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EMBEDDED SYSTEM

DESIGN
Unit 1
Introduction to ES

Definition
It is an Electronic/electro-mechanical
system designed to perform a specific
function and is a combination of both
hardware and firmware(software)

ES Vs General Computing System

General Purpose
Computing System

Embedded System

A system which is a
Combination of a generic
hardware and a general
purpose OS for executing
variety of applications

A system which is a
combination of special purpose
hardware and embedded OS
for executing a specific set of
applications

Contains General purpose


OS(GPOS)

May or May not contain an OS


for functioning

Applications are
alterable(Programmable) by
the user(re install OS and
add/remove applications)

Firmware is pre-programmed
and it is non alterable
(exception for systems
supporting OS kernel image
flashing through special h/w)

Performance is the key


deciding factor in the selection
of the system. Always, Faster
is better

Application-specific
requirements( like
performance, power
requirements, memory usage
etc) are the key deciding
factors

Less/not at all tailored towards

Highly tailored to take adv of

General Purpose Computing


System

Embedded System

Response requirements are not


time critical

For certain category of ES like


mission critical systems, the
response time is highly critical

Need not be deterministic in


execution behavior

Deterministic for certain types of


ES like Hard real time systems

History of ES
Existence

even before IT revolution


Olden ES were built around vacuum tube &
transistor
Algorithm was developed in low level languages
Advances
in technology
gave way to
development of
miniature ES
First recognized modern ES is Apollo Guidance
Computer (AGC) developed by MIT for lunar
expedition

History cont

Computing unit of AGC consisted approx 11


instructions and 16 bit word logic.
Around 5000 ICs (3 input NOR Gates) were used in
design.
User interface unit of AGC is known as
DSKY(display/keyboard).
DSKY looked like a calculator type keypad with
array of numerals.
First mass-produced ES was the guidance
computer for Minuteman-1 missile in 1961.
It was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer,
built using discrete transistor logic.

Classification of
Embedded
Systems

1.
2.

3.
4.

Based on generation
Complexity and performance
requirements
Based on deterministic behavior
Based on triggering.

Classification based on
generation
First Generation: Using 8 bit mp, 4 bit mc.
Ex: Digital telephone keypads, stepper
motor control units etc
2nd generation: Using16 bit MP, 8 or 16 bit
MC.
Some of them have Embedded OS.
Ex: data acquisition systems etc

3rd

Generation: 32 bit processors and 16 bit


controller.
Application
and
domain
specific
processors/controllers like DSPs and ASICs
came into picture.
Dedicated embedded real time and general
purpose OS entered into Embedded market.
Embedded

Systems spread into robotics,


media, industrial control, networking etc

4th generation
Advent

of SoCs, reconfigurable processors and


multicore
processors
are
bringing
high
performance,
tight
integration
and
miniaturization into embedded device market.
SoC technique implements a total system on
chip by integrating different functionalities with a
processor core on an IC.
Smart phone devices, mobile internet devices
etc are examples

Classification based on
performance
1.

Small Scale ES:ESs which are simple in


application
needs
and
where
the
performance requirements are not time
critical. Ex: Electronic Toy
They built around low performance and low
cost 8 or 16 bit MP/MC. It may or may not
contain OS.

2. Medium Scale ES: Slightly complex in


h/w
and firmware.
Built around medium performance, low cost
16 or 32 bit MP/MC/DSPs.

They usually contain an Embedded OS

3. Large scale ES
Highly

complex h/w & firm ware


Used In mission critical applications
demanding high performance.
Built
around
32
or
64
bit
RISC
processors/controllers or Reconfigurable System
on Chip(RSoC) or multicore processors & PLDs.
They contain multiple processors/controllers
and co-units/hardware accelerators for offloading
processing
requirements
from
the
main
processor.

Major Application areas of


ES
1.

2.

Consumer Electronics: Camcoders,cameras,


etc
Household appliances: TV,DVD Players,
washing machine, fridge, microwave Oven
etc

3.Home automation
Systems

and

Security

ACs, Sprinklers, Intruder detection


alarms, CCTV Cameras, Fire alarms
etc..

4.Automative Industry: Anti lock breaking


Systems, Engine control, Ignition Systems,
Automatic navigation Systems etc
5.Telecom: Cell Phones, Telephone switches,
handset multimedia applications etc
6. Computer peripherals: Printers, Scanners,
Fax machines etc

7.Computer networking Systems: N/w Routers,


switches, hubs, firewalls etc

8.Healthcare: Diff Kinds of Scanners,EEG,ECG


machines etc

9.Measurement & Instrumentation: DMMs,


Digital CROs, Logic Analyzers, PLC Systems etc

10. Banking & retails: ATM and currency


counters, Point of Sales

11. Card Readers: Barcode.


readers, hand held devices etc

Smart

card

Purpose of ES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Data Collection/storage/ Representation


Data Communication
Data (Signal) Processing
Monitoring
Control
Application Specific User Interface

1.Data Collection/storage/
Representation
ES

designed for data collection performs acquisition of data from


external world.
Data

collection
transmission.

is

for

storage,

analysis,

manipulation

and

ES

designed for pure measurement applications w/o storage, used


in control and instrumentation domain, collects data and give a
meaningful representation of collected data means of graphical
representation or quantity value and deletes the collected data
when new data arrives at collection terminal.
Ex: Analog & digital CROs w/o memory
Digital

camera is typical example


collection/storage/representation of data

for

ES

with

data

2.Data communication
Data

communication systems are used in satellite


communication systems to home networking systems.
Collected data may require transferring to a system located
remotely.
Wire line- olden days
Present wireless.
Wireless offers cheaper connectivity and free from hassle of
wire bundles.
Data collecting terminal can itself incorporate data
communication units like wireless modules ( Bluetooth,
ZigBee,Wi-Fi etc) or wire line modules ( RS-232C,USB etc)
N/w hubs, routers, switches etc are typical examples of
dedicated data transmission ES. They act as mediators in
data communication and provide features like data security ,
monitoring etc

3.Data( Signal) Processing

Data(

voice, image, video etc) collected may be used

for processing.
ES

with signal processing are used in applications like

speech coding, synthesis, audio video codec etc


Ex:

Digital hearing aid, which improves the hearing

capacity of hearing impaired persons.

4. Monitoring
For

monitoring purpose.
Products coming under medical domain are with
monitoring functions only.
They are used for determining sate of some variables
using input sensors.
Ex: ECG machine for monitoring heartbeat of patient.
Sensors used are electrodes connected to body.
Other examples: Digital CRO, DMM etc

5.Control
They

impose control over some variables according to


changes in i/p variables.
System with control functionality contain both sensors and
actuators
Sensors are connected to i/p port for capturing changes in
measuring variable
Actuators connected to o/p are controlled according to the
changes in i/p variable
AC is example.
AC contains a room temp sensing element (sensor) and a
hand held unit for setting desired temp.
Handheld unit connected to central embedded unit residing in
AC.
Air compressor unit acts as actuator.
Compressor is controlled according to room temp & temp set
by user.
i/p is current room temp & controlled variable is cool airflow
by compressor unit

6.Application specific user interface

Buttons,

Switches, keypad, lights, bells,


display units etc
Ex: Mobile Phone
In mobile phone, user interface is provided
through keypad, graphic LCD module,
system speaker, vibration alert etc..