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PENCERNAAN DAN ABSORBSI

Yulia suciati

Bagian Biokimia
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Yarsi
AP Biology

AP Biology

What do animals need to live?


Animals make energy
using:

food
oxygen

food

Animals build bodies


using:

food for raw materials


amino acids, sugars,

fats, nucleotides

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ATP

O2

ATP energy for synthesis


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KH

Protein

Lemak

PROSES PENCERNAAN

Monosakarida

Asam Amino

ABSORBSI
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Monoasilgliserol
Gliserol
Asam Lemak

Getting & Using Food


Ingest

taking in food

Digest

mechanical digestion
breaking up food into smaller pieces

chemical digestion
breaking down food into molecules small

intracellular
digestion

enough to be absorbed into cells


enzymes (hydrolysis)

Absorb

absorb across cell membrane


diffusion
active transport

Eliminate
undigested extracellular material passes
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extracellular
digestion

Makanan dikonsumsi dalam bentuk

makromolekul yang belum bisa diserap


tubuh
Proses Pencernaan (Digesti) :
proses pemecahan bahan makanan dari
bentuk alaminya menjadi bentuk yang bisa
diserap.

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Human digestive system


Alimentary Canal

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Ingestion
Mouth

mechanical digestion
teeth
breaking up food

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chemical digestion
saliva
amylase
enzyme digests starch
mucin
slippery protein (mucus)
protects soft lining of digestive system
lubricates food for easier swallowing
buffers
neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay
anti-bacterial chemicals
kill bacteria that enter mouth with food
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mouth
break up food
moisten food
digest starch
kill germs

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Stomach
Functions

food storage
can stretch to fit ~2L food

disinfect food
HCl = pH 2
kills bacteria
breaks apart cells

chemical digestion
pepsin
enzyme breaks down proteins
secreted as pepsinogen

activated by HCl

But the stomach is made out of protein!


What stops the stomach from digesting itself?
mucus secreted by stomach cells protects
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stomach lining

Ooooooh!
Zymogen!

Major areas of the


mammalian stomach
Body

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(Eckert, Fig. 15-17)


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In oxyntic mucosa

In pyloric gland area

Surface epithelial cells


-secretes mucous

Gastric
pit
Mucosa cells
-secretes mucous
Gastric
gland

Chief cells
-secretes pepsinogen
Parietal cells
-secretes HCl and IF

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Enterochomaffinlike (ECL) cells


-secretes histamine
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G cells
-secrete
gastrin
D cells
-secretes
somatostatin

HCl secretion by parietal cells

(Silverthorn,
Fig. 20-14)

AP Biology

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PENCERNAAN PROTEIN

- HCl lambung mendenaturasi protein

dengan menghancurkan ikatan hidrogen


(str 3rd), ikatan polipeptida terbuka, mudah
dijangkau protease
Sel parietal juga mensekresi faktor
intrinsik untuk absorbsi B12 di ileum
PH rendah ----- mikroorganisme hancur.

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Pencernaan Lemak
- Panas lambung dan peristatik membantu
emulsifikasi
- Dinding lambung mensekresikan lipase gaster
(lipase praduodenal utama).
- Triasilgliserol FFA + 1,2-diasil gliserol
dikatalisis lipase lingual+gaster
- Lipase nonaktif pada PH rendah, tapi
aktif sesudah makan karena buffer protein
- PH optimumnya 3,0-6,0

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- Akibat retensi makanan dilambung 2-3


-

jam, 30% triasilgliserol makanan dapat di


cerna.
Asam lemak hidrofilik rantai pendek dan
sedang yang dihasilkan diserap mukosa
gaster dan dibawa ke vena porta
Asam lemak rantai panjang larut dalam
droplet lemak----duodenum untuk
dicerna selanjutnya.

AP Biology

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mouth
break up food
moisten food
digest starch
kill germs

stomach
kills germs
store food
break up food
digest proteins

cardiac
sphincter

pyloric
sphincter

AP Biology

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Small intestine
Function

chemical digestion
major organ of digestion & absorption

absorption through lining


over 6 meters!
small intestine has huge surface area =

300m2 (~size of tennis court)

Structure

3 sections
duodenum = most digestion
jejunum = absorption of nutrients & water
ileum = absorption of nutrients & water

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Duodenum
1st section of small intestines

acid food from stomach mixes with


digestive juices from accessory organs:
pancreas
liver
gall bladder

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Pancreas

What stops
Ooooooh!
pancreas
!
fromZymogen
digesting
itself

Digestive enzymes

peptidases
trypsin
trypsinogen
chymotrypsin
chimotrypsinogen
carboxypeptidase
procarboxypeptidase

small intestines

amylase

Buffers

reduces acidity
alkaline solution rich in

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bicarbonate (HCO3-)
buffers acidity of material from
stomach
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Explain how this is a


molecular example of
structure-function theme.

mouth
break up food
moisten food
digest starch
kill germs

stomach
kills germs
break up food
digest proteins
store food

pancreas
produces enzymes to
digest proteins & starch

AP Biology

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Liver
Digestive System Functions

produces bile
stored in gallbladder until needed
breaks up fats
act like detergents to breakup fats

Circulatory System
Connection
bile contains
colors from old
red blood cells
collected in liver =
iron in RBC rusts &
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makes feces brown

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Sifat getah empedu :


1. Emulsifikasi
dpt mengemulsi lemak dlm usus dan
melarutkan as. Lemak yg tidak larut dlm
air.
2. Netralisasi kimus yg asam
3. Ekskresi kolesterol ,pigmen
empedu,
obat, toksin, dan bbg substansi an
organik (Zn, Hg, Cu)
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stomach
kills germs
break up food
digest proteins
store food

mouth
break up food
moisten food
digest starch
kill germs
liver
produces bile
- stored in gall bladder
break up fats
pancreas
produces enzymes to
digest proteins & starch

AP Biology

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Digestive enzymes

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Produk akhir pencernaan :


Monosakarida (terutama glukosa) untuk
karbohidrat
Asam amino untuk protein
Asam lemak, gliserol, monoasilgliserol
untuk triasilgliserol
Nukleobasa, nukleosida, pentosa untuk
asam nukleat.

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Absorption by Small Intestines


Absorption through villi & microvilli

finger-like projections
increase surface area for absorption

Ooooh
Structure-Function
theme!

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Absorption of Nutrients
Passive transport

fructose

Active (protein pumps) transport

pump amino acids, vitamins & glucose


against concentration gradients across

intestinal cell membranes


allows intestine to absorb much higher
proportion of nutrients in the intestine than
would be possible with passive diffusion
worth the cost of ATP!
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nutrients are valuable


grab all you can get!
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ABSORBSI

Usus sebagai organ utama (90%)


Melalui 2 sistem :
1. Sistem portal hepatik : Monosakarida,
asam amino, gliserol
2. Sistem limfatik :
FA, monoasilgliserol

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stomach
kills germs
break up food
digest proteins
store food

mouth
break up food
moisten food
digest starch
kill germs
liver
produces bile
- stored in gall bladder
break up fats

small intestines
breakdown all foods
- proteins
- starch
- fats
- nucleic acids
absorb nutrients

pancreas
produces enzymes to
digest proteins & starch

AP Biology

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Large intestines (colon)


Function

re-absorb water
use ~9 liters of water every

day in digestive juices


> 90% of water reabsorbed
not enough water absorbed
back to body
diarrhea
too much water absorbed back to body
constipation

AP Biology

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Youve got
company!

Flora of large intestines


Living in the large intestine is a rich
flora of harmless, helpful bacteria

Escherichia coli (E. coli)


a favorite research organism

bacteria produce vitamins


vitamin K; biotin, folic acid & other B vitamins

generate gases
by-product of bacterial

metabolism
methane, hydrogen sulfide
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Rectum
Last section of colon (large intestines)

eliminate feces

undigested materials
extracellular waste
Tell them
mainly cellulose from plants
about rabbits!
roughage or fiber

salts
masses of

bacteria
appendix
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stomach
kills germs
break up food
digest proteins
store food

mouth
break up food
moisten food
digest starch
kill germs
liver
produces bile
- stored in gall bladder
break up fats

small intestines
breakdown food
- proteins
- starch
- fats
absorb nutrients

pancreas
produces enzymes to
digest proteins & carbs

AP Biology

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large intestines
absorb water

Youve got
company!

Flora of large intestines


Living in the large intestine is a rich
flora of harmless, helpful bacteria

Escherichia coli (E. coli)


a favorite research organism

bacteria produce vitamins


vitamin K; biotin, folic acid & other B vitamins

generate gases
by-product of bacterial

metabolism
methane, hydrogen sulfide
AP Biology

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TERIMA KASIH
SEMOGA BERMANFAAT

AP Biology

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