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# Traveling Wave

Transient Overvoltages

1.Introduction
Transient Phenomenon :
Aperiodic function of time
Short duration

## Example :Voltage & Current Surge :

(The current surge are made up of charging or discharging capacitive
currents that introduced by the change in voltages across the shunt
capacitances of the transmission system)

Lightning Surge
Switching Surge

## Impulse Voltage Waveform

2.Traveling Wave

Disturbance represented by
closing or opening the switch S.
If Switch S closed, the line
suddenly connected to the
source.
The whole line is not energized
instantaneously.
Processed :

## When Switch S closed

The first capacitor becomes
charged immediately
Because of the first series
inductor (acts as open circuit),
the second capacitor is delayed

## This gradual buildup of voltage

over the line conductor can be
regarded as a voltage wave is
traveling from one end to the
other end

## Voltage & Current Function

vf=v1(x-t)
vb=v2(x+t)
= 1/(LC)
v(x,t)=vf + vb
vf=Zcif
vb=Zcib

Zc=(L/C)
If=vf/Zc
Ib=vb/Zc
I(x,t)=If + Ib
I(x,t)=(C/L)
[v1(x-t) -v2(x+t)]

## 2.1 Velocity of Surge Propagation

In the air = 300 000 km/s
= 1/(LC) m/s
Inductance single conductor Overhead Line (assuming
zero ground resistivity) :
L=2 x 10-7 ln (2h/r)
H/m
C=1/[18 x 109 ln(2h/r)] F/m
v

2 10 ln 2h / r
1

9
LC 18 10 ln 2h / r
7

1/ 2

## In the cable : = 1/(LC) = 3 x 108 K

K=dielectric constant (2.5 to 4.0)

m/s

## 2.2 Surge Power Input & Energy Storage

P=vi Watt
Ws= Cv2 ; Wm= Li2
W=Ws+Wm = 2 Ws = 2 Wm = Cv2 = Li2
P=W = Li2 /(LC) = i2 Zc = v2 / Zc

## 2.3 Superposition of Forward and

Backward-Traveling Wave

## 3. Effects of Line Termination

Assuming vf, if,vb and ib are the instantaneous
voltage and current.
Hence the instantaneous voltage and current at
the point discontinuity are :

v(x,t)=vf + vb and
I=vf/Zc - vb/Zc and
v + iZc= 2vf so
vf = (v+iZc) and

I(x,t)=If + Ib
iZc=vf vb
v=2vf=iZc
vb = (v+iZc) or
vb= vf-iZc

v iR
2
i
vf
R Zc
R Zc
2R
R Zc
vb
vf
R Zc
vf

Pf

v 2f
Zc

vb2
Pb
Zc
2

vb

v
f
R
R
Pf Pb PR
PR

2
i
if
Z Zc
2Z
v
vf
Z Zc

Z Zc
vf
v
2R
Z Zc
vb
vf
Z Zc

v v f

vb v f

2Z

Z Zc

Z Zc

Z Zc

## Line is terminated with its characteristic impedance :

Z=Zc
=0, no reflection (infinitely long)

Z>Zc
vb is positive
Ib is negative
Reflected surges increased voltage and reduced current

Z<Zc
vb is negative
Ib is positive
Reflected surges reduced voltage and increased current

end.

Zs Zc
Z R Zc
s
; R
Z s Zc
Z R Zc

## 3.3 Open-Circuit Line Termination

Boundary condition for current i=0
Therefore if=-ib
Vb=Zcib=Zif=vf
Thus total voltage at the receiving end
v=vf+vb=2vf
Voltage at the open end is twice the
forward voltage wave

## 3.4 Short Circuit Line Termination

Boundary condition for current v=0
Therefore vf=-vb
If=vf/Zc=-(vb/Zc)=ib
Thus total voltage at the receiving end
v=if+ib=2if
Current at the open end is twice the
forward current wave

## 3.5 Termination Through Capacitor

2Z

Z Zc
2(1 / Cs )

Z c 1 / Cs
v v f

2(1 / Cs ) v f 2v f
1
v( s )

Z c 1 / Cs s
s Z cCs 1
2v f

1 / Z cC
1
1

2v f
s s 1 / Z cC
s s 1 / Z cC
So :
v(t ) 2v f (1 e t / Z cC )
i (t )

2v f
Zc

e t / Z c C

vb (t ) v f (1 2e t / Z cC )

## 3.6 Termination Through Inductor

v(t ) 2v f e
i (t )

2v f
Zc

( Z c / L )t

(1 e

( Z c / L ) t

vb (t ) v(t ) v f (t )
vb (t ) v f (2e

( Z c / L )t

1)

if

vf

v f vb v

Z c1

i f ib i

vb
ib
Z c1
v
i
Zc2

vf

vb
v

Z c1 Z c1 Z c 2

Z c1
v
2v f 1
Zc2

2Z c 2
v
vf
Z c1 Z c 2
2 Z c1
i
if
Z c1 Z c 2
Z c 2 Z c1
vb
vf
Z c1 Z c 2
Z c1 Z c 2
ib
if
Z c1 Z c 2

Pf

2
f

Z c1
2

v
P
Zc2
2
b

v
Pb
Z c1

Example:

2v f

Zc2
v
Z c1 Z c 2 / 2 2
2Z c1
v
if
Z c1 Z c 2 / 2
if

2v f
Z c1 Z c 2 / 2