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LABOUR LAWS

AND UNIONS
PRESENTED BY:
MS.ANU SARANNYA
M.SC(N) II YEAR
APOLLO COLLEGE OF
NURSING

TERMINOLOGIES

Acts - Framed by the Legislature, i.e., the


Parliament or the State legislature.

Rules - Framed by the executive under the


provisions of the relevant Acts.

LAW
The word law is derived from its tentoric
root lag which means something which lies
fixed or events.
Law means a body of rules to guide human
action.

SOURCES OF LAW
COMMON
LAW

CONSTITUTIONA
L LAW

ADMINISTRATIV
E LAW

PURPOSE

To make nurses understand


Legal responsibilities
Line of authority of enforcement
Areas of nursing which may create legal
problems

To protect the right of


Clients and nurses

Cont.
To Protect the nursing practise
To identify the risk of liability
To assist in decision making

SAFEGUARDING THE NURSES

Licensure
Good Samaritan law
Good rapport
Standards of care
Standing orders
Consent
Documentations

The Factories Act, 1948

The Factories Act 1948


What is a factory?
Factory means a premises where a
manufacturing process is carried out
and
10 or more workers are working with the
aid of power
or
20 or more workers are working without
the aid of power.

The Factories Act 1948


Worker
A worker is a person who is:
directly employed
indirectly employed
with wages
without wages
with the knowledge of the employer
without the knowledge of the employer

The Factories Act 1948


Occupier: the person who has the ultimate
control over the affairs of the factory,
provided that in the case of a company, any
one of the directors shall be deemed to be
be the occupier.
Manager: the person responsible to the
occupier for the working of the factory for
the purpose of the Act.

The Factories Act 1948


Health of the workers
provisions of this act to;

Keep its premises clean.


Dispose of wastes and effluents.
Maintain adequate temperature and
ventilation.
Prevent accumulation of dust and fumes.
Artificial humidification
Avoid overcrowding.( 9.9 & 14.2 cubic
meters / worker measured up to 4.2 meters
height )
Provide sufficient lighting, drinking
water,toilets, spittoons etc.

The Factories Act 1948


Safety of workers
Factory to take appropriate measures as per the
provisions of this act to;
Fence certain machinery.
Protect from machinery in motion.
Protection of young persons from dangerous
machinery.
Maintain hoists and lifts in good conditions.
Protect from injury to eye.

The Factories Act 1948


Safety of workers
Protect from dangerous, dust, gas fumes and
vapours.
Protect from fire.
(contd.)

The Factories Act 1948


Welfare of workers
Factory to make provision for:

Washing.
Sitting while at work.
Storage of clothes and belongings.
First aid boxes.
Canteen.
Rest rooms and lunch rooms.
Crches.
Welfare officers

The Factories Act 1948


Working hours for adults
Not more than 48 hours in a week. (75 with OT)
Not more than 9 hours in a day.
An interval of rest at least half an hour after 5
hours work.
Total period of work including rest interval not
to exceed 10 hours and 30 minutes.
A holiday for a whole day in every week.

The Factories Act 1948


Working hours for adults
OT not to exceed 50 hours in a quarter.
After 9 hours work in a day or 48 hours in a
week, overtime at double the rate to be
paid.
A woman worker can not be employed
between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m.
(contd.)

The Factories Act 1948


Working hours for children
Employment of children below 15 totally
prohibited.
A child between the age of 15 and 18 can be
employed for a period of 4 hours and 30 minutes.
Such child can not be employed between 10 p.m
and 6 a.m.
child to carry certificate of fitness issued by
certifying surgeon.

The Factories Act 1948


Working hours for children ...
A register to be maintained for child labour.
A child between the age of 15-18 can be
employed as an adult provided he carries a
certificate of fitness for full days work.

The Factories Act 1948


Leave
Annual leave with wages @ one day for every 20
days of work performed by him in the previous
calendar year provided he has worked for more
than 240 days in the previous year.
Leave not more than three times in a calendar year.
For child leave allowed on the same basis but @
one day for every 15 days of work.

The Factories Act 1948


Leave

(contd.)

Accumulation of leave permitted up to 30


days for adults and 40 days for a child.
Leave will be exclusive of holidays
occurring during or at either end of the
leave period.

PAYMENT OF
WAGES ACT, 1936

PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT, 1936

An Act to regulate the payment of


wages to certain classes of persons

Extends to the whole of India


Responsibility of payment wages rests with
the employer
Employer to fix Wage Period
No wage period shall exceed one month.

PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT, 1936


Time of Payment of wages

If less than 1000 persons employed


wages to be paid before the expiry
of the 7th day of the following
month
If more than 1000 persons
employed wages to be paid before
the expiry of the 10th day of the
following month

PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT, 1936


Wages should be paid in currency
coins or currency notes

After obtaining the authorisation


either by cheque or by crediting the
wages in employees bank account

PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT, 1936


Permissible Deductions from wages
Fines
For absence from duty
For damage caused to the property of the
employer
For the amenities provided, like house
accommodation
For recovery of advance or adjusting over
payment of wages
Towards EPF, ESI, Labour Welfare Fund
and similar deductions permitted under any
Act or the Standing Orders of the
establishment
For premium for Life Insurance/ general
insurance policies and Housing loan.

The Minimum Wages Act, 1948

The Minimum Wages Act 1948

An act to provide for


minimum rates of
wages in certain
employment.

The Minimum Wages Act 1948

Minimum Wages such


as
Basic rates of Wages,
Variable DA,
Value of other
concessions, etc

The Minimum Wages Act 1948


Government can also fix Minimum Wages for
Time Work

Piece Work at piece rate

Overtime work done by employees for


piece work or time rate workers

The Minimum Wages Act 1948


CATEGORY

TOTAL ( Basic + DA)WAGES (P/D.)

UNSKILLED

Rs.182

SEMI - SKILLED

Rs.202

SKILLED

Rs.221

THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT, 1961

THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT, 1961


The Act extends to the whole of India
except Jammu & Kashmir
Applies to every factory, shop or
establishment
Woman entitled to maternity benefit not
withstanding the application of the
Employees State Insurance Act, 1948

THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT, 1961


Conditions for eligibility of benefits

Women who have worked in an


establishment for a period of not less
than 80 days in the twelve months
immediately preceding the date of her
expected delivery.

THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT, 1961


Cash Benefits:
Leave for six weeks before the delivery
Leave for six weeks after the delivery/
miscarriage
Additional leave of one month if the
woman is suffering from illness related
with pregnancy, delivery, miscarriage, etc

THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT, 1961


Non Cash Benefits:
Light work for ten weeks before the date
of delivery
Two nursing breaks of 15 minutes till the
child is 15 months old
No discharge or dismissal while she is on
maternity leave

EMPLOYEES PROVIDENT FUND AND


MISC. PROVISIONS ACT, 1952
An Act to provide for the institution of
provident funds, pension funds and
deposit linked insurance fund for the
employees in the factories and other
establishments
Extends to the whole of India except the
State of Jammu and Kashmir

Applicability

Applies to all factories and establishments


in which 20 or more are employed
Continuity of application
Exemption
Where employees get benefits in the
nature of provident fund or old age
pension fund from the establishment
which are not less favourable than the
benefits under the Act.

Schemes under the Act


Three beneficial schemes1.Employees Provident Fund Scheme
1952
2.Employees Pension Scheme 1995
3.Employees Deposit Linked Insurance
1976

membership
An employee at the time of joining the
employment and getting wages up to
Rs.6500/- is required to become a
member.
an employee is eligible for membership of
fund from the very first date of joining a
covered establishment.

Contribution to EPF

Employees share : 12% of the Basic + DA


Employers contribution : 12% to be
deposited as :

8.33% to be deposited in Pension Fund


A/C No 10 and
the balance, ie, 3.67% to be deposited in
Provident Fund A/C No 01 along with
Employees share of 12%

Benefits to employees
Provident Fund Benefits
Pension Benefits
Death Benefits

The Payment of Gratuity Act,


1972

The Payment of Gratuity Act,


1972

An act to provide for


uniform scheme for
payment of Gratuity to
industrial workers
throughout the country

The Payment of Gratuity Act,


1972
Eligibility for Gratuity
On Superannuation; or
On resignation from service; or
Employee dies while in service;
Service of the employee is terminated on his
disablement due to accident or disease

The Payment of Gratuity Act,


1972
Eligibility for Gratuity
In order to earn Gratuity, the employee has to
render minimum five years service
In case of death or disablement of the employee,
Gratuity becomes payable to his nominee even if
he has rendered service less than five years.

The Payment of Gratuity Act,


1972
Quantum of Gratuity
{(Basic plus DA)} * 15 * No. of years of service
{
26
}

The Payment of Gratuity Act,


1972
Forfeiture of Gratuity
On termination of an employee on moral
turpitude and riotous or disorderly behavior
Wholly or partially for willfully causing loss,
destruction of property, etc

WORK +

+ COMPENSATION

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923

An Act to provide for


the payment by certain
classes of employers
to their workmen of
compensation for
injury by accident.

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923
Liability for compensation
Compensation payable to workmen for
injury caused in accident;
Arising out of and
During the course of employment

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923
The doctrine of notional extension of
employment
Compensation payable for injury caused to a
workman by accident occurring :
beyond his working hours
beyond his workplace

if there is a nexus between the time and place of


the accident and his employment

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923
Types of injury compensated
Death.
Permanent total disablement.
Permanent partial disablement.
Temporary disablement.
Total
Partial

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923
Not payable .
Injury does not result in total or partial
disablement for more than three days.
If the injury does not result in death or permanent
total disablement compensation not payable if;
workman was intoxicated.
He did not follow safety rules.
Willfully removed any safety guard or device.

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923
To whom payable...
In case of death of a workman
compensation is payable to the dependents
as defined in section 2 (1)(d) of the Act.

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923
How much is payable..
In case of death
= 50% of wages multiplied by the
relevant factor or
Rs 80000 whichever is more.
In case of permanent total disablement= 60% of wages
multiplied by the relevant factor or Rs 90,000 whichever is
more.
In case of permanent partial disablement a percentage of
this amount is payable.
In case of temporary disablement=25% of the wages paid
half monthly.

The Workmens Compensation


Act, 1923

For the purpose of calculating the


compensation for death or permanent total
disablement, the maximum wages is treated
as Rs 4000/-.

P TDS UE I

The Industrial Disputes Act,


1947

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

An Act to make
provision for the
investigation and
settlement of industrial
disputes

Definition of Industrial Disputes


Section 2(k) defines industrial dispute as
any dispute or difference between;
Employers and employers.
Employers and workmen.
Workmen or workmen
connected with the employment or non
employment or the terms of employment or
with the conditions of labour of any person.

Authorities under the Act

Works committee.
Conciliation officers.
Board of conciliation.
Labour Courts.
Industrial Tribunals.
Grievance Settlement Authority.

Modes of settling a dispute


The three modes normally adopted to settle
any dispute are:
Mediation.
Conciliation.
Arbitration / Adjudication.

The genesis of a dispute and its


settlement
Union submits its charter of demands
The management may also submit its COD.
Collective Bargaining takes place.

An agreement is arrived at OR

there is a stalemate and the dispute is


referred for conciliation

Strike

Strike means a cessation of work by a body


of persons employed in any industry acting
in combination, or a concerted refusal, or a
refusal under a common understanding, of
any number of persons who are or have
been so employed to continue to work or to
except employment.

Strikes
No person working in a public utility
service can go on strike without giving a notice of strike within six
weeks before striking
within fourteen days of giving such notice
before the expiry date of strike specified in
such notice
during the pendency of a conciliation
proceeding and seven days thereafter.

lockout

Provisions similar to those for strike apply


for lockout also.

A lockout declared in consequence of an


illegal strike or a strike declared in
consequence of an illegal lockout shall not
be deemed to be illegal.

The Maharashtra
Recognition of Trade
Unions and Prevention of
Unfair Trade Practices Act
1971

MRTU & PULP Act 1971

An act to provide for


the recognition of
trade unions for
felicitating collective
bargaining, to state
their rights and
obligations, to confer
certain powers to
unrecognised unions

Procedure for recognition

A union can apply to the industrial court for


recognition if:

in the preceding six calendar months it has


a membership of 30% of the total number of
employees.

Procedure for recognition (contd..)


On receipt of the application for recognition
the labour court issue a notice inviting
objections to recognition being granted to
the applicant.
If After considering the objections, if any,
the court is satisfied about the genuineness
of the applicant union, grant recognition
(subject to conditions of s/19 being
fulfilled.)

Procedure for recognition


(contd...)
If after considering the objections the court
comes to the conclusion that some other
union has the largest majority, it may grant
recognition to that union provided it has
registered its claim to be recognised.
Only one union can be recognised.
Recognition not granted if bona fide interest
of the employee not established.
Recognition not granted if within past six
month the union has gone on an illegal
strike

Rights of unrecognised unions


Settlement of individual grievances.
Represent in domestic enquiry.

The Industrial Employment


(Standing Orders )Act,1946

The Industrial Employment


(Standing Orders )Act,1946

An Act for defining


with sufficient
precision certain
conditions of
employment in
industrial
establishments

Application of Model Standing


Orders

The model standing orders apply to all


establishments till certification of
amendments.

Certification of
amendments
Five copies of the draft amendments to be
submitted to the certifying officer.
Certifying officer forwards the proposed
amendments to the union or employer
inviting their views.
After giving an opportunity to the other
party the officer shall decide whether such
modification is required.
If satisfied he shall certify.

Standing Orders
Classification of Workmen
Permanent
Probationer
Temporary
Casual
Apprentices

Standing Orders

Transfer
Transfer to different category of job
Payment of Unclaimed Wages
Payment of Wages in case of Death
Shift Working
Change of shift
Closure and starting of shifts

Standing Orders

Lunch, Tea and Refreshments


Attendance
Marking Attendance
Leaving Time
Late Arrival
Absence
Urgent Personal Work

Standing Orders

Entry and Exit


Search
Leave
Resignation
Superannuation
Premature Retirement

Standing Orders
Misconducts
Punishment
Procedure for Disciplinary Action

The Contract Labour


(Regulation & Abolition)
Act, 1970

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970


An act to regulate the
employment of
contract labour in
certain establishments
and to provide for its
abolition in certain
circumstances and for
matters connected
therewith.

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970


Welfare measures to be taken by Contractor
Canteen should be provided if 100 or more
contract labour employed
First Aid Facilities
Rest Rooms
Drinking Water, Latrines and Washing facilities

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970


Liability of Principal Employer
To ensure provision for canteen, restrooms,
drinking water, latrines, urinals, washing
facilities
Principal Employer entitled to recover from
contractor for providing such amenities or to
make deductions from amount payable

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970


Responsibility of Contractor
To pay timely and to ensure the disbursement of
wages in the presence of authorised
representative of the principal employer.
Rate of wages not less than the rates fixed or
prevailing in such employment as fixed by
agreement

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970


DOS

The establishment in the first instance must ensure that they


have got a registration certificate from the competent authority
as provided u/s 7 of the Contract Labour (R&A) Act, 1970
before proceeding to engage the contract labour.

The establishment must ensure that they issue certificate in


Form V to the contractor for obtaining license as provided u/s
12 of the Act.

It must be ensured that the contractor who is employing more


than 20 persons has a valid licence issued in his name by the
competent authority as provided under section 12 of the Act.

The payment of wages to the employees employed by the


contractor is disbursed to his employees by the contractor
himself or his nominee and principal employer has to depute his
representative to be present and sign the payment register in
token of having disbursed the salary in his presence by the
contractor.

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970

There should not be any direct supervision and


control by the principal employer in respect of
employees employed by the contractor to fulfill
the obligation of the contract.

The work for which contract labour is engaged


is not of perennial nature.

Discipline of the employees of contractor in the


discharge of duties must be regulated by the
contractor and not by the principal employer.

Leave to the employees of contractor must be


sanctioned by the contractor and not by the
principal employer.

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970

Maintenance of all types of record in respect of


the employees employed by the contractor
should be his own responsibility and principal
employer should not intervene in such matters.

If the establishment is covered by the


Employees Provident Funds and Misc.
Provisions Act and the Employees State
Insurance Act then the preference should be
given to those contractors who have their own
code numbers under these Acts.

To ensure compliance by the contractor of the


obligation pertaining to the various provisions
regarding amenities and benefits as prescribed
under the Act.

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970

That the agreement to be entered into with the contractor should


be drafted and executed on a non-judicial stamp paper.

That the agreement must disclose the names, addresses of the


contractor and the principal employer.

That the agreement must specify the rights and obligations of


both the parties.

That the agreement must disclose the place of work, time of


working, rate of compensation and consequences of breach of
contract and procedure for termination of the agreement by
both the parties.

That the agreement must also disclose the scope of work,


deployment of manpower in number, period of validity, security
deposit and terms of payment to the contractor.

That the agreement should be witnessed by two witnesses.

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970

DONTS

Contract should not specify the number of persons


required but must quantify the work itself.

No advance should be paid by the principal employer


to the contractors employees directly. Only
contractor must regulate the same.

Do not employ more than the necessary numbers of


contract labour. If need be, people may be employed
on contract basis of specific period or on temporary
basis.

Leave to the Contract Labour should not be


sanctioned by the Principal Employer or his officer.

The Contract Labour (R & A)Act, 1970

Entry pass for Contract Labour should be separate and


different from that issued by the Principal Employer to its
direct employees and should clearly indicate Contract
Labour.

Direct labour should not be employed in the same


categories in which Contract Labour is being used.
Attendance of Contract Labour should not be marked by
officers of the Principal Employer.

Payment of wages to the Contract Labour must not be paid


by the Principal Employer (Cases have come to the notice
where direct payment was made by the Principal
Employer, creating serious complications.)

No instructions/directions should be given in writing by


the Principal Employer to the Contract Labour.

Classification of labour laws-1

Employee Welfare Legislation

The Factories Act, 1948.


Payment of Wages Act, 1936.
Minimum Wages Act, 1948
The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
The Maternity Benefits Act, 1961

Classification of labour laws-2

Social security legislation


The Employees PF & Miscellaneous Provisions
Act 1952.
The Payment of Gratuity Act 1972.
The Workmens Compensation Act 1923.

Classification of labour laws-3

Industrial Relations legislation.


The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.
The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders)
Act 1947.
The Trade Unions Act 1926.
The Maharashtra Recognition Of Trade Unions
and Prevention of Unfair Labour Practices Act
1972. (MRTU & PULP Act)

Classification of labour laws-4

Other Miscellaneous Legislation


The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition)
Act, 1970.
The Apprentices Act, 1961.
The Employment Exchanges (Compulsory
Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959.

EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE


ACT 1948
FUNERAL BENEFIT

LAW AFFECTING
NURSES

LAW AFFECTING NURSES


NURSE PRACTICE LAWS
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
STATUATORY LAW
ENACTED LAW

CONT.

NURSE PRACTICE ACT

Describes and designs the legal


boundaries of nursing practice

CONT.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

Created by administrative bodies


They develop rules and regulations
It is made by the appointed
government administrative agencies
Eg:social security act,FDA, Nurse
practice act

CONT.

STATUATORY LAW

Created by elected legislative bodies


such as state legislature

CONT.

ENACTED LAW

Includes all bills passed by the


legislative bodies whether local, state
or national.

Labour unions

DEFINITION

According to webbs,
A trade union is a continuous association of the
wage earners for the purpose of maintaining
and improving the conditions of their working
lives

TRADE UNION ACT(1926)


Any combination whether temporary or
permanent,formed primarily for the purpose of
regulating the relationship between the workers
and employers, or for imposing restrictive
conditions on the condition of any trade
business and include any federation of two or
more unions.

FEATURES OF TRADE UNION

It is an organization formed by employees


or workers
It is formed on a continuous basis
It is a permanent body
It is formed to protect and promote all kinds
of interest
It includes federation of trade unions
It achieves its objectives through collective
action and group effort

OBJECTIVES OF TRADE UNION

To defend .
To overthrow capitalism and
fundamental change in political
order.
To replace managerial dictatorship

Objectives of Trade Union

To improve the economic lot of employees by


securing for them better wages.

To secure better working conditions for the workers.

To secure bonus for the employees from the profit


of the concern,

To resist schemes of the management which reduce


employment, e.g., rationalization and automation.

Contd..

To secure welfare of employees through group


schemes which give benefit to every employee.

To protect the interests of employees by taking


active participation in the management.

To secure social welfare of the employees.

To secure organizational stability, growth, and


leadership.

FORMS OF UNIONS
CLASSICA
L

NEOCLASSICA
L

REVOLUTIONAR
Y

CLASSIFICATION OF TRADE
UNION
Classification based on ideology
a) Revolutionary Unions: Believe in
destruction of existing social/economic
order and creation of a new one. They want
shift in power and authority and use of
force - Left Unions.

b) Reformist or Welfare Unions: Work for


changes and reforms within existing sociopolitical framework of society - European
Model.
c) Uplift Unions: Advocate extensive
reforms well beyond the area of working
condition i.e., change in taxation system,
elimination of poverty etc.

Classification based on
agreement

a) Closed Shop: Where management and union


agree that the union would have sole
responsibility and authority for the recruitment of
workers, it is called a Closed Shop agreement. The
worker joins the union to become an employee of
the shop.
b) Union Shop: Where there is an agreement
that all new recruits must join the union within a
fixed period after employment it is called a union
shop

C) Preferential Shop: When a Union member is


given preference in filling a vacancy, such an
agreement is called Preferential Shop.
d) Maintenance Shop: In this type of
arrangement no compulsory membership in the
union before or after recruitment exists. However,
if the employee chooses to become a member after
recruitment, his membership remains compulsory
right throughout his tenure of employment with
that particular employer.

Open Shop: Membership in a union is in


no way compulsory or obligatory either
before or after recruitment.

THEORIES OF TRADE UNION

WEBBS THEORY OF INDUSTRIAL


DEMOCRACY
Collective bargaining as the process which
strengthen labour

POLITICAL REVOLUTIONARY
THEORY OF LABOUR MOVEMENT
Trade union is a pure simple class struggle
Unions are world to win

FUNCTIONS OF TRADE
UNION
MILITANT FUNCTION
EXTRA-MURAL
FUNCTION

POLITICAL
FUNCTION

SOCIAL FUNCTION

MILITANT FUNCTION
Protecting the workers interest
Wage hike
Job security etc.
The above attained through collective
bargaining and direct actions such as strikes
lock outs etc.

EXTRA MURAL FUNCTION

This include providing financial and non


financial assisstance during the strikes and
lock outs.

POLITICAL FUNCTION
Affiliating the trade union with the political
parties
Seeking help of political parties during
strike and lockouts

SOCIAL FUNCTION

Carrying out socialservice activities


Like educating the customers on consumer
protection strategies

DETERMINING UNION
STRENGTH
Election by secret ballot
Check off method
Verification
Rule of thumb

RIGHTS OF RECOGNISED
UNIONS
Right to raise the issue with the
management
Right to collect membership fees within the
organization premises
Ability to demand check off facility
Ability to put up a notice board on the
premises for the union announcement

Right to discuss workers grievance with


employers
Ability to hold discussion with the members
in a suitable place within the organization
Ability to inspect the employment and work
Nomination of its represesntatives on the
committees formed by the management

Motivation to Join Unions


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Greater Bargaining Power.


Make their Voices Heard.
Minimize Discrimination.
Sense of Security.
Sense of Participation.
Sense of Belongingness.

Problems & weaknesses of Trade Unions


Financial Problems.

Suggestions for the development


Unions
Recognition of Trade Unions.

American Nurses Association (ANA)

Established in 1911
Purpose: To improve the quality of nursing care.
Functions:
Establish standards of nursing practice
Develop educational standards.
Promote nursing research.
Establish a professional code of ethics.
Influence legislation affecting health care.
Providing continuing nursing education.

Cont

Membership:
Federation of state nurses association.
Individual registered nurses can participate in ANA .

Publications:

American journal of nursing.

American nurse is the official newspaper.

Canadian Nurse Association.

Establishes in 1908
Purpose: To achieve quality of nursing care for the people
by Promoting high standards of nursing practice,
education, and research.
Influencing the development of national health policy.
Fostering uniform regulatory practice among licensure/
regulatory agencies.

Cont

Function:
Define Nursing Practice.
Establish standards .

Promote nursing research.


Membership:
Federation of the provincial nurse association.
Consists of registered nurse.
Publication: The Canadian Nurse published monthly.

International council Of Nurses

Founded in1899

Purpose: To encourage collaboration between national


nurses association to improve health services and
recognition of nursing role in health care.

Activities : Assist national nurses associations in


establishing regulatory mechanisms.

Provide nursing research world wide.

Cont

Membership: Independent non- governmental federation of


112 national nurses association.

Publications: International Nursing Review- It is the


official journal of ICN published on a quarterly basis.

The news letter- Published ten times a year.

Journal reference

Legal news:
The sexual harrasment of women at work
place(prevention,Prohibition and redressal) Act
2013 announced on 09.12.2013

The Function of Trade Unions


K.D. Ewing1
1
King's College, London.
Abstract
Trade unions have a number of functions, some of which
have been more prominent than others at different periods
in history. But over the course of time trade unions have
developed five principal functions. These are respectively:
a service function; a representation function; a regulatory
function; a government function; and a public
administration function.

CONCLUSION

As a nurse manager we all should


be aware about the legal
responsibilities and the legal
governing in our profession. we
should create unions and strngthen
our profession.