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Building a Curriculum:

A Recipe for Success


ZEHOUR AL SABBAN
COREY HEERSCHAP
CHRISTINE RACETTE

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Food and you


Ice Breaker

Food and you


What is your favorite meal?
What is the first recipe you learnt to prepare?
When you were a teenager, did you enjoy cooking?
What food would you like to learn how to cook?
Name one good eating habit you think you should adopt
Name one of your good eating habits

Lesson Plan

Objectives

Be aware of at some advantages of a systemic approach to


curriculum development

Experience the application of Kerns method to build a


curriculum

Identify Kerns 6+2 steps of curriculum development

What is Curriculum?

Latin: track or race course

Content and subject of education

Planning and implementation of education programs

Needs assessment for programs

Formulation of goals and objectives

Selection of approaches

Methods of instruction

Consideration of the teaching environment

Assessment of learners

Evaluation

What is Curriculum?

It is a design plan for learning that requires the purposeful and


proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the
interactions among the teacher, students and content

Encompassing a breadth of education experiences. (One or more


sessions on a specific subject, clinical rotation or clerkship, entire
training program)

Curriculum
Formal (Intended)

The actual implementation of the plan

Informal (Hidden)

The teaching of values, attitudes, and behavior through the


organization and teachers attitudes (Interpersonal teachings)

The unplanned, but experienced, curriculum

Complement

Curriculum Models
Tyler

Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949)

What is the purpose of the education?

What educational experience will attain the purposes?

How can these experiences be effectively organized?

How can we determine when the purposes are met?

Learner-centered approach

Deductive

Curriculum Models
Taba

Curriculum Development. Theory and Practice (1962)

Step
Step
Step
Step
Step
Step
Step

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Diagnosis of needs
Formulation of objectives
Selection of content
Organization of content
Selection of learning experiences
Organization of learning experiences (development of methods)
Determination of what to evaluate and how (Taba1962:12)

Inductive

Saylor, Alexander and Lewis


Oliva

2009

Why do we need a model?

Outline a basic framework for what, how, when and how to know
if it has been achieved

Represent an articulation of what students should know and be


able to do

Greater efficiency and productivity

Designs

Harden 10 questions

Kern 6+2

SPICES

PRISMS

Kern 6+2 steps

+2 steps:
- Maintenance and enhancement
- Dissemination

Kern DE, Thomas PA, Hughes, M. Curriculum Development for


Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach. United States: The
Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

References
1.

Lnemets U, Kalamees-Ruubel K. The Taba-Tyler Rationales. Journal


of the American Association for the Advancement of Curriculum
Studies. 2013; 9(2) 1-12 .

2.

Kern DE, Thomas, PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for


Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach. 2 nd edition. United States:
The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

3.

Omar MI, Shakil A. How to Spice up the curriculum. Archives of


Pharmacy Practice. 2010; 1(2). pp 7-8.

4.

Harden RM, Sowden S, Dunn WR. Educational strategies in


curriculum development: the SPICES model. Medical Education.
1984 Jul;18(4):284-97

5.

Harden RM. Ten Questions to ask when planning a course or


curriculum. Medical Education 1986; 20,356-365

Problem Identification &


General Needs Assessment

Problem identification
Even the simplest health problem may be refractory to any
educational or other intervention, if the problem has not been
well defined.
Kern, 1998

Helps define priorities

Content

Form

Problem identification
WHO is affected?

WHAT is affected?
Qualitative and quantitative importance

Individual:

The learners needs


Other stakeholders

needs

Institution: The facultys or the


hospitals needs
Society:
needs

The communitys

Attitude, skills, knowledge

Cognitive and affective

Satisfaction

Performance

Costs

Social, political, economical outcomes

Lets cook!
The Problem:

High school students in a low income community

Many have poor eating habits with an actual / potential impact on their
health

WHO: High school students


School
Society
WHAT:

Attitude, skills and knowledge regarding good eating habits

Health outcomes
Costs
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General needs assessment


Ideal situation
Current situation
= General needs

Needs: What has to be adressed to close the gaps between the


current situation and the ideal situation.

A needs assessment helps define

Areas for improvement

A method to address barriers to improvement

Types of needs

Perceived needs

What each individual thinks about his needs

Varies with every individual

Expressed needs

Normative needs

Needs for which people have seeked help

Needs based on standard criteria

Relative needs

Needs based on the difference with what is


done elsewhere

Megan wants to know how to choose healthy


snacks.

John asked his coach how he could better eat


before a swimming competition.

Most of the students do not follow Canadas


Food Guide.

The students do not receive training on


healthy eating habits, compared to most high
schools in the province.

General needs assessment


1.

What is currently done?

2.

What sould be done?

3.

What factors affect the problem?

1. What is currently done?


What is (or is not) done by:

Obtain information from:

Individuals

Direct observation

Educators

Interviews, questionnaires, diaries

Institutions

Stakeholders

Society

Experts

Locally / Elsewhere

Tradition / Emerging trends

What are the consequences?

Reports, audits

Litterature review

Current situation of our


students
Comparison with other schools:

Direct observation:

Increasing popularity of fast food and soda.

No current training on eating habits/cooking.

In the province, the majority offer


training on healthy eating habits.

New trend towards developing cooking


workshops in other provinces.

Review of the litterature:

A recent study shows that the majority of


Ontarian adolescents eat fast food at least
once a week.
Between 1998-2008, there was a 70%
increase in type 2 diabetes diagnosis in
Canada among children.

Questionnaires to 9th and 12th graders:

Rarely cook.

Would like to learn how to eat properly


prior to physical activity.

12th grader would like to learn how to


cook so they save money once they go
to college.

Most do not know the Canadas Food


Guide Recommendations.

2. What should be done?


Ideal approach

Obtain information from:

What should (or should not) be done


by:

Interviews, questionnaires, diaries,

Stakeholders

Experts

Individuals

Educators

Guidelines and Recommendations

Institutions

Reports, audits

Society

Litterature review

Delphi technique

Nominal group technique

Modified Delphi technique


Feedback

Feedback

Sequential questionnaires with controlled feedback between each round.

Feedback between rounds can increase knowledge, generate new ideas and motivate
participants.

Aims at obtaining consensus through combining knowledge and experience of participants


anonymously.

Helps structure group communication, especially when there is no consensus or lack of


evidence.

Critique: agreement or conformity?

Nominal group technique

Each member gives his opinion with an explanation

Duplicatas are removed

The group ranks the ideas with a facilitator encouraging


discussion

A final decision is taken

Often a combination more than one idea

What should be done in this


situation?
Use the Nominal group technique to define:

What should the adolescents do/know?

What should the school do?

What should the society do?

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3. What factors affect the problem?


Personal and environmental factors

Predisposing

Influence motivation to change

Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs

Enabling

Influence effort to change

Skills, external forces

Reinforcing

Influence the maintenance of the change

Feedback, results

Influencing factors

Think/Pair/Share
For each factor, find one example that may apply to our high school students:

Predisposing

Enabling

Reinforcing

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Examples of influencing factors

Predisposing

Knowledge on diseases influenced by heating habits

Influence motivation to change

Need for autonomy

Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs

Culture

Moving for college

Cooking skills

Financial resources

Final exam

Positive feedback from family/friends / physician

Weight loss

Feeling empowered

Saving money

Getting a new job in a restaurant

Enabling

Influence effort to change

Skills, external forces

Reinforcing

Influence the maintenance of the


change

Feedback, results

Learners Needs Assessment

Learners needs assessment


In continuity with the assessment of the actual situation
Identify targeted learners

Identify content

Is teaching to these learner pertinent


to solving the specific problem?

Individual characteristics

Type of learners

Previous or already planned training and experience

Existing proficiencies: knowledge, attitudes and


skills

Current performance

Perceived needs, expectations and goals

Learning style

Preferred learning strategies (time, format, method)

Resources

Assess learning needs but also what could


facilitate it: schedule, format

Method

The method will depend on:

The quality of information that is required

The level of agreement between the curriculum designers

Can be combined with the assessment of the actual situation

Grant J. Learning needs assessment: assessing the need. BMJ; 2002; 324(7330):156-9.

References
1.

Bice-Stephens W. Designing a learning-needs survey--10 steps to success. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2001
Jul-Aug;32(4):150-1.

2.

Grant J. Learning needs assessment: assessing the need. BMJ; 2002; 324 (7330):156-9.

3.

Karni KR, Duckett L. Curriculum design: Questions to ask. Clinical Laboratory Science.
1998;11(2):78.

4.

Kern DE. Thomas PA, Bass EB, Howard DM. Curriculum Development for Medical Education: A SixStep Approach. 1st edition. United States: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1998. Chapter 2,
Problem Identification and General Needs Assessment; p. 9.

5.

Kern DE, Thomas PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for Medical Education: A Six-Step
Approach. United States: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

6.

McKimm J. Curriculum design and development [web-based learning resource]. London deanery;
2003 [updated 2007; cited 2015 Jan]. Available from:
http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/setting-learning-objectives/Curriculum_design_
and_development.pdf

7.

Peyton JWR. Teaching & learning in medical practice. Heronsgate Rickmansworth, Herts: Manticore
Europe Ltd; 1998.

8.

Powell C. The Delphi technique: myths and realities. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2003;41(4):37682.

9.

Prideaux D. Curriculum design. BMJ. 2003;326 (7383):268-70.

Goals & Objectives Setting

What are they and why are they


important?

A goal or objective is the expectant outcome of an endeavour to


effect change

Goal: general expected outcome

Objective: more specific expected outcome

Goal and objectives:

Direct content of the curriculum

Enable potential for evaluation

Communicate expectations of the curriculum

MacLeod, 2012

Group Activity
Lets create a goal that summarizes
our learning curriculum for the
scenario!

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Objective Creation

Utilize the SMART acronym:

Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time Bound

Who / Will do / How much / Of what / By when?

Utilize a verb

Utilize a noun

Must state criteria for success

Must note conditions of performance

Objective Types

Learner Objectives

Relate to cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains

Process Objectives

Related to implementation of the curriculum

i.e.. Amount of participation

Outcome Objectives

Outcomes that affect others besides the learner i.e.. patients

Collaborative Learning

Curriculum developers must keep in mind both learners and


mentors develop their own objectives along with curriculum
objectives.

Therefore although all curriculums must have specific objectives


too many can hinder collaborative learning between a mentor
and the learner.

Putting knowledge into practice


Please split into 2 groups.
Groups will be divided by either grade 9 students or grade 12
students.
Each group is to create three objectives, one for each of:

Knowledge

Skill

Attitude

10 Minutes will be given .


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References
1.

Doran, G. T. (1981). There's a S.M.A.R.T. way to write


management's goals and objectives. Management Review,
70(11), 35-36

2.

Effective Goal Setting. Health Care Registration 2010


09;19(12):5-6.

3.

Kern DE, Thomas, PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for


Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach. 2nd edition. United
States: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

4.

MacLeod, L. Making SMART Goals Smarter. PEJ. 2012; 38(2): 6872.

Educational Strategies

Syllabus

Learning objectives and methods

Curricular events and practical informtion

Written curricular materials

Suggestions and resources

Guidelines for choosing educational methods

Maintain congruence between objectives and methods

Use multiple educational methods

Feasible

Educational Methods

Educational Methods

Educational Methods

Educational Methods

Methods for Promoting Professionalism

Role Modeling

Facilitated reflection on and discussion of experiences

Participation in writing professionalism goals

Ethics consultation rounds

Peer evaluation

Participation in Honor Boards

Service learning and volunteering

References
1.

Grunwald T, Corsbie-Massay C. Guidelines for cognitively efficient


multimedia learning tools: educational strategies, cognitive load, and
interface design. Acad Med. 2006;81:213-23.

2.

Karni KR, Duckett L. Curriculum design: Questions to ask. Clinical


Laboratory Science. 1998; 11(2):78.

3.

Kern DE, Thomas PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for Medical
Education: A Six-Step Approach. United States: The Johns Hopkins
University Press; 2009.

4.

McKimm J. Curriculum design and development [web-based learning


resource]. London deanery; 2003 [updated 2007; cited 2015 Jan].
Available from: http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/elearning/setting-learningobjectives/Curriculum_design_and_development.pdf

BREAK 30 MIN
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LETS GROUP

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Curriculum Implementation

Resource Identification
Human Resources

Amenities

Audio Visual

Space to implement curriculum

Support Staff

Equipment needed

Instructors
Financials

Time

Time needed to develop and


implement curriculum
Time needed for learners to
participate in utilizing the
curriculum

Will there be extra expenses due to the


new curriculum?

Can existing resources be utilized in


other ways to save costs?

Support Obtainment
Internal Assistance

Stakeholders

Learners

Faculty

Educators:

Wish to be involved and have input into the


new curriculum

Are more likely to initiate change when they


see it can positively affect student learning
and increase their grades

Must have an extensive knowledge of the


curriculum prior to implementation so that
the knowledge can be passed onto their
students

External Assistance

Funders

Grants

Organizations/Foundations

Individual Financers

Curriculum Administration
Faculty and Administration Staff

i.e. Who should students approach if issues occur?

Functions

Day to day operations

Communications

Creation of goals, objectives, scheduling, evaluating results

Creation of syllabus and reports

Barrier Anticipation

Monetary Interests

Lack of time

Limited Resources

Competition

Individual Concerns:

Power Struggles

Job security

Curriculum Introduction
1. Trial

Provides the ability to receive feedback and make revisions

2. Phase In

Implementing the new curriculum in steps can reduce resistance rather than
a complete reform all at one time

3. Total Enactment of Curriculum

In some instances such as if the curriculum is limited in scope the full


curriculum may be enacted at once. In this instance the first use of the
curriculum would be considered the trial phase.

4. Ongoing adaptations

Educators will adapt the curriculum to suit their classroom needs

References
1.

Alshammari, A. Curriculum Implementation and Reform: Teachers


Views About Kuwaits New Science Curriculum. US-China Education
Review A. 2013; 3(3): 181-186.

2.

Bennett, DS. Teacher Efficacy in the Implementation of New


Curriculum Supported by Professional Development. University of
Montana. 2007. Retrieved from:
http://scholarworks.umt.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?
article=1965&context=etd

3.

Kern DE, Thomas, PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for Medical
Education: A Six-Step Approach. 2 nd edition. United States: The Johns
Hopkins University Press; 2009.

4.

Lim P, Pyvis, D. How Singapore junior college science teachers address


curriculum reforms: A theory. Issues in Educational Research. 2012;
22(2): 127-148.

Evaluation and Feedback

The purpose of an evaluation

When should evaluation be considered? The simple answer is


early and often
- Hays, 2013

Were goals and objectives met?

What are the strengths and weaknesses?

What could be improved and how?

Are learners / teachers satisfied?

SWOT analysis
Strengths

Weaknesses
Threats

Opportunities

Internal factors
-

Human, financial and physical


resources

Expertise

Planification

External factors
-

Social and political context

Future development possibilities

Trends

Competition

Kerns steps to evaluation and


feedback
1.

Identify users

2.

Identify uses

3.

Identify resources

4.

Identify evaluation questions

5.

Choose evaluation design

6.

Choose measurement method

7.

Address ethical concerns

8.

Collect and analyze data

9.

Report results

1. Identify users

Who will use the evaluation?


There may be more than one evaluation

Learners
Developers
Faculty
Program director

Institution directors
Sponsors

Prospective learners or faculty members

Institutions who could use the model

Students

Teachers

School direction

School board

Government

Prospective students

Prospective teachers

Other schools

2. Identify uses

Formative vs summative evaluation

Individuals vs program

Outcomes, perceptions, process

Goals of the assessment


Learners

Meeting learning objectives

Developing adequate attitudes,


knowledge, skills

Enjoying their training

Developers and teachers

Documenting accomplishment

Publication / presentation

Curriculum/Faculty

Satisfy external requirements

Changing outcomes

Enrol new teachers / trainees

Prestige

2. Identify uses

Formative

Program: to improve the programs performance

Stakeholders feedback including quantitative and qualitative info (+/- suggestions)

Learners: feedback to improve attitudes, skills and knowledge.

Summative

Program: Success of the curriculum in achieving every targeted learner


objectives, process objectives and pleasing learners and faculty.

Often necessary to maintain time and funding

Learners: Individual performance

3. Identify resources

Time

Equipment

Personnel

Funds for collection, analysis and reporting the results

4. Identify evaluation questions

Related to:

Learners measurable objectives

Perceptions

Curriculum outcomes

Curriculum process

Multiple objectives may be combined into a single evaluation


item.

Every objective is worth being evaluated.

5. Choose evaluation design


6. Choose measurement methods and construct
instruments

Is there already an existing


measurement tool?
Is there an expert to get advice
from?

Pilot the instrument first.

Written test

Oral exam

Portfolio

Self-assessment forms

Essays on respondents experience

Rating forms

Surveys

Questionnaires

Interviews

Focus group

Direct observation

Performance audits

7. Address ethical concerns

Confidentiality

Resource allocation

Potential impact of the evaluation

8. Collect data
9. Analyze data

To be planned at the same time as


designing the evaluation uses,
question and design.

Descriptive vs statistical
analysis.

Do not forget educational


significance.

If goals were not met, try to find


an explanation.

Maximize response rate

Included in the schedule

Necessary to get credit

Included in an already existing


evaluation activity

F/U with non respondents

10. Report results

Timeliness:
Individuals benefit from immediate feedback of formative
evaluations.

Length depending on the reader.

What assessment method(s)


should we choose?
Remember to
Identify users
Identify uses
Identify methods

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References
1.

Hays R, Hamlin G. A new curriculum: buy and adapt, or design from


scratch. The Clinical Teacher. 2013; 10:131-133.

2.

Karni KR, Duckett L. Curriculum design: Questions to ask. Clinical


Laboratory Science. 1998; 11(2):78.

3.

Kern DE, Thomas PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for Medical
Education: A Six-Step Approach. United States: The Johns Hopkins
University Press; 2009.

4.

McKimm J. Curriculum design and development [web-based learning


resource]. London deanery; 2003 [updated 2007; cited 2015 Jan].
Available from: http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/elearning/setting-learningobjectives/Curriculum_design_and_development.pdf

Maintenance and
Enhancement

Areas for assessment and potential change


Written
curriculum

Learners

Environment
/ setting

Faculty

Administration

Evaluation

Areas for assessment and potential change of a


curriculum
Written Curriculum

Environment

Administration of the
curriculum

Goals and objectives

Funding

Scheduling

Content

Space

Curricular materials

Equipment and supplies

Preparation and
distribution of curricular
materials

Methods

Clinical experience

Congruence

Learning climate

Collection, collation and


distribution of
evaluation information

Communication

Areas for assessment and potential change of a


curriculum
Evaluation

Faculty

Learners

Congruence

Reliability/accessibility

Response rate

Teaching/Facilitation
skills

Achievement of
curriculum objectives

Satisfaction

Involvement

Application

Accuracy

Usefulness

Nature of the learnerfaculty relationship

Satisfaction

Involvement

Management of change

Before expanding resources to make changes

The change is sufficiently important

Affects a significant number of people

Will persist if not addressed

Consider at what level needs should be addressed and changes made

At the level of coordinator?

Requires in depth analysis and thoughtful planning for change needs selected task
group

Pilot before implementing fully

The curriculum team must involve the support staff and learners

Management of change

Before expanding resources to make changes

The change is sufficiently important

Affects a significant number of people

Will persist if not addressed

Consider at what level needs should be addressed and changes made

At the level of coordinator?

Requires in depth analysis and thoughtful planning for change needs selected task
group

Pilot before implementing fully

The curriculum team must involve the support staff and learners

Management of change

Before expanding resources to make changes

The change is sufficiently important

Affects a significant number of people

Will persist if not addressed

Consider at what level needs should be addressed and changes made

At the level of coordinator?

Requires in depth analysis and thoughtful planning for change needs selected task
group

Pilot before implementing fully

The curriculum team must involve the support staff and learners

Management of change

Before expanding resources to make changes

The change is sufficiently important

Affects a significant number of people

Will persist if not addressed

Consider at what level needs should be addressed and changes made

At the level of coordinator?

Requires in depth analysis and thoughtful planning for change needs selected task
group

Pilot before implementing fully

The curriculum team must involve the support staff and learners

Methods of Motivating, Developing, and Supporting


a Curriculum Team

Orientation and communication

Syllabi

Involvement of faculty, learners, staff

Meetings

Team activities

Memos

Recognition and celebration

Newsletters

Methods of Motivating, Developing, and Supporting


a Curriculum Team

Orientation and communication

Involvement of faculty, learners, staff

Team activities

Recognition and celebration

Questionnaires
Informal 1:1
meetings
Group meetings
Strategic planning

Methods of Motivating, Developing, and Supporting


a Curriculum Team

Orientation and communication

Involvement of faculty, learners, staff

Team activities

Recognition and celebration

Team teaching/co-teaching
Faculty development activities
Retreats
Strategic planning groups

Methods of Motivating, Developing, and Supporting


a Curriculum Team

Orientation and communication

Involvement of faculty, learners, staff

Team activities

Recognition and celebration

Private communication
Public recognition
Rewards
Parties and other social gatherings

References
1.

Watson EG, Moloney PJ, Toohey SM, Hughes CS, Mobbs SL,
Leeper JB, McNeil HP. Development of eMed: a comprehensive,
modular curriculum-management system. Acad Med.
2007;82:351-60

2.

Kern DE, Thomas, PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for


Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach. 2nd edition. United
States: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

3.

Gilbert, M. J., Partida, Y., Goode, T., Dunne, C. Curricula


Enhancement Module. Georgetown University Child
Development Center. 2005.

4.

Instructional Systems Design Used for CJSTC Training Programs.


FDLE; 2014.

Dissemination

What is it and why does it matter?


Dissemination is the promotion of a curriculum or its parts to new groups of learners
Tackles a healthcare issue

Assists others in solving similar issues

Encourages change

Can assist with supporting change in current curriculum

Feedback

Allows developers to gain feedback from others

Develops collaboration

More collaboration and sharing of ideas between educators

Streamlines development

Prevents individuals from having to develop similar conclusions to the same problems

Planning

Planning for dissemination starts before developing the


curriculum

A framework should be chosen to make the curriculum easy to


follow and utilize

Ensure the curriculum is a clear solution to a clear problem

Ensure that ethical and legal concerns are taken into account

Assess time management

Assess resource utilization

Adoption

Factors promoting adoption:

Rogers Stages of Adoption

Gaining of knowledge

Understanding of why it is an
improvement over current
curriculum

Persuasion Being convinced of


the benefits of the new
curriculum

Ensuring it relates to previous


experience of learners

Adoption

Implementation

Evaluation Decision to continue


to utilize new curriculum

Ease of use

Systematic approach

Visible outcomes

Protection
Protection of learners

Institutional Review Boards should be consulted to ensure the


protection of those trialing the new curriculum and is necessary if
publication of the curriculum moves forward
.

Intellectual Property

In most instances a new curriculum would be seen as being copy


righted.

In some instances however a curriculum can be utilized for


educational use and research.

To protect your work a specialist should be consulted to licence your


work.

Dissemination

In some instances dissemination of the full curriculum is warranted.


In others, each step of Kerns process may provide information
worthy of dissemination.

General Needs Assessment


Informs learners of current problems through literature reviews and general
surveys

Targeted Needs Assessment


Targeted survey of learning needs

Learning Objectives
Systematic creation of competencies

Educational Methods/Implementation Strategies

Evaluation of Curriculum

How to disseminate

Presentations to individuals and groups or to national and


international meetings

Creation of interest groups

Webinars

Journal publication

Book Publication

Press Releases
Kingston,
2012

Resources

Time

Personnel

Equipment

Funds

Evaluation

Journal Article Impact Factor

Download Trackers (ie. MedEdPORTAL)

Sales

Interest in workshops and presentations

Strategies such as surveys for feedback

References
1.

Hanrahan K, Marlow KL, Aldrich C, Hiatt, AM. Dissemination of


Nursing Knowledge: Tips and Resources. The University of Iowa.
2010. Retrieved from:
http://www.nursing.uiowa.edu/sites/default/files/documents/rese
arch/Disseminating%20nursing%20knowledge.pdf

2.

Kern DE, Thomas, PA, Hughes MT. Curriculum Development for


Medical Education: A Six-Step Approach. 2nd edition. United
States: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2009.

3.

Kingston, J. Choosing a Knowledge Dissemination Approach.


Knowledge and Process Management. 2012; 19(3): 160-170

4.

Myers P, Barnes, J. Sharing Evaluation Findings: Disseminating


the Evidence. NESS; 2004.

In Summary

+1: Maintenance and enhancement


+2: Dissemination

Now Its Time for Assessment,


Questions
and Feedback!
Thank you!
Christine, Corey and Zehour

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