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# FMB 20202

Mechanics of Machine

## Chapter III Mechanism and

By
Engr. Syed Fawwaz Al-Attas

Kinematic Inversion
Every mechanism has 1 stationary base link.
An inverted mechanism is obtained by making the original

## Example: Inverted mechanisms

Example:
Inverted mechanisms
motion

## 4-bar Mechanism - Kinematic

Inversion, Example
In general:

## A mechanism with n links

can have n-1 inversions.

## Kinematic inversion motions:

Kinematic inversions:

Crank-rocker
Double-crank
Crank-rocker

Double-rocker

## 4-bar Mechanism - Kinematic

Inversion, Example
Kinematic Inversion mechanism examples
Crank Rocker (Beam Engine)
Double Crank (Locomotive Coupling Rod)
Double Rocker (Watts Indicator)

## Kinematic Inversion, Example

Slider crank Mechanism

Kinematic inversions:

## Kinematic Inversion, Example

I - Inversion of slider crank mechanism. (Crank
fixed)
Rotary engine

## Kinematic Inversion, Example

II - Inversion of slider crank mechanism.
(Connecting rod fixed)
Oscillating cylinder engine

## Kinematic Inversion, Example

III - Inversion of slider crank mechanism. (Slider
fixed)
Pendulum pump or bull engine

Quick-return Motion
Mechanisms
Used on machine tools to give a slow cutting
stroke and a quick return stroke
Crank has constant angular velocity

## = cutting stroke crank angle

= return stroke crank angle

= time ratio

## cutting stroke time = /

return stroke time =
10

## Examples of quick-return motion mechanisms

clockwise
velocity
fast downward stroke

## Crank & Slotted Lever

Whitworth
Slider-crank with crank fixed

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Toggle mechanism
Can be used to overcome a very large resistance P with a small driving force F
Mechanism is used in stone crusher

2 force member
P

P/cos
F

2Psin
-------------

cos

P/cos

P/cos
F = 2Psin/cos
= 2Ptan
P as 0
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Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Geneva wheel

## Plate 1 rotates continuously

Driving pin P engages in slot on member 2
Member 2 turns through 90 each revolution of 1
Locking plate prevents rotation of 2 when pin is
not engaged
Gives smooth action without any shock

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Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Ratchet mechanism

## Produces intermittent rotation from an

oscillating member (arm 2)
Pawl 3 pushes wheel 4 anti-clockwise
as arm 2 rotates anti-clockwise
Pawl 5 prevents clockwise motion of
wheel when arm 2 rotates clockwise
Wheel can turn anti-clockwise only

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Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Intermittent gearing

## Driving wheel has one tooth

Driven wheel has a number of tooth
spaces
A locking device must be used to stop
2 turning when tooth is not engaged
Can only be used when loads are light
and shock is not important

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Intermittent motion
Mechanisms
Escapement
The toothed wheel is allowed to turn in
small steps by action of a pendulum
The balance wheel oscillates with a
fixed period
Each oscillation allows the wheel to
Used in clocks and watches

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## Kinematic Inversion, Example

A mechanism consist of 2 sliding pair. The types
are:
Scotch yoke
Elliptical trammels
Oldhams coupling

Scotch Yoke
Gives Simple Harmonic Motion

yoke position

yoke velocity
yoke acceleration

x r r cos ; t
x r (1 r cos t )
dx
v
r sin t r sin
dt
d 2x
a 2 r 2 cos t r 2 cos
dt
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Hookes Joint

## Steering gear Mechanism

Condition for perfect steering

Mechanism

Mechanism

Slider-crank
Mechanisms

4-Bar
Mechanisms

Crank-rocker

## There are 3 basic types of 4-bar

mechanisms:
1.
Crank-rocker mechanism
2.
Double-crank mechanism
3.
Double -rocker mechanism

Crank: is able to
make full rotation
Rocker: oscillates
between two limit
points with an
amplitude of 4

Double-crank
Double-rocker

Grashofs Criteria

## s: the length of the shortest link

l: the length of the longest link
p, q: the length of the other two links

## The following relationship (Grashofs criteria) must be satisfied

in order to be able to assemble the kinematic chain:

s+p+ql
Class I Kinematic chain
chain
s+l < p+q
If
Then Crank-rocker (Figs. a+b)
If
Then Double-crank (Fig. c)
If
otherwise
Then Double-rocker (Fig. d)

Class II Kinematic
s+l > p+q
The mechanism is
Triple-rocker
(see notes for figure)

Examples:

## If the following mechanism has the following dimensions what type of

4-bar mechanism has been implemented ?
a = 30 cm ; g = 20 cm ; b = 10 cm ; h = 5 cm
If a is the input link ?

## s+l >p+q h+a >b+g

What if: a = 30 cm ; b = 7 cm ; h = 15 cm ; g = 25
cm
Ifb b+isa the
< hinput
Answer: Crank - rocker (Class I)

Ifbb+isa the
?
< hbase
; Shortest
Answer: Double - crank (Class I)

## 4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions

Toggle positions of a crank-rocker mechanism.
Links 2 and 3 become collinear.
Limitmax
Limitmin

## 4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions

r3
r2
input

r1

r4

: transmission angle
output

## The range of values for is important for the

operation of the mechanism
For best power transmission should be close to
90
The acceptable deviation is usually 45 << 135
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## 4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions

Transmission Angle,

## The transmission angle is an important criterion for the design of

mechanisms by means of which the quality of motion transmission in a
mechanism can be judged.

## During a mechanism design it helps to decide the Best among a

family of possible mechanisms for most effective force transmission.

## Def.: Transmission angle is the angle

between the direction of velocity
difference vector vBA of the driving
link and the direction of absolute
velocity vector vB of the output link
both taken at the point of connection
(in a 4-bar linkage it is the angle between the

s+p+ql

2
2
2

z
1
3
4

cos
2.r3 .r4

2
2
2

a
1
1
4

4 cos
2.r1.r4

4 4, Max 4, Min
Limit Angle,

## 4-Bar Mechanism Limit Positions

Configuration with max

max

r3

r2

r4
r1

z = r1 + r2
min

r3

r2

r4

r1

z = r1 - r2

31

## Max & Min Transmission Angles

Double-rocker mechanism.

Double-crank mechanism
The crank-rocker mechanism

Transmission angle in
planar
5-bar mechanism
Optimum transmission angle = 900

6-bar mechanism

Slider-crank
Mechanisms

## This mechanisms has numerous characteristics:

1. Offset (r1 ): distance between the line of action and
the cranks rotating point (parallel to the line of
action)
2. r2 & r3: The lengths of the crank and the coupler
3. Stroke (r4): distance between the limit positions.
In order for the crank (r2) to have full
rotation, we must satisfy:

Offset 0

r2 < r3

and

r1 r3 r2

Time Ratio of
Mechanisms
I.

II.

III.

## Limit Position: is defined as the point where

the mechanism reaches its maximum or minimum
point within the entire motion of the mechanism.
Stroke: is defined as the distance between the
I
limit positions of the mechanism associated withmax
the
corresponding motion (e.g., piston in a car engine).
Time Ratio: is the time for the part of the
mechanisms associated with the stroke ( e.g., piston
in a car engine) to move in one direction between
the limit positions over the time it takes to move in
the opposite direction between the same limit
positions.
Imin

Imax

Imin

## In-Line (No Offset) Crank-slider

Mechanism
Limit positions & Stroke

Stroke at any
2

1 r2

r3

2
Crank
angle

r4
S1 r2 r3

Stroke S1 S 2
S 2 r3 r2

## Offset Slider-crank Mechanism Limit

o
1 r1 r2 sin 2
3positions,
180 2 sin Stroke,Time
ratio & Average

r3

speeds
stroke = s
2 = 180 + 2 - 1

stroke = s1
s2

## s1 = [(r2 + r3)2 r12 ] 1/2

2
Crank
angle

1 = sin-1(r1 / (r2 +
r3))

t1 = 2 / 3

t2 = [ 2 - 2 ] / 3

## Time taken to move to the right

(v4,avg)left-motion = stroke / t1

## 2 = sin-1(r1 / (r3 r2))

Time ratio = t1 /
t2

(v4,avg)right-motion = stroke /
t2