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Alberta Industrial

Fire Chiefs

I N T E G R AT E D
COMPRESSED AIR
FOAM SYSTEMS

Systems Inc.

www.fireflex.com

Alberta Industrial
Fire Chiefs

Agenda
1. COMPRESSED AIR FOAM
(CAF) TECHNOLOGY:
Introduction & history
Description
Fire Tests

Alberta Industrial
Fire Chiefs

Agenda
2. ICAF SYSTEM:
Components
Design
Applications
Case Studies

3. CONCLUSION

CAF TECHNOLOGY
History:
1941: Hose lines by US Army during WWII
1994: First fixed piping tests for CDN Navy
2001: Licensing agreement with NRCC
2004: FM Approval: Hydrocarbons

CAF TECHNOLOGY
History and industry recognition :

2006:
2006:
2007:
2007:

NFPA-11, TIA # 05-1: New foam type


FM Approval enhanced: Polar solvents
Meets FM 5130 requirements
Simultaneous CAF & Spkr Discharge

Testing - FM Approved
2008 : NFPA 850 - 851 CAF New Option
2009 : FM 7-29 Flam. Liquid Portable Storage

Introduction : Fire-fighting foams


NFPA 11
Foam Type
Low expansion
Medium expansion
High expansion

Expansion ratio
1:20
20:200
200:1000

CAF 10:1

Introduction : Fire-fighting foams


3 basic components of foam :
Foam Concentrates Synthetic AFFFs
Foam Generation Aeration vs. agitation
Delivery & Distribution System

Introduction : Foam Quality - Low exp


Extinguishing Mechanism - seals fuel surface
CAF - Improved physical separation on top of fuel
Performance : 2 contributing factors
Greater Exp Ratio high end of low ex
Long Drain time ability to hold water

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Description:

Compressed Air Foam (CAF)

Uniform & stable


Robust foam
blanket
Low-Ex : 10:1
New foam type

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Description:
An homogenous foam produced by combining
Water

Compressed Air

CAF

CAF Nozzles

Mixing Chamber
Foam
Concentrate
ICAF Cabinet

Piping Network

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Description:

Compressed Air Foam (CAF)

Lower design densities:


Flammable liquid

Density gpm / sq. ft.


Foam-Water

CAF

Hydrocarbons

0.16 at 3%

0.04 at 2%

Polar solvents : Alcohol

0.24 at 3%

0.06 at 6%

Ketone

0.26 at 3%

0.06 at 6%

Uses 4 times less water

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Description:

Compressed Air Foam (CAF)

Shorter discharge durations:


5 minutes on Specific Hazard Configuration
10 minutes on Ceiling Nozzle Configuration
with automatic shut-off after foam discharge

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Description:

Compressed Air Foam (CAF)

Foam Concentrates:
Hydrocarbons:
National Foam Aer-O-Lite 3% AFFF &
Aer-O-Water 3EM 3% AFFF (MIL Spec.)

Polar Solvents:
Ansul Ansulite 3X3 LV Alcohol Resistant AFFF

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Fire tests:

Class 'B' - Flammable Liquids


Typical sprinklers

UL 162

Spill Fire
'Critical' Applications

Transformers

ICAF SYSTEM
Description: Typical System Layout
Air Cylinders

Piping Network

Distribution
Nozzles

Integrated Cabinet
Foam Tank
(water tank also available)

ICAF SYSTEM
Description: Typical System Layout
Air Cylinders

Twin Hazards
Trim Cabinet

Foam Tank

Integrated Skid
(water tank also available)

CAF TECHNOLOGY
Components:
Air Cylinders

Integrated System

Water Tank

Integrated Skid
Foam Tank

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Turbine action rotary nozzles


ceiling & specific hazard configurations

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Ceiling Nozzle Configuration:


Max. spacing: 12-3" x 12-3"
(10-0" x 10-0" on polar solvents)

Max. dimension: 16 ft.


(irregular spacing)
TAR-225C

Max. height: 46 ft.


(35 ft. on polar solvents)

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Typical discharge pattern

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

TAR-225C Nozzle:
Balanced flows with
bullhead tees
Small pipe sizes
150 ft2 per nozzle
4800 ft2 per zone

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Specific hazard configuration:


Aimed directly at hazard surface
7 ft. diam. discharge pattern
10 ft. horizontal throw
TAR-225L

Effective on cascading fires

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Balanced flows
Groups of 2, 4, 8,
16 or 32 nozzles
Same equiv. length
for each branch pipe
Bullhead tees

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Typical discharge patterns

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Nozzles

Coverage on cascading fire

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Piping requirements

Piping:

Fittings:

Black or Galvanized

Threaded, Grooved, Welded or


flanged

Sch.10 or 40
ASTM A-795, A-53 &
A-135
Hangers per NFPA-13

Cast iron Class 125, ASME


B16.4
Malleable iron Class 150, ASME
B16.3

Improved hydraulics:
Feed Main up to 500 ft. (tested and listed)
Elevation losses only 10% of water (0.04 psi vs. 0.43)

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

ICAF Nozzles

New FPO Oscillating Nozzle:


Up to 92 ft. throw
90 or 180 degree arc of oscillation
Densities:
FPO-4-90

- Hydrocarbon: 0.025 GPM/Ft2 at 3%


- Polar solvents: 0.06 GPM/Ft2 at 6%
(FM Approval in progress)

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

FPO4-90

ICAF Nozzles

FPO Nozzle Applications:


Aircraft hangars
Helipads
Loading/unloading racks
Diked areas

ICAF SYSTEM
Examples of application:

Hydraulic Presses
Diesel Generators
Lube Oil Skids
Diesel Fuel Storage
& Refueling

ICAF SYSTEM
Examples of application:

Rolling Mills
Pump rooms
Fuel Pumping Stations
Methanol Storage
Etc.

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Oil Storage Rooms

Transformers

Aircraft Hangars

ICAF SYSTEM
Costs Comparisons:

Installation:
13%

System
hardware:
15%

Detection
system: 2%

45,000 ft2 Aircraft Hangar

Detection
system: 2%
Installation:
13%

Water supply: 7% !
Start-up: 1%
Savings
35% !

Water supply: 69%

System
hardware: 42%

Start-up: 1%

Foam-Water System

ICAF System

CONCLUSION
Reasons to use CAF Systems

Water supply
eliminate / reduce size of water tanks &
fire pumps

Drainage / Containment
eliminate / reduce size of drainage
systems and spill tanks, oil separators

CONCLUSION
Reasons to use CAF Systems

System performance
effective extinguishing mechanism

Environmental impact
Less water & foam
Reduced disposal costs of AFFF

Potential for LEED points

Alberta Industrial
Fire Chiefs

Sustainable Fire Protection

Thank you !
www.fireflex.com

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests

Test Requirements:

Density: 0.10 gpm/ft2


Foam-water sprinklers @ 15 ft. high
Extinguishment: 5 min. max.
Max. 25% foam drainage after 30 sec.
Min. 5 min. burn back resistance

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests

Test set-up:

50 ft2 Heptane pan


4 nozzles at 40 ft. H.
12-3" x 12-3" spacing
15 sec. pre-burn
5 min. discharge

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests
Comparing:
Foam-water sprinklers
AFFF 3% solution
0.16 gpm/ft2 density
Vs.
TAR nozzles
AFFF 2% solution
0.04 gpm/ft2 density

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests

Comparing extinguishing performances nozzles at 40

2% AFFF
CAF
0.04 gpm/ft

3% AFFF
Foam-Water
0.16 gpm/ft

FIRE TESTS

UL-162 Test #2 Nozzles at 40 ft.

Hydrocarbon Liquid:
Foam-Water

CAF

UL162

0.16**

0.04**

0.10

3%

2%

Extinguishing time (min:sec)

1: 42

1:17

5:00

25% Drainage (min:sec)

0:30

3:30

0:30

Burn back resistance (min:sec)

17:09

26:00

5:00

Density (gpm/ft2)
AFFF concentration

** UL safety factor of 1.6 included

FIRE TESTS

UL Safety Factors

Normal flow: 0.04 gpm / ft2, 2% AFFF


Reduced water flow: factors of 1.33 & 1.64
Increased water flow: factor of 1.6
Foam-water sprinkler: 0.16 gpm / ft2, 3% AFFF

FIRE TESTS

UL Safety Factors - Comparing densities


Foam-water at 0.16

CAF at 0.024

CAF at 0.064

CAF at 0.04

Densities in gpm/sq.ft.

FIRE TESTS

UL Safety Factors

Test

Density
(gpm/ft2)

AFFF
Concent.

Extinguishment
time (min:sec)

Burn back
Time (min:sec)

CAF TAR

0.04

2.0%

1:00

30:50

CAF TAR

0.024

3.3%

1:10

10:00

CAF TAR

0.064

1.2%

1:31

16:50

Foam-Water

0.16

3%

1:40

17:09

FIRE TESTS

UL Safety Factors

Normal Design Density (0.04 gpm/ft2):


Safety factor greater than 1.64
Both for extinguishment & burn-back protection
Increased & Reduced Densities:
Better performance than foam-water sprinklers

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B - flammable liquids)

Test set-up:
20 x 20 test pad
Continuous flow of
Heptane at 6 gpm
10.7 ft2 shielded area
Nozzles at 35 ft.

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B - flammable liquids)

4 x Foam-water sprinklers
3% AFFF at 0.16 gpm/ft2 density

vs.
4 x TAR CAF nozzles
2% AFFF at 0.04 gpm/ft2 density

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B - flammable liquids)

150 ft2 Heptane spill


before ignition

15 sec. pre burn


before system activation

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B flammable liquids)


Comparisons of extinguishing performances

2% AFFF
CAF
0.04 gpm/ft

3% AFFF
Foam-Water
0.16 gpm/ft

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B - flammable liquids)

Technology

99%
Extinguishment
time (min:sec)

100%
Extinguishment
time (min:sec)

Foam-Water

1:30

N/A ***

ICAF

1:55

4:58

*** Fuel flow had to be manually stopped !

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B - flammable liquids)

Shielded area before


CAF build-up

Shielded area during


CAF build-up

FIRE TESTS

Spill Fire (Class B - flammable liquids)

100% fire extinguishment


No flammable liquid overflow
CAF build up under shielded area
Always on top of fuel
Limits runoff

FIRE TESTS

Transformers:

(Class B - flammable liquids)

Typical protection:
NFPA-15 Deluge system
22 water spray nozzles
Requires 240 gpm

FIRE TESTS

Transformers:

(Class B - flammable liquids)

Test Setup:
20 gpm Volt Esso 35
Transformer Oil
Pre-heated to 167F (75C)
8 x TAR-225L Nozzles
2% AFFF at 42.3 gpm

FIRE TESTS

Transformers:

(Class B - flammable liquids)

Comparing extinguishing performances

2% AFFF
CAF
0.04 gpm/ft
(42.3 gpm)

Water Spray
Deluge
0.25 gpm/ft
(240 gpm)

FIRE TESTS

Transformers:

(Class B - flammable liquids)

Test Results:
System

Extinguishment
Time (min:sec)

Flow
(gpm)

Water
(gal)

Foam
(gal)

Deluge

3:55

240

940

ICAF

1:30

42.3

63.5

1.3

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests

Critical Applications - Hydrocarbons:

50 ft2 Heptane pan


Alcohol Resistant AFFF
Density: 0.06 gpm/ft2
ICAF nozzles @ 35 ft. high
10-0 x 10-0 spacing

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests -

Critical Applications:

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests
Critical Applications - Hydrocarbons:
Extinguishment: 41 seconds
25% foam drainage after 30 minutes
Burn back resistance: Self extinguishment !
Alternate:
3% AFFF MIL Spec. Concentrate
Density: 0.04 gpm/ft2
Extinguishment: 38 seconds

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests

Sprinklers on Heptane Fire:

Water only
Upright sprinklers (K = 11.2)
Mounted at 35 ft. high
Density: 0.60 gpm/ft2

Extinguishment: NO ! Control only

FIRE TESTS
UL-162 Based Tests

Water Sprinklers:

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

OIL
OIL STORAGE
STORAGE

BASEMENT
BASEMENT PLAN
PLAN EL.
EL. 274'-0"
274'-0"

Oil Storage Room

Underground facility
83 ft. x 35 ft.
10 x 8,000 gal.
transformer oil storage
tanks

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Oil Storage Room

4"
4"

4"
4" UP
UP TO
TO LEVEL
LEVEL 289'-0"
289'-0"

1"
1"

Water Flow
(gpm)

Water Used
(US Gal)

Foam Water

600

36000
(60 min.)

ICAF

214

2140
(10 min.)

Hi-Ex

250

3000
(12 min.)

1"
1"

4"4"

1-1/2"
1-1/2"

2"2"

1"
1"

Technology

2-1/2"
2-1/2"

2"2"

1-1/4"
1-1/4"

1-1/4"
1-1/4"

1"
1"

OIL
OIL STORAGE
STORAGE

BASEMENT
BASEMENT PLAN
PLAN EL.
EL. 274'-0"
274'-0"

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Oil Storage Room

Actual ICAF System footprint

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Oil Storage Room

ICAF System arrangement

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Oil Storage Room

After 2 minutes foam discharge test

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Oil Storage Room

Minimal residues left after 16 hours

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

Existing hangar: Limited water supply & restricted drainage

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

Dimensions:
184 x 250 (46,000 ft2) ceiling at 32 ft.
320 x TAR Nozzles installed at 26 ft.
(+ 16 nozzles under a gantry)
5 zones with 64 nozzles each

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

View of the hangar space

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

5 zones piping layout

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:
11.1
11.1

11.2
11.2

11.5
11.5

12.1
12.1

Aircraft Hangars
12.3
12.3

12.5
12.5

M
M

NOUVELLE
NOUVELLESALLE
SALLEMCANIQUE
MCANIQUE

11.1
11.1
Zone
Zone 11

Zone
Zone 22

Zone
Zone33

11.2
11.2

11.5
11.5

12.1
12.1

12.3
12.3

Zone
Zone 44

Zone55
Zone

M.5
M.5

Zone
Zone66
M
M
Zone
Zone11

Zone
Zone33

MEZZANINE
MEZZANINE

NN

M.5
M.5

Zone
Zone44

Zone
Zone66

Zone
Zone22

Zone
Zone55

NN

2 levels ICAF System mechanical room

12.5
12.5

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

Cabinets, foam tanks & compressed air cylinders

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

2 x 2000 gpm diesel fire pumps

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

Full discharge test video

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Aircraft Hangars

Foam coverage after discharge test

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Power Transformers

Deluge / ICAF Comparison:


System

Nozzle
Qty

Water
Flow
(gpm)

Water
Used
(US gal)

Deluge

44

500

5000
(10 min.)

ICAF

16

95

475
(5 min.)

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Power Transformers

Top

Front

ICAF System Piping Layout

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Power Transformers

Side

Isometric

ICAF System Piping Layout

ICAF SYSTEM
Case Studies:

Power Transformers

ICAF SYSTEM CONTROLS


2'-11"
2'-11"

FOAM TANK

COMPRESSED AIR CYLINDERS


4'-1"
4'-1"

Actual ICAF System footprint

FIRE TESTS
UL-162:

Burn Back Tests

Foam undisturbed for 15 minutes


1 ft. diam. opening in foam blanket
Manual re-ignition of fire after 1 min.
Max. burn back of 10 ft2 after 5 min.

FIRE TESTS
UL-162:

Burn Back Tests

Opening is created in foam blanket

FIRE TESTS
UL-162:

Burn Back Tests

Free fuel is re ignited in the opening

FIRE TESTS
UL-162:

Burn Back Tests

Pipe is removed and fire is allowed to burn freely

FIRE TESTS
UL-162:

Burn Back Tests

10 ft2 max. burn-back area after 5 min.

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Generation Trim


Mixing chamber
1", 1", 2" or 3"

Manual release
CAF outlets
(up to 3)

Releasing trim:
Electric,
Pneumatic,
or Failsafe

Flow control valve


Drain

Water supply
50 to 175 psi

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Releasing Panel

FireFlex ARC-1:

Microprocessor based
Factory programmed
LCD Annunciator
User friendly interface

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Releasing Panel

FireFlex ARC-1:

EMI resistant
Programmable I/O ccts
Timers & counters
Auxiliary relays
Emergency batteries

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Supply

No bladder
Stainless steel
Pressure vessel type
(ASME Sect. VIII, Div. 1)

Up to 550+ gallons

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Foam Supply
Foam outlet

Air supply inlet


Foam refilling valve
Foam level
sight tube

Siphon tube
Pressure vessel type tank
(normally non-pressurized)

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Air Supply

Factory assembled
4, 6, 8 or 10 cyl. skid
Pressure transducer
Field refilling port
Labor reducing

ICAF SYSTEM
Components:

Pressure sensor

Refilling port

Air Supply

Pressure gauge

Factory adjusted
pressure regulator

Pressure
outlet
(100psi)