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Human Reproduction

Battle of the sexes!!!


Are males and
females all that
different?
Well..
Yes
And
No!

Anatomy

Male

Female

Similarities
2 pouches
Testicles
Ovaries

Start out inside body


Testicles descend before birth

Fetus begins with starter parts


that could develop into either
gender.

Around 7th Week


Babys body is told by DNA to
become either male or female.
Unused parts disintegrate
Used parts continue
development
(see overhead)

Male or Female???
DNA determines babys gender
XX = Female
XY = Male
Depends on which egg & sperm
get together.
Father determines babys gender.

Anatomy similarities
Function VERY different!
Male
Uncomplicated
Produce sperm
2-4 MILLION
every day

Female
Very Complicated!
One egg
Once a month
Careful
coordination of
hormones & body
Timing perfect!

Females
Ovaries
2 pouches
Contain ova
Born with all of her eggs (~ 400,000)
Use up ~500
Wont run out!

Ovulation
One egg released from ovary to
oviduct (fallopian tube)

After Ovulation
Egg pushed along by cilia
Few days travel time to arrive in uterus
Cervix Opening between uterus &
vagina
Normally tiny
At birth muscles pull open (dilation) cervix
to allow baby to pass through = Labor

Menstrual Cycle
Complex combination of 10-12
chemicals (hormones)
Usually one egg once a month
All about timing!!!
Uterus must be ready when egg gets
there in case it was fertilized
If no fertilization, tear down lining of
uterus and rebuild for next month

28-Day Cycle (average)


Three Stages
1.
2.
3.

Tear Down
Rebuild
Extra nutrients/blood for potential
baby

No Baby?
Back to #1

Chemicals (hormones)
Regulate events in the body
Estrogen
Progesterone
LH (leuteinizing hormone)
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Many others

Day 1
First menstrual blood & tissue
No baby = breaks down lining of
uterus
5-7 days of blood/tissue exits body

Pre-Ovulation

~Day 14
Ovulation = Egg released
Temp spikes slightly
Most fertile in next few days!
Able to get pregnant

Egg gets fertilized while traveling through


oviduct.

Post-Ovulation

If fertilized
Zygote begins to divide as it
travels through oviduct
Implants into lining of uterus

If not fertilized
Egg travels through oviduct to
uterus
Exits body with blood and tissues
during menstruation

Birth Control Pills


Trick body into thinking its pregnant
Extra hormones
No ovulation occurs
No ovulation = no egg = no fertilization = no
baby!
No hormones taken for 7 days = menstruation

Male
Testes
Produce 2-4 million sperm every day
Outside body why?
Sperm like temps 1-2 cooler than body
temp

Vas Deferens
Tube sperm travel through

Vasectomy
Cut/tie off tube sperm cant get out!