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SYNOPSIS

MOUNTAINEERING
INSTITUTE

VAISHNAVI REDDY ARAGONDA


1101042
B.ARCH VII SEM A SECTION
SPA JNAFAU.

INTRODUCTION
The termmountaineeringdescribes
thesportofmountainclimbing, includingski
mountaineering. While mountaineering began
as attempts to reach the highest point of
unclimbed big mountains it has branched into
specializations that address different aspects
of the mountain. All require experience,
athletic ability, and technical knowledge to
maintain safety. That is where the need of
mountaineering institute comes to place.
There are few mountaineering institutes in
India all located in the northern part of India
abutting the Himalayas. There has always
been a need for more such institutes that
cater to the need of mountaineering lovers.
IMPORTANCE
Mountaineeringis quite popular inIndia,
since the entire northern and north-eastern
borders are theHimalayas, the highest
mountain range in the world. It has now
become an increasingly demanded sport.
Increased access and facilities for
mountaineering have made it more easier for
everyone. However mountaineering attempt
without proper training might be unsafe.
Hence it is important to have mountaineering
institutes.

AIM
To design a Mountaineering Institute closer
to the people of South India.
To involve issues of earthquake resistant
design in designing an integrated campus
with all facilities,

OBJECTIVE

To establish relationship between various


parts of the campus and integrate it into one
unit.
To provide recreation as a part of
education.
To consider functional efficiency of spaces
and providing user friendly facilities not
letting go the sole purpose of the institute.
To keep in mind issues of circulation ,
pedestrian access and usage patterns as an
integral part of design.
To make sure the presence of natural
security and integration of nature into the
campus.
To evolve and innovate new spaces that
SCOPE
serve
as a visual retreat and also as
Design
to suit the location and topography
relaxation buffers.
of the site.
To consider simple aspects of earthquake
Design techniques and materials making it
resistant design to make the campus more
easier for construction on rocky terrain.
durable
and sustainable.
Design
with consideration to the
psychological issues with reference to the
users of the institute.

LIMITATIONS
Location of the project has to satisfy not
only the needs within the campus but also the
needs of the course itself.
Restricted spaces for each training stage
making it partly limited as far as design is
considered.
Construction on rocky terrain.
Maintenance of the institution when the
DESK
STUDIES
courses are
not subscribed is also a limitation.
HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINEERING INSTITUTE, DARJEELING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MOUNTAINEERING AND
ALLIED SPORTS, ARUNACHAL PRADESH
NORWEGIAN MOUNTAINEERING CENTER, NORWAY
AMERICAN MOUNTAINEERING CENTER, COLORADO,
USA
MAZAMA MOUNTAINEERING CENTER, PORTLAND
PASANG LHAMU MOUNTAINEERING FOUNDATION ,
KATHMANDU, NEPAL
GLENMORE LODGE- NATIONAL OUTDOOR TRAINING
CENTER, UNITED KINGDOM.

PROBABLE CASE STUDIES


NEHRU INSTITUTE OF MOUNTAINEERING, UTTARKASHI
JAWAHAR INSTITUTE OF MOUNTAINEERING AND
WINTER SPORTS , PAHALGAM
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SKIING AND MOUNTAINEERING,
GULMARG.

JAWAHAR
INSTITUTE

NEHRU INSTITUTE OF
MOUNTAINEERING

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SKIING


AND MOUNTAINEERING

PROBABLE CASE
STUDIES

METHODOLOGY
AIM

OBJECTIVES

LITERATURE STUDY
AND DATA COLLECTION
Study of campus design
principles
Study of byelaws and
standards for the institution
Study the statistics and
climate analysis for
integrated building design
Study the functionality and
usage concerns of design.
To evolve the spatial
requirements from the data
collected.

Analyzing the data


Inferences for better
design

DESKSTUDY AND
CASE STUDIES
Analysis
Location and site
features
Layout and design
Activities
-Site level
-Building level
Landscaping
Design features

Critical appraisal of the


facilities
Comparative analysis and
inferences

SITE SURVEY AND


ANALYSIS
Site level
Topography
Climate
Context
Surroundings
Parking
Road layout and vehicular
movement
Zoning
Land use pattern

Site development

Architectural design program

Conceptual design
Preliminary design

Detailed design program


Project appraisal

Structural design

Final design proposal

Presentation
drawings

LITERATURE STUDY

SPECIAL QUALITIES OF
INSTITUTE
It imparts training to all the adventure sport
activity in a built environment.
Organized outdoor spaces for training and
team building of students.
Multipurpose hall used for lectures, instant
demo and other sports activities.
Being close to nature and values for
environmental protection play an important
role.
Motivation through museum displays and
artificial climbing walls
The institute nurtures the adventurous spirit
amongst the students.
It is a pioneer in evolving adventure sports
OBJECTIVES
OF THE
education in the country.
INSTITUTE
It is inspirational in nature.
To promote nature exploration and
appreciation amongst the younger generation.
To coordinate with organizations like scouts,
guides, NCC for training campus
To promote adventure tourism

TRAINING ACTIVITIES
TRAINING ACTIVITIES

ADVENTURE COURSE
BASIC
MOUNTAINEERI
NG
COURSE

ADVANCED
MOUNTAINEE
RING
COURSE

METHODS OF
INSTRUCTION
COURSE

BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE


The objectives of the basic course are
To teach the trainees both theoretical and
practical mountaineering techniques
To create attitude among the trainees so that
they consider mountaineering as an art and
not merely as a physical activity
To infuse in them, all the scientific aspects
dealing with mountains and mountaineering.
To teach them to sustained the varied
ADVANCED
environments inMOUNTAINEERING
nature.

COURSE
The objectives of the basic course are
To provide additional training and experience
of climbing beyond the standards of a basic
course
To educate trainees in organizing expeditions
To give them additional training in fields of
mountaineering, bouldering, load carrying and

TREKKING
Trainees undertake exercises in Trekking,
Climbing and Survival training.

FIELD TRAINING
It includes advanced rock climbing, use of
latest climbing equipment, skills of crevasse
crossing, mountain rescue, camp setting and
climbing peaks in the course of training.

ADVENTURE COURSES

The main aim of the adventure course is to


install the spirit of adventure among people.
It provides a stimulating experience of
physical outdoor pursuits such as rock
climbing, trekking and various other events of
leisure sports offered by the course.

METHOD OF INSTRUCTION COURSE


The main aim of the course is to acquaint the
trainee with the teaching methods of
adventure sports.
It also strives to obtain efficiency in
instructing the basic mountaineering course
and also undergo various strenuous exercises.

OBSTACLE TRAINING COURSE


This training is for military, police and armed
force.
Special facility is provided for this course in
the built environment.

RESCUE TRAINING COURSE

This is a special training given in which the


procedures of rescue operations are taught.

USER GROUP ANALYSIS


CAMPUS
POPULATION

STAFF

VISITORS

TRAINEES

ACADEMIC
STAFF
ADMINISTRATIVE
STAFF
CLERICAL STAFF
MAINTENANCE
STAFF
CLASS IV STAFF

30 15
55

VISITO
RS
STAFF

TRAINE
ES

SPACES IN THE INSTITUTE


Academic Block
Lecture Hall
Seminar Room
Common Room
Instructors Room
Toilet
Administrative Block
Principals Room
Conference Room
Accounts Office
Administration Office
Store
Waiting Area
Toilet
Indoor Climbing Wall
Instructor Room
Equipment Room
Climbing Wall Area
Medical Examination Room
Outdoor Climbing Wall
Obstacle Area
Library
Mountaineering Museum
Display Area
Souvenir Shop
Ticket Counter
Restaurant
Kitchen
Store
Preparation Area
Restaurant Deck

GROUPING OF CONCERN :
The primary concerns while constructing on a hilly
area could be grouped as under GEOLOGICAL FACTORS
- Slope Gradient
- Slope Stability
- Water Logging
CLIMATOLOGICAL FACTORS
- Rainfall
- Snowfall
NATURAL HAZARD FACTORS
- Earthquake
- Landslides
- Avalanche
BUILDING FEATURES DEPENDING ON CLIMATE
- Fenestrations
- Roofing
SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS

GEOLOGICAL
SLOPE GRADIENT :
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient,) of a
physical feature, landform or constructed line refers
to the inclination of that surface to the horizontal. It
is a special case of the gradient in calculus where
zero
indicates gravitational level. A larger number
indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Often
slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a
fraction ("rise over run") in which run is the
horizontal distance
and rise is the vertical distance. Grade, pitch, and
slope are important components in landscape
design, garden design, landscape architecture,
SLOPE
STABILITY
and architecture;
for: engineering and aesthetic
The
field
of slope
stability slope
encompasses
analysis
design
factors.
Drainage,
stability, the
circulation
of
of slopes
of earth and
of static
peopleand
anddynamic
vehicles,stability
complying
with building
rock
filland
dams,
slopes
of other types
of
codes,
design
integration
are aspects
of slope
embankments,
considerations excavated slopes, and natural slopes
in
and soft rock
slips often occur after a period
in soil
environmental
design.
of heavy rain, when the pore water pressure at the
slip surface increases, reducing the effective normal
stress and thus diminishing the restraining friction
along the slip line. This is combined with increased
soil weight due to the added groundwater. A
'shrinkage' crack (formed during prior dry weather)
at the top of the slip may also fill with rain water,
pushing the slip forward. At the other extreme, slabshaped slips on hillsides can remove a layer of soil
from the top of the underlying bedrock. Again, this is
usually initiated by heavy rain, sometimes combined
with increased loading from new buildings or

Stability can thus be significantly improved by


installing drainage paths to reduce the destabilising
forces. If the forces available to resist movement
are greater than the forces driving movement, the
slope is considered stable. A factor of safety is
calculated by dividing the forces resisting
movement by the forces driving movement. In
earthquake-prone areas, the analysis is typically
run for static conditions and pseudo-static
conditions, where the seismic forces from an
WATER LOGGING :
earthquake are assumed to add static loads to the
The biggest problem with our drainage system is the
analysis.
high rate of sedimentation of silt carried by runoff
water from the hills. First and foremost, the hills in
and around the city need to be restored through
ecological management practices so that the
sediments can be restricted at the source itself. The
carrying capacity of a drain depends on its slope
velocity and sectional area. Simply increasing the
size without maintaining the correct gradient will not
help

CLIMATOLOGICAL
RAINFALL :
Good design, selection of building components of
suitable quality and sound construction are essential
to the weather resistance of a building. Penetration
of water into a structure may occur in a new or inservice
building, of low or moderate cost, and occasionally
may be observed in a high cost, monumental type
structure. This article will discuss possible causes of
intrusion of water, points of entry, determination of
these
points, prevention of intrusion and possible cure of
an existing problem.
Some possible causes of intrusion of water are:
Inadequate or improper design of the building
Selection of building components unsuited to the
project in terms of quality and integrity of design
and construction, and
Improper construction procedure.
Rain may enter buildings constructed of wood, steel,
plaster, masonry or concrete if adequate
precautions are not enforced when designing,
building and sealing the structure. If moisture or a
stain caused by water is
observed at any of the following locations, an
investigation of possible points of intrusion must be
initiated.
The engineer or other person should look for
moisture or stains
on the ceilings of rooms
at light fixtures as a line of dampness situated

SNOWFALL :
Building in an area that has a snowy climate
presents different challenges than constructing in
other areas. The effects of building in these areas
can be a greater cost for construction and necessary
equipment but it can also
add to the enjoyment of the inhabitants. Because the
snow presents unique challenges to the structure
and owner, different things need to be considered
when choosing to build a building in these areas.
Lay the Footings Below the Frost Line
In any area with heavy snowfall and a cold climate
the footings for the building must be dropped below
the frost line. Different areas have their own codes
for what is acceptable for the footings for the
foundation to be laid properly so they are protected
from the weather. Make sure all codes are followed in
the construction.
Extra Insulation Is Desirable
Going above and beyond on code requirements for
insulation may cost a little more up front but will
eventually pay for itself in lower utility bills and a
more comfortable home environment. Extra foam or
fibreglass insulation is a cheap alternative to costly
heating bills or the extra wood needed to heat a
home with a fireplace or wood burning stove.

GEOGRAPHICAL EARTHQUAKE :
Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects
created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more
or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid
structures. The severity of the local effects depends
on the complex
combination of the earthquake magnitude, the
distance from the epicentre, and the local geological
and geomorphologic conditions.
Ground rupture is a visible breaking and
displacement of the Earth's surface along the trace
of the fault, which may be of the order of several
meters in the case of major earthquakes. Ground
rupture is a major risk for large engineering
structures such as dams, bridges and nuclear power
stations and requires careful mapping of existing
faults to identify any which are likely to break the
ground surface within the life of the structure.
Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic
activity, and coastal wave attack, can produce slope
instability leading to landslides, a major geological
hazard. Landslide danger may persist while
emergency personnel are attempting rescue.

GENERAL PLANNING AND DESIGN


CONSIDERATIONS TO REDUCE THE EFFECT OF
EARTHQUAKES
(i) SYMMETRY: The building as a whole or its
various blocks should be kept symmetrical about
both the axes. Asymmetry leads to torsion during
earthquakes and is dangerous. Symmetry is also
desirable in the
placing and sizing of door and window openings, as
far as possible.
(ii) REGULARITY: Simple rectangular shapes,
behave better in an earthquake than shapes with
many projections. Torsional effects of ground
motion are pronounced in long narrow rectangular
blocks. Therefore, it
is desirable to restrict the length of a block to three
times its width. If longer lengths are required two
separate blocks with sufficient separation in
between should be provided.
(iii) SEPARATION OF BLOCKS: Separation of a
large building into several blocks may be required
so as to obtain symmetry and regularity of each
block.
(iv) SIMPLICITY: Ornamentation invo1ving large
cornices, vertical or horizontal cantilever
projections, facia stones and the like are dangerous
and undesirable from a seismic viewpoint.
Simplicity is the best approach.
Where ornamentation is insisted upon, it must be
reinforced with steel, which should be properly

LANDSLIDE
The effectiveness of mitigating landslide hazards
must be evaluated by the structural engineer in the
context of
the global building system performance. A number
of schemes are available for reducing potential
impacts for
earthquake-induced landslides, including:
Regrading
Drainage
Buttressing
Structural Improvements
Gravity walls
Tieback/soil nail walls
Mechanically stabilized earth walls
Barriers for debris torrents or rock fall
Building strengthening to resist deformation
Grade beams
Shear walls
Soil Modification/Replacement
Grouting
Densification
Foundation typespread footings, mat
foundation, piles, drilled shafts.
Foundation dimensionsplan dimensions and
locations. For piles, tip elevations, vertical variations
(tapered sections of piles or belled caissons).
Material composition/construction. For piles, type
(concrete/steel/wood), and installation method.

DATA COLLECTION

HOSTELS
Hostel is a meeting place where young people of
different nationalities, social backgrounds and
opinions, meet and come to know each other.
Each youth hostel is in the charge of adult house
parents or wardens, who have an educational as
well as an administrative function, their task is to
weld the group of young strangers under their roof
into a friendly and happy community for the brief
period of two or three days.
Single bed 9 15 sq.mt
TOILETS
Double bed 13 19 sq.mt
WC for every 6 students
Bath for every 6 students
Shower for every 12 students
Wash basin for every 3 students

DINING AREA
Full services with utility space to allow 1.2 to 1.6
sq.mt per students
With full services allowed 1.7 to 2 sq.mt
Food preparation 20% of kitchen
Service area for cafeteria service up to 20%
kitchen area
Kitchen should be big enough for work in uninterrupted sequence without opposing traffic flows
from store to service.
Store at start of circulation followed by food
preparation tables, sink and equipment including
area for cookers, ovens ,boiler and then to
cupboards
Good ventilation system required to draw air from
dining area and kitchen,

SERVICES
ELECTRICAL For lighting purpose, for operating
when relating and polling or heating,
communication equipment and water fire alarm
system.
WATER Water falling on the ground has to be
disposed off to avoid flooding, erosion , stagnation
and the weakening of structural foundations
SANITARY DRAINAGE The disposal of waste

ATERS
FOR RECREATION AND REST
should be taken care of by closed system off pipes
which is
carry
waste.
tanks may be
There
a need
for Sometimes
special non-septic
instructional
needed in
absence
of sewage system.
building
tothe
be used
for recreation.
Typical being
Canteens
Clubs or outdoor areas for sports
They are also to be integrated with landscape which
functions as rest and recreational areas for students
and staff. They can be plazas, courtyard, stepped
seating, pergola areas, playgrounds etc.
All these areas are essential part of the institute
and have to be taken into count by planning.
Setting of these areas should be taken into
consideration.
Canteens and club buildings should be away from
the main instructional or silent zone in the campus
yet not too far. Canteens should also have rest
areas and toilet facilities nearby..
Play ground and student extracurricular activity
areas should be near to canteen.
Open air theatre on a small scale could be very
useful for informal gatherings
Visual rest is largely brought by landscape, design

ROPE COURSES
They are installed above the ground and strung
between poles.
Materials - tress, would poles or steel framework
Rope courses are a combined of both vertical
challenge and horizontal challenges
They are constructed using wood, cable and ropes.

pes of courses to be provided

MAZE COURSE : State belay or maze courses for


either a whole group or a portion of the group to
experience the rope course together. All the
elements are linked together. Participants have
options at each transition point.
DYNAMIC COURSE : With dynamic belay
elements one participant at a time goes up and
completes the activity which allows the group to
LIBRARY
focus on that person.
The area and planning for the library will depend
on number and types of books it houses.
The main area in the library consists of
- stacking area
-reading and study area.
- maintenance and binding rooms
- staff areas
There are few types of stacking system and open
and close spaces
The bookstore which opens storage width of the
section of levellling is 1 m and shelving length is 3
m.
The minimum shelf reach is to be 1.8 m as the
maximum reach is 1 m.
The spacing between shelves depends upon the

READING LOUNGE
Should be able to accommodate at least one
tenth of the students making it an alliance of three
meters per person thus taking amount space for
tables, chairs, stacks and suppression.
There is a requirement of simple reading space of
2.5 sq.mt and 4 sq.mt for workplace.
The type of seating provided can be of multiple or
individual type in the form of carrels.

AUDIO VISUAL FACILITIES

This facility is an integral part of instructional


facility, i.e. through films, slides etc.
This would mainly governed by sight lines and
acoustics
Projections can be of two types - front projection
- rear projection
Screen visibility
Minimum distance to view the screen should be
2w from the screen where w is the width of the
screen.
6w is the maximum viewing distance
The maximum viewing angle between the
projection axis of sight of person of person is 30
degrees
The entrances and exists of these should lead to
naturally flat landing surface.
The glare can be avoided from ground by
encouraging grass and foliage outside classroom.

MUSEUM
The main concerns of a museum are
- collecting
-documenting
-exhibition
Normal human angle of vision
Minimum 27 degrees up from eye level
STANDING VIEWER
Well lit picture should be hung 10 m away and
front , not more than 4.9 m above eye level and 70
cms from below.
CIRCULATION
Should follow sequential schemes
CEILING
Should be darker side
WALL FINISHES
Should not reflect light
LIGHTING
Sunlight is not desirable as UV light effects the
specimen
Artificial yellow light is preferable which comes
from top as natural lighting.

SAFETY
Safety is a common to friction free circulation,
including adequate road capacities good turning
radii etc.
The roads should be asphalted or concreted and
have sufficient width of 3 meters minimum to
accommodate vehicles
Services roads need to be 8-12 m wide
Service pathways 4 meters, 12 meters maximum
Turn around curve 8m for cars and 15m for
trucks
Step down parking area can be provided
AESTHETICS
Sloping grounds
Aesthetics imply a coupling of functional
requirement with design opportunities
Circulation can be designed as a pleasant
experience
Site ,landscape , building, space, channels of
moments can be organized to please senses
Pathways may be in a variety of patterns

PARKING

Three kinds of parking is to be provided


- staff and faculty
- students
- visitors
Three kinds of parking angles are comfortable
-45 degrees
-90 degrees
-60 degrees
Of which 60 degree and 30 degree are comfortable