Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

FMB 20202

Mechanics of Machine

Chapter III Mechanism and


Linkages II
By
Engr. Syed Fawwaz Al-Attas

Kinematic Inversion
Every mechanism has 1 stationary base link.
All other links may move relative to the fixed link.
An inverted mechanism is obtained by making the original
fixed link into a movable link and selecting an original moving
link to be the fixed link

Example: Inverted mechanisms

Example:
Inverted mechanisms
motion

4-bar Mechanism - Kinematic


Inversion, Example
In general:

A mechanism with n links


can have n-1 inversions.

Kinematic inversion motions:

Kinematic inversions:

Crank-rocker
Double-crank
Crank-rocker

Double-rocker

4-bar Mechanism - Kinematic


Inversion, Example
Kinematic Inversion mechanism examples
Crank Rocker (Beam Engine)
Double Crank (Locomotive Coupling Rod)
Double Rocker (Watts Indicator)

Single slider-crank Mechanism

Kinematic Inversion, Example


Slider crank Mechanism

Kinematic inversions:

(b) connecting rod fixed

(a) crank fixed

(c) slider fixed

Single slider-crank Mechanism

Kinematic Inversion, Example


I - Inversion of slider crank mechanism. (Crank
fixed)
Rotary engine

Single slider-crank Mechanism

Kinematic Inversion, Example


II - Inversion of slider crank mechanism.
(Connecting rod fixed)
Oscillating cylinder engine

Single slider-crank Mechanism

Kinematic Inversion, Example


III - Inversion of slider crank mechanism. (Slider
fixed)
Pendulum pump or bull engine

Quick-return Motion
Mechanisms
Used on machine tools to give a slow cutting
stroke and a quick return stroke
Crank has constant angular velocity

= cutting stroke crank angle


= return stroke crank angle

= time ratio

Should be as large as possible

cutting stroke time = /


return stroke time =
10

Examples of quick-return motion mechanisms


Link 2 constant angular velocity
clockwise
Link 4 non-constant angular
velocity
Link 6 slow upward stroke
fast downward stroke
Drag link

Crank & Slotted Lever


Whitworth
Slider-crank with crank fixed

11

Toggle mechanism
Can be used to overcome a very large resistance P with a small driving force F
Mechanism is used in stone crusher

Link 5:
2 force member
P

P/cos
F

2Psin
-------------

cos

P/cos

P/cos
F = 2Psin/cos
= 2Ptan
P as 0
12

Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Geneva wheel

Plate 1 rotates continuously


Driving pin P engages in slot on member 2
Member 2 turns through 90 each revolution of 1
Locking plate prevents rotation of 2 when pin is
not engaged
Gives smooth action without any shock

13

Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Ratchet mechanism

Produces intermittent rotation from an


oscillating member (arm 2)
Pawl 3 pushes wheel 4 anti-clockwise
as arm 2 rotates anti-clockwise
Pawl 5 prevents clockwise motion of
wheel when arm 2 rotates clockwise
Wheel can turn anti-clockwise only

14

Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Intermittent gearing

Driving wheel has one tooth


Driven wheel has a number of tooth
spaces
A locking device must be used to stop
2 turning when tooth is not engaged
Can only be used when loads are light
and shock is not important

15

Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Escapement
The toothed wheel is allowed to turn in
small steps by action of a pendulum
The balance wheel oscillates with a
fixed period
Each oscillation allows the wheel to
advance by one tooth
Used in clocks and watches

16

Double slider-crank Mechanism

Kinematic Inversion, Example


A mechanism consist of 2 sliding pair. The types
are:
Scotch yoke
Elliptical trammels
Oldhams coupling

Scotch Yoke
Gives Simple Harmonic Motion

yoke position

yoke velocity
yoke acceleration

x r r cos ; t
x r (1 r cos t )
dx
v
r sin t r sin
dt
d 2x
a 2 r 2 cos t r 2 cos
dt
18

Hookes Joint

Steering gear Mechanism


Condition for perfect steering

Ackermann steering gear


Mechanism

Ackermann steering gear


Mechanism

Types of 4-Bar and


Slider-crank
Mechanisms

4-Bar
Mechanisms

Crank-rocker

There are 3 basic types of 4-bar


mechanisms:
1.
Crank-rocker mechanism
2.
Double-crank mechanism
3.
Double -rocker mechanism

Links:
Crank: is able to
make full rotation
Rocker: oscillates
between two limit
points with an
amplitude of 4

Double-crank
Double-rocker

Grashofs Criteria

If we distinguish the lengths in a 4-bar mechanism as follow:

s: the length of the shortest link


l: the length of the longest link
p, q: the length of the other two links

The following relationship (Grashofs criteria) must be satisfied


in order to be able to assemble the kinematic chain:

s+p+ql
Class I Kinematic chain
chain
s+l < p+q
If
s = input link
Then Crank-rocker (Figs. a+b)
If
s = base link
Then Double-crank (Fig. c)
If
otherwise
Then Double-rocker (Fig. d)

Class II Kinematic
s+l > p+q
The mechanism is
Triple-rocker
(see notes for figure)

Examples:

Using Grashofs Criteria

If the following mechanism has the following dimensions what type of


4-bar mechanism has been implemented ?
a = 30 cm ; g = 20 cm ; b = 10 cm ; h = 5 cm
If a is the input link ?

s+l >p+q h+a >b+g


Answer: Triple-Rocker mechanism (Class II)

What if: a = 30 cm ; b = 7 cm ; h = 15 cm ; g = 25
cm
Ifb b+isa the
< hinput
+ g link ? ; Shortest link = Input link
Answer: Crank - rocker (Class I)

Ifbb+isa the
?
< hbase
+ g link
; Shortest
link = Base link
Answer: Double - crank (Class I)

4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions


Toggle positions of a crank-rocker mechanism.
Links 2 and 3 become collinear.
Limitmax
Limitmin

4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions


r3
r2
input

r1

r4

: transmission angle
output

The range of values for is important for the


operation of the mechanism
For best power transmission should be close to
90
The acceptable deviation is usually 45 << 135
28

4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions


Transmission Angle,

The transmission angle is an important criterion for the design of


mechanisms by means of which the quality of motion transmission in a
mechanism can be judged.

During a mechanism design it helps to decide the Best among a


family of possible mechanisms for most effective force transmission.

Def.: Transmission angle is the angle


between the direction of velocity
difference vector vBA of the driving
link and the direction of absolute
velocity vector vB of the output link
both taken at the point of connection
(in a 4-bar linkage it is the angle between the
follower and the coupler link).

4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions


s+p+ql

z r12 r22 2.r1.r2 . cos 2


2
2
2

z
1
3
4

cos
2.r3 .r4

2
2
2

a
1
1
4

4 cos
2.r1.r4

4 4, Max 4, Min
Limit Angle,

4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions


Configuration with max

max

r3

r2

r4
r1

z = r1 + r2
min

Configuration with min

r3

r2

r4

r1

z = r1 - r2

31

Max & Min Transmission Angles

Double-rocker mechanism.

Double-crank mechanism
The crank-rocker mechanism

Transmission angle in
planar
5-bar mechanism
Optimum transmission angle = 900

Transmission angle in planar


6-bar mechanism

Slider-crank
Mechanisms

This mechanisms has numerous characteristics:


1. Offset (r1 ): distance between the line of action and
the cranks rotating point (parallel to the line of
action)
2. r2 & r3: The lengths of the crank and the coupler
3. Stroke (r4): distance between the limit positions.
In order for the crank (r2) to have full
rotation, we must satisfy:

Offset 0

r2 < r3

and

r1 r3 r2

Limit Positions &


Time Ratio of
Mechanisms
I.

II.

III.

Limit Position: is defined as the point where


the mechanism reaches its maximum or minimum
point within the entire motion of the mechanism.
Stroke: is defined as the distance between the
I
limit positions of the mechanism associated withmax
the
corresponding motion (e.g., piston in a car engine).
Time Ratio: is the time for the part of the
mechanisms associated with the stroke ( e.g., piston
in a car engine) to move in one direction between
the limit positions over the time it takes to move in
the opposite direction between the same limit
positions.
Imin

Imax

Imin

In-Line (No Offset) Crank-slider


Mechanism
Limit positions & Stroke

Stroke at any
2

r4 r22 r32 2.r2 .r3 . cos 3


1 r2

3 180 2 sin sin 2


r3

2
Crank
angle

r4
S1 r2 r3

Stroke S1 S 2
S 2 r3 r2

Offset Slider-crank Mechanism Limit

o
1 r1 r2 sin 2
3positions,
180 2 sin Stroke,Time
ratio & Average

r3

speeds
stroke = s
2 = 180 + 2 - 1

stroke = s1
s2

s2 = [(r3 r2)2 r12 ] 1/2

s1 = [(r2 + r3)2 r12 ] 1/2

2
Crank
angle

1 = sin-1(r1 / (r2 +
r3))

t1 = 2 / 3

t2 = [ 2 - 2 ] / 3

Time taken to move to the left

Time taken to move to the right

(v4,avg)left-motion = stroke / t1

2 = sin-1(r1 / (r3 r2))


Time ratio = t1 /
t2

(v4,avg)right-motion = stroke /
t2