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Chemical Engineering Plant Design

CHE 441

Dr. Asim Laeeq Khan


Assistant Professor
Email: alaeeqkhan@ciitlahore.edu.pk

Materials and Fabrication Selection

Material of construction
Severe operating conditions
Corrosive materials
Selection of appropriate material

Resistant to conditions and environment


Economical

Role of Chemical Engineering and


Metallurgist

Iron and Steel


Economy vs suitability
Impurities in product (Iron salts)
Cast Iron and Carbon Steel
AISI Standards Steel

Stainless Steel
Many different types
High corrosion and heat resistance
High conc. of Ni and Cr
Addition of Mo to further increase
resistance
Cr : Resistance to Oxidizing agents
(HNO3)

Good fabrication properties


S and P improve machinability
characteristics

Stainless Steel

Improvement by oxidization into passive


state (HNO3 + H2O)

Susceptible to localized corrosion

Hastelloy

56% Ni, 17 % Mo, 16 % Cr, 5% Iron


Excellent material but expensive
Production of phosphoric acid (Involving Halides)
Valves, piping, heat-exchangers, vessels

Copper
Cheap, easily machineable
Good resistant to atmospheric oxygen
Susceptible to acids in presence of
oxygen
Good resistance to all alkalis (except
NH4OH)

Copper alloys (Brass, bronze etc)

Nickel alloys (200 and 201)


Resistant to many alkalis
Vessels handling caustic soda
Susceptible to corrosion in oxidizing
condition
Monel (67% Ni, 30% Cu)

Application in food industry, better resistance


to H2SO4 and brine. (Desalination)
Stronger than Ni and Cu

Inconel (77% Ni and 17 % Cr)

Better resistance in oxidizing conditions


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Aluminium

Resistant to many acids


Al2O3 film formation
Oxidation film different from steel
Susceptible to halogen acids and extreme pH
Application in refrigeration industry

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Tantalum (Ta)
Works at very high temperatures upto
3000 deg C
Good fabrication properties
Properties similar to glass

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Glass
Resistant to almost all types of fluids except
HF
Brittle
Low thermal stability
Glass-Steel; A possible solution
Glass-lined reactors: Pharmaceutical industry
Nucerite

Ceramic material
Thermal stability upto 650 Deg C
18 times strength
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Graphite

Highly resistant except highly oxidizing


conditions
Good heat-transfer properties
Used in heat-exchangers and other heat transfer
equipment (piping)
Low tensile strength

Porcelain & Brick lining

Good resistance like glass but better mechanical


stability
Brick-lined construction for highly corrosive
environment
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Rubbers and elastomers


Mainly used as liners
Varying degree of hardness
Natural rubber & Styrene rubber

Resistant to dilute acids and alkali


Susceptible to oxidizing conditions and oils

Nitrile rubber

For oil and under oxidizing conditions

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Plastics
Very low thermal and mechanical stability
Light weight
Easy to fabricate and good insulators
No electrochemical corrosion as in metals
Resistant to inorganic salt solutions
Tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)
FRP

Good chemical resistance


Cheap
Vastly used

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Gasket Materials
Metallic and non-metallic
Properties of fluid
Operating conditions
Frequency of opening of joint

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Selection of materials
Preliminary selection
Laboratory experiments

Economic comparison

Effect of operating conditions


Effect of impurities
Other mechanical and thermal tests
Material cost
Maintenance costs
Probable life

Final selection

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Selection of materials
Coating or Metal itself
Selection based on the cost
Reliability of coatings

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Fabrication of equipment

Layout of materials

Using flat sheets


Cutting and forming
Material loss due to operations
Location of outlets and attachments

Cutting

Shearing
Burning (Oxyacetylene flame)
Powder of flux burning
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Fabrication of equipment

Forming
Rolling
Bending
Pressing
Spinning in a die
Hot or cold working, Lubrication
Fastening
Manual shield arc process
Heliarc welding

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