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# CHAPTER 2

VECTOR-VALUED FUNCTION
BUM2123
APPLIED CALCULUS
Prepared by :MISS RAHIMAH
JUSOH @ AWANG

rahimahj@ump.edu.my

## 2.1 VECTOR FUNCTIONS

SPACE CURVES
A line or curve equation in 3 - D can be expressed as a
position vector

r xi yj zk
x f (t )

y g (t )

## in the parametric equation :

z h(t )

r (t) f (t )i g (t ) j h(t )k
r (t) f (t ), g (t ), h(t )

Example 1

DOMAIN

## Determine the domain of the fo11owing function

r t cos t ,1n 4 t , t 1
So1ution:
The first component is defined for a11 t's.
The second component is on1y defined for t 4.
The third component is on1y defined for t 1.
Putting a11 of these together gives the fo11owing domain.

1, 4
This is the 1argest possib1e interva1 for which a11 three
components are defined.

Example 2

## (a) What is the line equation of a straight line that

passes the points (1,2,2) and (2,3,-1)? Then sketch
the line.
(b) Sketch the graph of r (t ) ti 3 j (4 t 2 )k

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Solution :

## (a) Suppose that when t 0 , ( x0 , y0, z0 ) (1,2,2)

and when t 1 , ( x1,y1 , z1 ) (2,3,-1) . Then
P ( P1 P0 )t P0

Hence, x (2 1)t 1 t 1
y (3 2)t 2 t 2
z (1 2)t 2 3t 2
r (t ) (t 1)i (t 2) j (3t 2)k

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## Thus, the line:

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Solution :

## (b) Parametric equations of the curve are

x t , y 3, z 4 t 2
Thus, we find that
y 3, z 4 x 2
which is, the graph is the parabola z 4 x on the
2

plane y 3

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Example 3

(a)

r (t ) t ,1

## (b) r (t ) 6 cos t ,3 sin t

Solution :
(a) The first thing that we need to do is plug in a few values

## of t and get some position vectors. Here are a few,

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## The sketch of the curve is given as follows (red line).

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Solution :

(b)
As in Question (a), we plug in some values of t.

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## The sketch of the curve is given as follows (red line).

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Example 4

## Sketch the graph of each of the following function

r (t ) a cos ti a sin tj ctk

CIRCULAR HELIX

THEOREM
2.1

## Vector functions inherit the operational properties of vectors.

Thus we have the following theorem.
Suppose F and G are fucntions of t and is a scalar function of t.
Then
(F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )

(F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )
Results are vector functions
(F)(t ) (t )F(t )
(F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )
(F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )

## Result is a scalar functions

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Example 4
For the vector functions F and G defined by F (t ) t 2 i tj sin tk
1
and G (t ) ti j 5k , find
t
(i) (F G )(t )
(ii) (et F )(t )
(iii) (F G )(t )
(iv) (F G )(t )

Solution :
(i) (F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )
1
(t i tj sin tk ) ti j 5k
t
1
2
(t t )i (t ) j (5 sin t )k
t
2

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Solution :
(ii) (e t F)(t ) e t F (t )

## (t 2 e t )i (te t ) j (et sin t )k

(iii) (F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )
1
(t i tj sin tk ) (ti j 5k )
t
2

j k

t 2 t sin t
1
t
5
t
sin t
(5t
)i (5t 2 t sin t ) j (t t 2 )k
t
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Solution :

(iv) (F G )(t ) F (t ) G (t )
1
(t i tj sin tk ) (ti j 5k )
t
3
t 1 5 sin t
2

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## 2.2 DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS

OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS
Example 5

## Find F(t ), and F(t ), if

F (t ) (3t 2 4)i (2t-5) j 4t 3k
Solution :

## F(t ) 6ti 2 j 12t 2k

F(t ) 6i 24tk

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THEOREM
2.2

## Theorem 4.3 : If F and G are differentiable vector function and

c is a scalar , then
d
dF
(i)
(cF ) c
dt
dt
d
dF dG
(ii)
(F G )

dt
dt
dt
d
dG dF
(iii) (F G ) F

G
dt
dt
dt
d
dG dF
(iv)
(F G ) F

G
dt
dt
dt
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Example 6

## If F (t ) 5t 2 i tj t 3k , G (t ) sin ti cos tj, find

d
(i) (F G ),
dt

d
(ii) (F G ),
dt

d
(iii) (F F )
dt

Solution :
d
dG dF
(i)
(F G ) F

G
dt
dt
dt
(5t 2 i tj t 3k ) (cos ti sin tj)
(10ti j 3t 2k ) (sin ti cos tj)
(5t 2 1) cos t 11t sin t
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Solution :

d
dG dF
(ii)
(F G ) F

G
dt
dt
dt
i
j k
i
j k
5t 2 t t 3 10t 1 3t 2
cos t sin t 0
sin t cos t 0
(t 3 sin t 3t 2 cos t)i - (t 3 cos t 3t 2 sin t) j
(5t 2 sin t sin t 11t cos t )k
d
dF
(iii)
(F F ) 2F
dt
dt
100t 3 2t 6t 5
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INTEGRATION OF VECTOR
FUNCTIONS

## Integration of vector functions is also done componentwise.

If F (t ) f (t )i g (t ) j h(t )k from some integrable functions
f , g , and h of t on [a, b], then

## F(t )dt ( f (t )dt )i ( g (t )dt ) j ( h(t )dt )k

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Example 7

Find F (t )dt if
1

F (t ) (3t 2 4t )i (2t 5) j 4t 3k
Solution :
3

1

## 4t )dt i (2t 5)dt j

1
1

[(t 3 2t 2 )i (t 2 5t ) j t 4k ]13

42i - 2 j 80k
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4t dt k
3

## 2.3 ARC LENGTH AND

CURVATURE

In general,

L
a

In 2-space

dr
dt

or L r ' (t )
a

L
a

In 3-space

L
a

dx
dy

dt
dt

dx
dy
dz

dt
dt
dt

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## Notes: Smooth Curve

The graph of the vector function defined by
r(t) is smooth on any interval of t where r is
continuous and r t 0 .
The graph is piecewise smooth on an interval
that can be subdivided into a finite number of
subintervals on which r is smooth.

Example 8
Find the arc length of the parametric curve
(a ) x cos t ,

y sin t ,

(b) x et ,

y et ,

3
z 2 ;0 t
4

z 2t ;0 t 1

3
Ans : L
4
Ans : L e e 1

Example 9
Find the arc length of the graph of r(t)
1
3
(a ) r (t ) t i tj
6t 2k ;2 t 4
2
(b) r (t ) 3 cos ti 3 sin tj 2tk ;0 t 2

Ans : L 58

Ans : L 2 13
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## UNIT TANGENT AND PRINCIPAL

UNIT NORMAL VECTORS

## UNIT TANGENT VECTOR

If r(t) is a vector function that defines a smooth graph,
then at each point a unit tangent vector is

r t
T t
r t
Example 10

## a) Find the derivative of r t 1 t 3 i te t j sin 2tk

b) Find the unit tangent vector at the point where t 0.

## UNIT NORMAL VECTOR

If dT dt 0, we define the principle unit normal
vector to the curve r (t ), denoted by N as

dT dt T' (t )
N

dT dt T' (t )
where T is the unit tangent vector to the curve.

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BINORMAL VECTOR
The binormal vector B of a curve is defined as

B T N
where T and N are the unit tangent vector and the principal unit
vector respectively, to the curve r (t ).

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Example 11

## Find the unit normal and binormal

vectors for the circular helix
r t cos ti sin tj tk

CURVATURE
The curvature of a smooth curve r (t ) is defined as

dT dt
dr dt

T' (t )
r ' (t )

OR

r r
r

## where T is the unit tangent vector to the curve.

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## Curvature is the measure of how sharply a curve r(t) in

2-space or 3-space bends.

Example 12

CURVATURE OF A HELIX
Find the curvature of the helix traced out by

r t 2sin t , 2 cos t , 4t

## If is the curvature of the smooth curve r (t ),

then its radius of curvature is defined as

## 2.4 MOTION IN SPACE :

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
If a particle moves along the curve given by
position vector r(t ), where t is time, then

dr
velocity v (t )
dt
2

dv d r
acceleration a(t )
2
dt dt

ds
speed v(t )
dt
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Example 13

## The position vector of a particle after time t is given by

r (t ) cos ti sin tj t 3
Find the velocity, speed and acceleration of the particle
when t 2.
Solution :
Differentiating w.r.t t , we obtain the velocity

dr
v
(sin t )i (cos t ) j (3t 2 )k
dt
when t 2
v (sin 2)i (cos 2) j 3(2 2 )k
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0.42 j 12k

## (- sin t ) 2 (cos t ) 2 (3t 2 ) 2 1 9t 4

when t 2, 1 9(2) 4 12.04
The acceleration a is given by
dv
a
( cos t )i ( sin t ) j 6tk
dt
when t 2, a ( cos 2)i ( sin 2) j 6(2)k
0.42i 0.9 j 12k
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Example 14

## Velocity v of a particle in motion is given by

v (t ) et i t 2 j cos 2tk
Find the position vector r (t ) of the
particle r (0) 2i j k

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Solution :

Since v dr dt , we have
r (t )

e dt i t dt j cos 2tdt k
t

1 3
sin 2t
(e c1 )i ( t c2 ) j (
c3 )k
3
2
1 3 sin 2t
t
e i t j
k C
3
2
where C c1i c2 j c3k
t

1 3 sin 2(0)
r (0) e i (0) j
k C
3
2
iC
0

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## By using the given value of r (0), we obtain

i C 2i j k
C i jk
Hence we obtain
1 3
sin 2t
t
r (t ) e i t j (
)k i j k
3
2
1 3
sin 2t
t
(e 1)i ( t 1) j (
1)k
3
2
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Example 15

## Find the position vector R(t), given the

velocity V(t) and the initial position R(0) for

V t t i e j t k; R 0 i 4 j k
2

2t

The end =)
All our dreams can come true, if we
have the courage to pursue them

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