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Definition and Meaning of Philosophy

Definisi dan Pengertian Falsafah

philosophy derived from Greek word philo (love)


and sophia (wisdom. Philosophy is defined as
love of wisdom
falsafah berasal dari perkataan Yunani philo
(mencintai) dan sophia (hikmah atau
kebijaksanaan). Falsafah didefinisikan sebagai
mencintai hikmah

Love of wisdom what it means?

mencintai hikmah apa maksudnya?


Wisdom a range of meanings as seen from many
perspectives
Hikmah dapat diertikan dari pelbagai perspektif
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Wisdom as in the western tradition; wisdom

from Islamic perspective and also Eastern


perspective
Hikmah dari perspetif Barat. Islam dan Timur.

Wisdom as argued from:

Intellectual perspective
Metaphysical perspective mainly from
religious point of view
Wisdom from value perspective
Hikmah dari perspektif
- intelek
- metafizik kebanyakannya dari sudut agama
- hikmah dari perspektif nilai
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Surah Al-Baqarah: 269


Whoever is given wisdom, he has given a lot of
goodness.
Barang siapa diberi hikmah, maka dia diberi
kebaikan yang banyak

Islamic wisdom integrated in nature fusing

elements of the intellectual, emotional,


spirituality and physical elements
Hikmah dalam Islam- bersepadu, gabungkan
intelek, emosi, rohani dan jasmani

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Nature of Philosophy as a discipline of Knowledge


Ciri Falsafah Sebagai Satu Disiplin Ilmu
1. Synoptic addresses universal and holistic issues

Sinoptik mengutarakan isu-isu yang bersifat sejagat dan


menyeluruh

2. Analytical- Depend purely upon the analysis of the

meanings of the terms involved, not upon anything


that lies outside of language
Analitik semata-mata menganalisis maksud iistilah,
perkataan, pernyataan, nukan sesuatu yang terpisah
dari struktur bahasa

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

3.

Analysis and interpretation of arguments


from the following perspectives:
Menganalis and mentafsir hujah dari
pespektif:
Search for underlying concepts from facts
or data presented.
konsep dan pengertian di sebalik fakta atau
data dikemukakan
Search for implied meanings in
statements presented (maksud tersirat
dalam pernyataan)

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Ismail

identifying contradictions and fallacies in


sentences or propositions using rules of
valid inference (logic)
Mengenal pasti maksud bercanggah dan
kontradik melalui peraturan hukum logik

4. Focus on analytical reasoning rather


than empirical verification or
experimentation
Tumpuan kepada penaakulan, bukannya
pengesahan empirik atau kajian/ujikaji
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

5. Setting forth more of the WHY rather than

the WHAT question.


Lebih banyak mengemukakan soalan bermula
dengan MENGAPA bukannya APA

6. Reflective - a search for inner meaning and

relating an issue addressed in terms of the


metaphysical perspective with regards to
questions of reality, knowledge and values
Refleksi (Merenung secara mendalam
mencari
pengertian dari sudut metafizik persoalan
mengenai realiti, ilmu pengetahuan dan nilai)
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

5. Speculative systematic thinking of things

generally observed; overview; perspective;


meaningful whole
Spekulatif- berfikir sistematik melihat secara
menyeluruh; membuat jangkaan munasabah

6.

Prescriptive/normative
- prescription of standards on acts of conduct;
moral and ethics and aesthetics; social and
cultural norms
Preskriptif /normatif
- menetapkan garis panduan dan tatacara
menyentuh perlakuan, moral etika dan estetika ;
sosial dan norma budaya masyarakat
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

7. Philosophy is not in the same category as the

science discipline. Nevertheless, philosophy exists in


every knowledge discipline (Philosophy of Education,
Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Religion etc)
Ilmu falsafah bukan dalam kategori yang sama
seperti ilmu sains . Namun, falsafah berada dalam
semua disiplin ilmu (Falsafah Pendidikan, Falsafah
Sains, Falsafah Agama dll).

8. Philosophy does not create new knowledge of


science and technology BUT addresses perpetual
universal issues and problems (wisdom, justice,
humanity, morality, truth).

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Falsafah tidak mencipta ilmu baru seperti


sains dan teknologi TETAPI mengutarkan isuisu dan masalah sejagat (hikmah, keadilan,
kemanusiaan, kemoralamndan kebenaran).

9.

Philosophy analyses concepts and arguments


and
ultimately set forth thinking or
philosophical thoughts and NOT scientific
inventions.
Falsafah menganalisis konsep dan hujah dan
akhirnya mengemukana pemikiran
BUKANNYA kajian saintifik.

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

10. To philosophize is to critically examine an

issue, problem and statement using mainly


reasoning
and the deductive
method
plays important
an
role in philosophy.
Berfalsafah bererti meneliti secara kritis
sesautu isu, masalah dan pernyataan
menggunakan penaakulan
dan kaedha
deduksi memainkan peranan penting dalam
ilmu falsafah.

Philosophy as an activity (to philosophize)


Falsafah sebagai satu aktiviti (berfalsafah)
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

a. Engaged in philosophical question and answer


which is not solely based on factual matters.
Melibatkan penyoalan dan jawapan falsafah yang
bukan semata-mata bersandarkan fakta
b. Setting forth rational and sound argument.
Mengemukakan hujah rasional dan munasabah
c. Guideline to an aim, goal or mission.
Panduan dalam menentukan matlamat, atau misi/visi
d. Provides the theoretical framework for the
implementation of a certain policy or act.
Mengemukakan kerangka teoritis untuk melaksanakan
sesuatu dasar atau tindakan
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

e. Emphasis on use of reasoning not experimentation.


Penekanan kepada taakulan bukan ujikaji
Branches or Sub-Divisions of Philosophy
1. metaphysics
2. epistemology
3. axiology
4. logic
Cabang-cabang Falsafah
1.Metafizik
2.Epistemologi
3.Aksiologi
4.logik

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Metaphysics
Derived from the Greek meta ta physika ("after the
things of nature"); referring to an idea, doctrine, or
posited reality outside of human sense perception.
Berasal dari istilah Yunani meta ta physika (selepas
benda-benda dalam alam semulajadi , merujuk
kepada idea, doktrin dan realiti di luar persepsi dan
pengalaman biasa manusia.

In modern philosophical terminology, metaphysics

refers to the studies of what cannot be reached


through objective studies of material reality. Areas of
metaphysical studies include ontology , cosmology , and
often, epistemology .
Dalam terminologi falsafah, metafizik merujuk kepada
perkara kajian tentang perkara yang tidak dapat
diselesai melalui kajian objektif realiti kebendaan.
Bidang metafizik merangkumi ontologi, kosmologi dan
juga epistemologi
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Metaphysics or things beyond the physical realm

beyond ordinary sense experience ; matters of


spiritual existence, god and the soul; time and
space and mind-body dualism
Metafizik atau perkara-perkara melampaui dunia
fizikal membatasi deria dan pengalaman biasa
manusia; perkara kewujudan kerohanian,
ketuhanan dan roh, ruang-masa dan dualisme
minda-jasad

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Epistemology
(Defined as Theory of knowledge/ Teori Ilmu
Pengetahuan)
- process of knowing
- source of knowledge
- structure of knowledge
- category of knowledge
-proses mengetahui
-sumber imu pengetahuan
-struktur ilmu pengetahuan
-kategori ilmu pengetahuan

Derived from the Greek word episteme or


knowledge

Addresses philosophical questions on knowledge


such as:

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Mengemukakan persoalan falsafah tentang ilmu


pengetahuan:
What are the sources of knowledge?
Apakah sumber2 ilmu pengetahuan?
To what extent are these sources reliable or
valid?
Sejauhmanakah sumber2 ini sahih?
-

What is the analytical differences between


knowing, believing and perceiving?

Apakah perbezaan secara analitikal antara


mengetahui , mempercayai dan membina
persepsi
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

- How do we claim that we know

something and the extent of our


knowledge claim?
Bagaimana kita dapat mengatakan
kita ketahui sesuatu dan sejauhmana
benarnya ?

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Focus of epistemology:

Tumpuan epistemologi:

- Analysis of concept of knowledge


- Analisis konsep ilmu pengetahuan
- Justification of any knowledge claim source, structure
and category
- Justifikasi sesuatu diterima sebagai ilmu pengetahuansumber, struktur dan kategori
- Truth and validity of knowledge
- Kebenaran dan keesahan ilmu pengetahuan
- Conditions /criteria of knowledge
- Syarat /kiriteria ilmu pengetahuan
- Process of knowing, believing any claim one makes
pertaining to knowledge
- Proses mengetahui, mempercayai sesuatu dakwaan
berkaitan dengan ilmu pengetahuan
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

- Knowledge deliverance or pedagogy

- Proses penyampaian ilmu pengetahuan atau


pedagogi
- JUSTIFICATION of any knowledge claim.
- Justifikasi sesuatu yang diterima sebagai ilmu
pengetahuan.
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE:
Kneller (1971) :
1. Revealed knowledge. (ilmu wahyu)
2. Intuitive knowledge -Knowing, or perceiving, by
intuition; capable of knowing without deduction or
reasoning. (Ilmu intuisi mengetahui atau
berpesepsi melalui intuisi; mengetahui tanpa
deduksi atu menggunakan penaakulan).
3. Rational (logical) knowledge. (Ilmu pengetahuan
rasional/logikal)
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Knowledge derived from an authority or expert


Ilmu pengahuan dari pakar atau individu yang berautoriti.
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE:
Kneller (1971) :

1. Revealed knowledge.
2. Intuitive knowledge -Knowing, or perceiving, by intuition;

capable of knowing without deduction or reasoning.


3. Rational (logical) knowledge.
4. Knowledge derived from an authority or expert
Classification of Knowledge:
Scientific knowledge
- physical/pure sciences (biology, chemistry,
physics)
- social sciences ( sociology, economy, politic,
history,
anthropology)
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Philip Phenix (1964) in his book Realms of


Meaning: A Philosophy of the Curriculum for
General Education

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Symbolic (mathemathic, language)


Empiric (science)
Aesthetics( fine arts)
Ethics (moral)
Synoptic ( history, religious study,
pphilosophy)
Synnoetics ( philosophy, psychology,
literature, existential religion)

6.

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Revealed knowledge
- Knowledge derived from revelation and not human
thinking; in Islam truth of knowledge is absolute
(haqq); knowledge which contradicts the haqq is
known as bathil.

Differences of opinion between knowledge of


revelation and knowledge of human reason with
regards to truth claim
Non-Revealed knowledge
- Derived from human thinking involving the following
processes:
- perception
- interpretation
- pure reasoning (rationalistic)
- reflection and intuition
(Interaction of the mind and observed phenomena)
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Non-revealed knowledge differs from revealed


knowledge in terms of:
- sources
- interpretation
- meaning of absoluteness and truth
Difference in knowledge results in different views of
knowledge in philosophy and philosophy of
education:
-Rationalist

(Mathematicians, logicians, formal


language and ordinary language analysis; skeptics)
- Empiricist (scientists, naturalists, pragmatists)

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Rationalist
truth of knowledge derived from method pure
reasoning
total reliance on the mind or cognitive element;
total
exclusion of the affective element
(Bertrand Russell,
Gilbert Ryle, Israel Scheffler ).
(Eg. Plato belief in mathematics as knowledge of
the
highest truth due to its a priori naturetruth not dependent on empirical proof but purely
deduction
process).

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Empiricist

Knowledge of the pure and social sciences

empirical in nature; knowledge of the observed


phenomena and verified through sense experience,
experimentation and facts/data (history, science)

Facts of pure science accepted as laws and

theories; arise from hypotheses; constant in nature

Facts of history is contingent in nature truth is not


absolute as it depends on possible truth that may
arise in future
Truth of facts of science and history are a
posteriori in nature as conclusions are derived
AFTER an evidence is provided (contrast to
mathematical truth).
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Truths of empirical knowledge obtained via


inductive process (truth concluded from
observed sample or case studied and
generalized to a larger population).

Pragmatist
Basic principle of knowledge rooted in
Empiricism; belief in knowledge of science as a
functional knowledge ( to be used in everyday
living eg Life Skills, technology)

Very little emphasis on knowledge of the

metaphysics (moral, spiritual and religious).

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

KNOWLEDGE AND THE CURRICULUM


- Teachers to have understanding of nature and structure of knowledge to
determine the pedagogy used.
- Each knowledge discipline has its own structure and criterion of truth and
proof.
- In the KBSM (KSSM) integrated knowledge has inter and intra perspectives
- Teachers need to have understanding of the following elements in knowledge:
- facts vs concepts
- theory vs law
- value vs principle
- conclusion derived from observed phenomena (facts/data) or mathematical
deduction or linguistic analysis OR a combination of both

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

KNOWLEDGE AND THE CURRICULUM

The importance of integrating knowledge of the


revealed and non-revealed in the curriculum
(KBSM/KSSM)

Categories of knowledge and the delivery

processes:
- knowing that (propositional knowledge)
- knowing how (procedural knowledge)
- knowing and believing are the meanings
the
same?

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Concept
Its importance in the teaching and learning process
conceptualization leads to understanding of mental
schemes, principles and logically-derived conclusion.

Concept classifies things having similar attributes


into a category of its own

Concept- derived from mental experience, process


of abstraction; focus on the cognition.

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

FACTS
- Statements of truth value (TRUE or NOT TRUE) based on
observation using the sense experience on
- Facts of pure or physical sciences known as sense datum
used in scientific investigation to prove a certain theory or
principle in science.
Value

- dominant in the social science disciplines


(literature,
history, moral, aesthetics)
- emphasis on the affective element; subjective in
nature
Laws
- having explanatory power based on principle,
hypothesis, concrete facts (Ohms Law and law of Gravity).
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

AXIOLOGY (VALUE THEORY)


Realm of values
Ethical/moral

right and wrong of conduct


theories of ethics/morality
virtuous vs vices
rules governing human conduct
moral vs immoral
Aesthetics
values with regards to things of beauty
as in
arts and literature
non-moral values (appreciation of
objects of
artistic in nature)
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

AXIOLOGY AND EDUCATION


To educate and to train or to indoctrinate differ from the
value perspective.

To educate or education is different from training as the former


is value-laden

Ethics an important aspect of education (Teachers Code of

Ethics, inculcation of values across the curriculum in the KBSM;


change in the use of training to education

The importance of values to be transmitted in all subjects taught


in schools and higher institutions

National Philosophy of Education, Moral Education and

Philosophy of Teacher Education- spells the importance of values

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Aim of teaching not only to impart

knowledge but towards formation of


character (well-balanced in line with
aim of the National Philosophy of
Education (NPE).

School environment conducive and


aesthetically pleasant

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Metaphysics and Education

Education as a discipline that examines and


discusses the concept of individuals to be
educated from the following aspects:

meaning of aim or goal in education


the ultimate destiny of mans life to be
reached through process of education
connecting educational principles with
the
universe and the creator (God) to evoke
a feeling of brotherhood and solidarity
- as creations of god as highlighted in the
National Philosophy of Education
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

LOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL TERMS


Analysis of terms used in education such as

discipline, punishment, training, educating,


indoctrinating

Inductive logic used in researches on education using


quantitative methods

Deducitve logic- reasoning and seeking underlying


rationale and philosophical assumption for every
educational practice and its justification

Logic as a method of detecting a flawed or fallacious


(with fallacies) argument in education
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Philosophy of education
Conceptual discipline
Main function is to analyse terms used in

education to justify views, policies and


aims and goals of education
Critically various philosophical ideas on on
education
Provides the guideline to accomplish aim
and vision in education based on the
principles of metaphysics, epistemology
and axiology.
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
Ismail

Philosophical Issues in Education


Philosophy is first and foremost the underlying
principle for any educational policies to be
implemented.

Issues:
What is the goal/aim of any system of
education?
What is my belief as a teacher?
Is my belief system congruent to with
practice?
What is my philosophical assumption of the
individual I am teaching?
(Issues to be addressed in a holistic or
synoptic manner and grounded on universal
Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah
values).
Ismail

afizik & Pendidikan

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN
Matlamat pendidkan Mengapa
seseorang perlu dididik?
Kandungan pendidikan Apakah menjadi bahan/kandungan
Ilmu dalam pendidikan?
Proses Pendidikan Bagaimanakah guru mendidik?
Persekitaran (milieu) pendidikan persekitaran, suasana pendidikan
(autokratik, laissez faire, demokratik)
Guru-Murid/Pelajar Siapa yang terlibat dalam pendidikan?

Epistemologi & Pendidkikan

Aksiologi & Pendidikan

Copyright (C) 2004 Dr. Habsah


Ismail

Logik & Pendidikan