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1. What is circulation?

is the movement of
substances like nutrients and gases
within blood vessels and cavities
throughout the organism.

What are the two types of circulatory


circulatory systems can be

classified into open circulatory system
andclosedcirculatory system.

What is an open circulatory system?

Open circulatory system is the one in which blood does

not circulate only inside blood vessels but it also falls in
cavities that irrigate tissues. In the open circulatory
system the blood pressure is low and generally the
blood (called hemolymph) has low cellularity.

Arthropods, molluscs (the cephalopods are exception)

and protochordates have open circulatory system.

What is a closed circulatory system?

A closed circulatory system is one in which blood

circulates only inside blood vessels. For this reason
the blood pressure is higher in animals with closed
circulatory system. The cellularity of the blood is also
higher with many specific blood cells.

The closed circulatory system is a feature of annelids,

cephalopod molluscs and vertebrates.

What are the advantages of the

closed circulatory system over the
open circulatory system?

closed circulatory system is more

efficient. Since blood circulates only inside
blood vessels it can do it with more pressure
reaching farther distance.

What are the typical components of

a closed circulatory system?

typical components of the closed

circulatory system are the blood vessels
within which blood circulates (arteries, veins
and capillaries), a pumping organ (heart) and
the blood or bloodlike fluid.

What is the difference between

systole and diastole

Systole and diastole are the two stages into which the
cardiac cycle is divided. Systole is the stage when the
contraction of ventricular muscle fibers occurs and
the ventricles are emptied. Diastole is the stage of
the cardiac cycle when the ventricular muscle fibers
distend and the ventricles are filled with blood.

What are arterial vessels, arteries

and arterioles?

vessels are every blood vessel that

carries blood from the heart to the tissues.
Arteries and arterioles are arterial vessels.
Arterioles are thin arteries that end in

What are venous vessels, veins and


vessels are every blood vessel that

carries blood from the tissues to the heart.
Veins and venules are venous vessels.
Venules are thin veins that are continuous to

What are the capillaries of the

vascular system?

Capillaries are small blood vessels that perform exchange of

substances between the blood and the body tissues. Capillaries
are neither arteries nor are they veins since they have distinct

In capillaries the wall is made of a single layer of endothelial

cells through which substances are exchanged. These vessels
receive blood from the arterioles and drain to the venules.

What are the valves of the venous

system? What is their function?

The valves of the venous system are structures inside

the veins that permit blood to flow only in the normal
way (from the tissues to the heart) and forbid it to
return in the reverse way in favor of gravity.

What are varices?

Varix means abnormal enlargement of veins. Varices

occur when excessive pressure against the normal
blood flux creates enlargement of the vein and thus
insufficient functioning of its valves (venous

What is the lymphatic system?

The lymphatic system is a network of specialized

valved vessels that drain interstitial fluid (lymph). The
lymphatic system is also responsible for the transport
of chylomicrons (vesicles that contain lipids) made
after the absorption of fats by the intestinal

Which are the heart chambers

respectively where the entrance and
the exit of blood occur

The heart chambers through which blood enters the

heart are the atria. There are the right atrium and the
left atrium.

The heart chambers through which the blood exits

the heart are the ventricles. There are the right
ventricle and the left ventricle.

Concerning the thickness of their

walls how different are the heart

left ventricle is more muscular than the

right ventricle because pumping blood to the
lungs (the right ventricle task) is easier
(needs less pressure) than pumping blood to
the other tissues of the body (the left
ventricle task).

What is vena cava? Which type of

blood circulates within the vena

The vena cava are either of two large veins that

debouch into the right atrium. The superior vena cava
drains all blood that comes from the head, the
superior limbs, the neck and the superior portion of
the trunk. The inferior vena cava carries blood
drained from the inferior portion of the trunk and the
inferior limbs.