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INTRODUCTION TO

ANATOMY
Desy Purwidyastuti
Dept Anatomy and Histology
Faculty of Medicine Universitas
Airlangga

What is anatomy?
Anatomy

- from the Greek words meaning to cut

apart
Anatomy is the study of the form and function of
the human body
What components of the body should be included
in this course?
Muscle, Bone, Skeleton, Joints
Describing movement, position and direction
Identifying structures used in movement

Branches of anatomy
Gross anatomy were studying
now
Microscopic anatomy
Cytology
Histology

Developmental anatomy
Embryology

Comparative anatomy

Levels of Structural Organization


Smooth muscle cell
Molecules
Cellular
level
2
Cells are made up of molecules

3 Tissue level
Tissues consist
of similar types
of cells

Smoot
h
muscle
tissue
Cardiovascula
r system

Atoms
1 Chemical level
Atoms combine
to form
molecules
Hear
t
Blood
vessel
s

Epithelial
tissue
Smooth
Blood
muscle
vessel
tissue
(orga
n)
Connectiv
e tissue
4 Organ level
Organs are made up of
different types of
tissues

6 Organismal level
The human organism
is made up of many
organ systems

5 Organ system level


Organ systems consist of different
organs that work together closely
Figure 1.1

Body planes and sections


- cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane

(also called coronal)

(also called XS cross section)

Body planes and sections


- cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane

(also called coronal)

(also called XS cross section)

Gross Anatomy
The anatomical position (see
right)
Directional and regional
terms
Anterior
Posterio
r
Superior
Inferior
Medial
Lateral
Proximal
Distal

Superficial
Deep
Cephalic
Vertebral
Thoracic
Appendicular
Brachial
Lumbar

Body planes and sections

Which side
is right and
which is
left?

Anatomical
Directions
Directions relative to
front and back of
body
anterior: in front of,
toward front surface
posterior: in back of;
toward back surface
dorsal: at the back
side of the human
body
ventral: at the belly
side of the human
body

Anatomical Directions
Directions relative
to head and tail
of the body
superior: closer
to the head
inferior: closer to
the feet
caudal: at the rear
or tail end
cranial: at the
head end

Anatomical Directions
Directions relative to
midline or center of
body
medial: toward the
midline of the body
lateral: away from the
midline
Intermediate: in
between two lateral
parts
deep: on the inside or
underneath another
structure
superficial: on the
outside or nearer to
surface

Anatomical Directions
Directions
relative to point
of attachment of
appendages
proximal: closest
to the point of
attachment to
the trunk of the
body
distal: farther
from point of
attachment to
trunk of body.

Regional Terminology

abdominal: inferior to thorax and superior to hip


antebrachial: forearm; between elbow and wrist
antecubital: anterior to elbow
auricular: ear

Regional Terminology
axillary: armpit
brachial: arm; between shoulder and
elbow
buccal: cheek
calcaneal: heel of the foot

Regional Terminology

carpal: wrist
cephalic: head
cervical: neck
coxal: hip

Regional Terminology

cranial: skull
crural: leg (between knee and ankle)
deltoid: shoulder
digital (phalangeal): fingers or toes
dorsal: back

Regional Terminology

femoral: thigh
fibular: lateral aspect of leg
frontal: forehead
gluteal: buttock; hallux: great toe

Regional Terminology
inguinal: groin
lumbar: lower back between ribs and
pelvis
mammary: breast
manus: hand

Regional Terminology

mental: chin
nasal: nose
occipital: posterior aspect of head
olecranal: posterior aspect of elbow; oral:
mouth

Regional Terminology

orbital: eye
palmar: palm of the hand
patellar: kneecap
pelvic: pelvis

Regional Terminology
perineal: diamond shaped area between
thighs containing anus and select ext.
reprod.organs
pes: foot
plantar: sole of foot; pollex: thumb

Regional Terminology

popliteal: area posterior to knee


pubic: anterior region of pelvis
radial: lateral aspect of forearm
sacral: posterior region between hip
scapular: shoulder blade

Regional Terminology
sternal: anterior middle region of the
thorax
sural: calf (posterior aspect of leg)
tarsal: ankle
thoracic: chest

Regional Terminology

tibial: medial aspect of leg


ulnar: medial aspect of the forearm
umbilical: navel
vertebral: spinal column

Body cavities and membranes


Dorsal cavity divided into cranial and vertebral
Ventral cavity containing viscera (visceral
organs) divided into two main cavities
Thoracic cavity pleural cav, mediastinum
(pericardial cavity)
Abdominopelvic cavity abdominal cavity, pelvic
cavity

Serous cavities : slit-like spaces lined by serous


membranes (serosa):
Parietal serosa forms the outer wall of the cavity
Visceral serosa covers the visceral organ

Other smaller cavities: in head, between joints

Posterior Body Cavities


Cranial cavity:
Cavity of the skull
houses brain
Vertebral canal:
formed by vertebrae
houses spinal cord

Ventral Body Cavities


Abdominopelvic
cavity
abdominal cavity:
superior to hip
bones
contains: digestive
system organs,
kidney and ureters

pelvic cavity:
inferior to hip
bones
contains: bladder,
urethra, internal
reproductive
organs

erous membranes

Abdominal-Pelvic
Regions
epigastric region:
superior region of
middle column

contains: parts of liver,


stomach, pancreas;
contains duodenum
and adrenal gland

umbilical region:
middle region of
middle column

contains: transverse
colon, part of small
intestine

hypogastric region:
inferior region of
middle column

contains: part of small


intestine, bladder,
sigmoid colon

Abdominal-Pelvic Regions
right hypochondriac
region: superior
region to the right
of epigastric region
contains part of liver,
gallbladder and part
of kidney

left hypochondriac
region: superior
region to the left of
epigastric region
contains part of
stomach, part of left
kidney, spleen

Abdominal-Pelvic Regions
right lumbar region:
middle region to the
right of the umbilical
region
contains: ascending
colon, part of right
kidney, part of small
intestine

left lumbar region:


middle region to the
left of the umbilical
region

contains: descending
colon, part of left kidney,
part of small intestine

Abdominal-Pelvic Regions
right iliac region:
inferior region to the
right of the
hypogastric region
contains: inferior end of
cecum, appendix, part of
small intestine

left iliac region:


inferior regions to the
left of the hypogastric
region
contains: junction of
colon and small intestine

Abdomino-Pelvic Quadrants
Transverse and
Midsagittal
planes through
the umbilicus
form large
quadrants
right upper
quadrant
left upper
quadrant
right lower
quadrant
left lower