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ROMANESQUE IN FRANCE :• France is practically on the high road between the south and north of Europe, and the

relative
position of each district influenced the various prevailing types of architecture.
• France is exceedingly rich in building materials, especially stone, of which most of the towns
are built. The soft, fine-grained stone of Caen, used throughout Normandy, was also exported to
England.
• France exhibits several varieties of the Romanesque style, in which different peculiarities are
traceable, and for this reason it may be divided into southern and northern provinces.
• On the death of Charlemagne, Northern France was invaded by the Northmen, from whom
Normandy was named.
• The South of France may be roughly divided into the provinces of Aquitania, Auvergne,
Provence, Anjou and Burgundy.

S. The nave is crowned by a round-arched barrel vault. double aisles. with plain square ribs. and transepts. and the high triforium chamber has external windows which light the nave. West Entrance of the basilica Nave of Basilica Saint-Sernin East end elevation of the basilica . Sernin. 1080).D. has a cruciform plan with nave. supporting the roofing slabs direct. for there is no clear-story. Toulouse (A. The central octagonal tower belongs to the Gothic period. in Aquitaine.

the four aisles have rib vaults and are •supported by buttresses.Plan of Basilica Saint-Sernin • The interior of the basilica measures 115 x 64 x 21 meters. consecrated by Pope Urban II in •1096 and designed by Bernard Gelduin. Bell Tower of Basilica Saint-Sernin . The central nave • is barrel vaulted. • making it vast for a Romanesque church. Directly under the tower and the • transept is a marble altar.

closely resembles S. due to the trade with Byzantium. and. 233 F) to semicircular. Front was a prototype of other churches with cupolas in France. Périgueux . indicating an Eastern influence. elongated towards the top. high. Front's Cathedral. Périgueux Plan. Perigueux (A. St. is a Greek cross on plan. consisting of a square shaft. 200 ft. surmounted by a circular ring of columns carrying a conical dome. Venice. in Aquitaine. Front's Cathedral. Mark. The nave is covered with five spheroidal domes. Front.S. as already mentioned (p. 237). St. S.D 1120). The internal arches have recently been changed from pointed (p. Attached to the church is a magnificent campanile.

is one of the numerous churches of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. in Provence. Clermont-Ferrand. • Notre Dame. Avignon . in which pointed barrel vaults were used. and which show Classical influence. the geological influence isfrequently apparent. as at Notre Dame du Port. Avignon. the buildings having a local characterimparted to them by the inlaid decoration formed of different colored lavas. and the Church at Issoire.• Auvergne being a volcanic district. Notre Dame du Port Notre Dame.

the most famous in Burgundy. 1089-1131). formed part of one of the many monastic establishments in that province. Cluny (A. the nave was covered with a great barrel vault and the aisles probably had groined vaulting. many of which have been destroyed. but little now remains. It was the longest in France. with double side aisles to the main body of the church.D.The Abbey Church. and a chevet of five apsidal chapels. The pointed arch was employed in the nave arcades. . which influenced the architecture of the churches.

Etienne.D. and a 13th-century Gothic choir with ambulatory. flanked by two square towers. which was being developed towards the complete Gothic of the thirteenth century. • The west facade. Caen (A. • Its original eastern apse was superseded in A. the Ile de France and Brittany. 1066). is one of the many fine churches in Normandy of this period. 1166 by the characteristic chevet. • The Abbaye-aux-Hommes. an 11th-century transept.was the prototype of later Gothic facades. .D. • Inside is a long Romanesque nave of the 11th century with a sexpartite vault (a transitional vault on the way to Gothic). also known as S.• Northern France comprised the provinces of Normandy. • Normandy possesses many fine examples of this period owing to its prosperity and the power of the Norman dukes. These examples are of the vaulted basilican type. crowned by octagonal spires which with angle pinnacles were added in the thirteenth century.

Plan .The Abbaye-aux-Hommes.

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the Church of S. Denis. although a fourteenth century nave Has been wedged between them. and the Abbey Church of Mont S. 1084). in which the progress of intersecting vaulting is seen.D. Abbe Suger. Denis. Paris . 1083) . Michel (since restored).D.The Abbaye-aux-Dames (La Trinite). Nicholas. The Abbaye-aux-Dames S. was erected by the greatbuilding abbot. Caen (A. in 1144. Caen (A. Nicholas. The Abbey of S. and the choir and west front still remain as left by him. near Paris. Caen S. are notable examples.

• They used to be very high. in conjunction with polygonal domes. and the use of arcaded galleries under the eaves. Laach Abbey Church (A.ROMANESQUE IN GERMANY :• Churches were Planned on a large scale. • The most richly ornamented parts are the doorways and capitals. • They have an apse & sanctuary at each end.D. • The general architectural character is rich in the multiplication of circular and octagonal turrets. which are bold and effective in execution. • The plans of the churches are peculiar in having western and eastern apses. 1093-1156) . and no great western entrance as in France.

crowned by a low octagonal tower.D. Plan. The grouping externally is effective. Church of the Apostles East side. opening from three sides of the central space. and of aisles half the width of the nave. 1220-1250) In plan it consists of a broad nave. Cologne (A. Church of the Apostles . The eastern portion has three apses.The Church of the Apostles. and crowned with the characteristic row of small arches under the eaves of the roof. the face of the wall being divided up by arcading. giving richness and importance to this portion of the church.

while one vaulting bay of the nave corresponds with two of the aisles. with eastern and western octagons. and the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a low octagonal tower. and cross-vaults are employed in both cases. . • Twin circular towers containing stairs flank the eastern and western apses. crowned with a pointed roof.Worms Cathedral (1110-1200) • The plan is apsidal at both ends.