depends upon


the size of the seeds. The
general rule is to cover them
3-4 times their diameter (size).

Cover the bed with paddy


straw or dry grass or coconut
leaves.

Water the bed with rose


watering can.

Seed sowing for Transplanting


(c) After care

Water the bed twice a day


till germination and
thereafter once a day.
After germination remove
the grass / straw / leaves.
If Damping off disease
Drench with Copper-oxychloride or Captan (2-3
gms /lit of water).

Seed sowing for Transplanting


(c) After care

Beware of ants.
Ants either carry
away the seeds or
damage the seeds.
Chloropyriphos (1 ml
/ lit.) drench the soil.
Sprinkling of
turmeric powder
around the plants &
on leaves keeps the
ants away.

Raising seedlings in pots


(seed pans/seed boxes/seed trays)

Seed pans are shallow


earthenware or plastic pots of
about 10-25 cms height & 35
cms diameter at the top & base
and having few drainage holes.

Fill the pan with soil mixture &


sow seeds.

Follow procedure as mentioned


for seed sowing in nursery bed.

Seedling tray is a
plastic tray,
usually of size 53
x 27 cms having
98 cells.

Seed sowing for


Transplanting
(d)
Transplanting
Seedlings will be ready for
Seedlings will be ready for
transplanting after about 3-4
weeks4 leaves stage.

Water the bed few hours (12-24


hrs) before uprooting.

Take small trowel or narrow flat


stick, insert it into soil & take out
few seedlings. Separate them
carefully. Prevent root injury.

(d) Transplanting

Transplant
immediately.

Make a hole of
desired depth, to fit
the root system.
Place the seedling
in the hole & gently
press the soil

Growing vegetables
in main field

The site should be open, free


from shade & roots of large trees.

The site selected should be well


drained.

Dig soil, mix organic manure.


Prepare flat beds or open ridge &
furrow as the case may be at a
required spacing.

Transplanting / sowing
(Contd)

Transplant the seedlings or


directly sow the seeds, as the
case may be, by maintaining
recommended distance
between two plants.
Gap filling and thinning of extra
seedlings.
Light earthing-up 10-15 days
after germination / transplanting
to provide support.

Transplanting / sowing
(Contd)

Keep the beds free from weeds.

Stake in case of long beans.

Trail the ridge gourd, bottle


gourd, snake gourds etc.

Adopt immediate control


measure as soon as pests &
diseases are noticed.

Manuring

At land preparation incorporate 20 baskets of


well decomposed compost /cowdung for every
100 sq.mts.

Basal dose .. 10:26:26 or 15:15:15 or


combination of 18:46:0, urea and MOP

Top dressing use urea.

As far as possible try avoiding chemical


fertilisers.
Use organic fertilisers.

Vegetables in Home Garden.


Monsoon / kharif
vegetables (June to
September.)

Bhendi, brinjal, chilly,


cluster beans,
cucumber, pumpkin,
tendli, all gourds,
long beans, etc.

Winter / Rabi
vegetables (October
to February)
Chilies, onion,
amaranthus, knol-khol,
radish, tomato, etc.
Summer Vegetables
(March to May)
Bhendi, chilles,
watermelon, cucumber,
all gourds, tomato,
amaranthus, cluster
beans, etc.

Flowers

Flowers are colorful and


fragrant and they exude
joy of life.
Winter: Sown in sept-oct.
e.g.. Aster, Salvia,
Verbena, Marigold,
Gerbera, Cosmea,
Impatience, etc.

Flowers
Summer: Sown in Dec-Jan.
Blooming in March-May.
e.g.. Balsam, Marigold,
Celosia, Zinnia, Sunflower,
cockscomb, gaillardia, etc.
Monsoon: Sown in AprilMay. Blooming in rainy
season. e.g. Balsam,
Cosmea, Salvia, Marigold,
Gaillardia, Antirrhinum, etc.

Vegetables in pots
If you live in flats /
appartments ..
cultivate vegetables
& flowers in pots.
Window / balcony /
terrace gardening.
e.g. chillies, brinjal,
radish,tomato,leafy
vegetables, etc.

Pests

Planting fruit plants in Home


Garden

House Plants

Growing house plants is an


absorbing hobby.

Anyone can grow plants. It is


love & patience that is required
to get the very best out of the
plants.

Plants can be displayed in the


hall, bedroom, dinning room,
kitchen, bathroom & verandah.

Care & Maintenance of Plants

Water the plant fully, on


need basis.

Take the plant out in the


evening, water it fully, allow
the water to drain away
completely & bring back the
plant.

Soil should be moist , not


saturated.

Care & Maintenance of Plants (Cont)

Remove dust when it is seen


on the leaves. Wipe the leaves
with soft damp cloth or
sponge or spray the leaves
with clean water.

While cleaning take care that


the young leaves are not
damaged.

Leaf-shine can be used to


polish the leaves.

Care & Maintenance of Plants (Cont)

Indoor plants are not heavy


feeders. Apply compost or
liquid fertilisers once a month.

Remove dead leaves & flowers


regularly. Plant will look tidier.

Pinch plants back regularly if


they have bushy or branching
habit.

Care & Maintenance of Plants


(Cont)

Turn plants
regularly to keep
them symmetrical
and sturdy.

Provide stakes
where necessary.

Apply pesticides to
control pests.

Growing plants in pots

Plants grown in the pots are easy


to handle.
Can be conveniently shifted to a
desired location.
Pot size 5 cms to 45 cms.
Should have a drainage hole at
the base.
15 cms pots.. Small plants.
25 cms ..annuals.
45 cms.. roses, crotons, shrubs,
etc..

Planting in a pot

Select a suitable pot.


For pots upto 10 cms
place a single piece
of broken pot/roof tile
(crock).
For larger pots place
a larger crock against
the drainage hole and
some small pieces at
the bottom. Cover it
with coarse sand.

Planting in a pot
(Contd..)

Fill the pot with


compost and place
the plant in it
gently firming it.
Leave little space
at the top to hold
water.

Repotting

Repotting is replanting the plant in


a bigger pot or in a same pot.

When repotting is done?


When the growing plant fills the pot
with roots (pot bound) & often
needs a larger pot for its
satisfactory growth.

Repotting is also done to provide


fresh soil for the roots in the same
pot or in a bigger pot.

How to recognise a pot


bound plant.

Growth of stem and leaves is


very slow inspite of regular
feeding & watering.

Soil dries out quickly &


frequent watering is required.

Roots growing through


drainage hole.

How repotting is done.

Water the plant about


an hour before
repotting.

Run a knife between


the soil & the edge of
the pot.

How repotting is done.

Spread the fingers of one


hand over the surface of
the soil with plant between
the two fingers.
Invert the pot & gently
knock the rim of the pot on
the table.
Plant with a ball of soil will
come out. If it dose not
come out push with a blunt
stick from drainage hole.

How repotting is done.


(Contd.)

Remove all the crocks


under the ball of the soil
and also loosen the soil.

Carefully tease out some


of the outside matted
roots.

Cut out any rotten roots


but avoid causing
excessive root damage.

How repotting is done.


(Contd.)

Place the plant on


top of the compost
layer in a new pot
& gradually fill
compost around
the soil ball.

How repotting is done.


(Contd.)

Firm the compost round the


edges with the fingers.
Water carefully and place in the
shade for few days before
shifting to its normal location.
If the plant is to be repotted in
the same pot, remove gently
about 25% of soil ball and also
cut dead & decayed roots. Use
an old kitchen fork to remove the
soil.

Creative pots
Growing

plants in the creative pots or


decorative pots is an exciting
experience.

Dev Borem Korum

Any ?

Lawn

The lawn is an inseparable


part of a good home garden.
It enhance the beauty of the
garden.

Select a place where


maximum sunlight is
available throughout the day.

Preparation of lawn bed

Dig soil, make fine & level the area.


Remove stones, grass , weed roots
or any waste.
Add sufficient organic matter like
cowdung from bio-gas plant,
vermicompost, Leaf mould,@ 1kg /
sq.mt.
Water the area for 2-3 days, allow
the weed seeds to germinate and
then manually remove them along
with roots.
Avoid water logging.

Planting of lawn / grass

Separate the grass into small


pieces & then dibble the grass
roots cuttings into the soil at 810 cms apart.
The roots of the grass will then
spread & grow underground in
the course of 2-3 months,
making a fairly compact lawn.
Give light rolling to encourage
horizontal growth.

Maintenance of lawn

Water the lawn regularly.


Never allow grass to overgrow. Mow
regularly.
Weed the lawn regularly.
Top dress with vermicompost, neem
cake mixed with soil @ 1 kg / 10
sq.mt. area and the water it down.
Urea @ 250gms / 50 sq.mt. area
can be applied at monthly intervals
or liquid fertiliser of urea @ 20 gms.
/ liter of water for 10 sq,mt. area
can be sprayed.

Planting fruit plants in home


garden

Dig pits of required


size.
Hard soil / rock
increase size of the
pit.

Pit filling

Mix Compost /
dry cow dung / leaf
mould / river silt /
bone meal / neem
cake etc. in the top
soil and fill the pit.

Press the soil with


legs.

Planting material

Select good health


plant / graft with
well formed union
between stock and
scion.

Handling

Before removing
the polybag press
on all sides with
both hands.

Planting

Remove the bag by


cutting the sides of
the bag with blade,
without damaging
the roots.

Planting

Scoop the soil from


the center of the
pit.
Plant the graft in
the center of the
pit along with the
root ball.

Planting

Press the soil with


hands.

Planting

Keep the joint of


the graft at least 45 cms above the
soil level.
Do not allow water
to stagnate near
the graft.

Staking

Stake the graft with


stick.
Tie it loosely to the
graft with 8
shaped knot.
Staking will help
the graft grow
straight.

Mulching
Mulch the area
around the graft
with lot of green
leaves immediately
after planting.
Mulching helps to
conserve rain water,
to control weeds &
add organic matter
to the soil.

Pruning

Regularly cut the


new shoots
growing from the
rootstock below the
joint of the graft.

Pruning

Cut the side shoots


upto 1mt height
from the ground.
Maintains erect
growth which helps
for good
management.

Deblossoming

Remove flowers for


the first 2 years.
Allow it to bear
after 2 years.

Multiplication of Plants

Cuttings

Select a fully matured


shoot with nodes.
Remove all leaves
without damaging buds
in the leaf axils.
Give slanting cut first
below a basal node.
Measure 15 -20 cms
and give a horizontal
cut 1 2.5 cm above
the topmost node.
Cutting should have
atleast 3-4 nodes.

Multiplication of Plants

Plant in the soil so


that at least 2
nodes are inside
the soil. Water the
pot.

How to use rooting


powder

To stimulate rapid & prolific rooting use


rooting hormone.
Dip the lower -1 inch in the water.
Shake to remove the excess water.
Stir the stem into the powder.
Tap to remove surplus powder.
Plant as mentioned above.

Air layering

Select a mature branch


preferably of finger size
thickness.
About 30-40 cms from the
tip of the shoot remove a
strip of bark, 2-4cms
completely around the stem.
Scarp the exposed surface
lightly. To stimulate roots
rooting powder can be
applied.

Air layering (contd)

Take sphagnum moss or


coconut coir soaked
overnight in water in a
polythene sheet. Squeeze to
remove excess water. Cover
the portion of removed bark
with it.
Tie both ends. roots starts
appearing after 3 weeks.
Separate gradually & plant it
after taking out polythene
sheet.
Eg.. Shoe flower, breadfruit,
guava, ixora, etc.

Fertilisers doses for imp.


Vegs.

Fertilisers doses for imp.


Vegs.

Method of planting & seed rate

Method of planting & seed rate

House Plants

Temperature of the room also


plays an important role in
deciding the placement of the
plant.
Shade loving pants- Fittonia,
philodendron, aglonema
Semi-shade- Dracena, Maranta,
Ferns.
Bright window sun- Anthurium,
Monstera, Schefflera
Some direct sun- Croton, Ficus,
zebrina
Sunny window- Bougainvillea,
Cactus, coleus,

Dev Borem Korum