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WHY USE BEARINGS?

Bearings are mechanical components that


support, locate, or guide a moving part in
equipment.
The moving part may be a rotor in the case of
rotary equipment or a cross head-piston rod
piston assembly in the case of reciprocating
equipment.
The primary function is to act as intermediate
component between the moving and stationary
parts and reduce friction.

All bearings serve the primary function of


keeping a rotating part from contacting
another part which may be either rotating
at a different speed or stationary.
A bearing must provide stiffness to keep
the rotor in position, and it must do so while
minimizing friction.
Fluid-film bearings do this by providing a
thin layer of lubricating fluid between the
rotor and journal. Rolling element bearings
do this by using a set of balls or rollers that
keep rotor and stator separated.

CLASSIFICATION OF BEARING
{A} BASED ON THE LOAD THE BEARING SUPPORTS :
RADIAL BEARING: Load acts perpendicular to the
centerline of the shaft.
THRUST BEARING: Load acts along the centerline of
the shaft.
LINEAR BEARING: To support the loads in a
reciprocating part
{B} BASED ON LUBRICATION PRINCIPLES:
ANTIFRICTION BEARING
PLAIN BEARING

ANTIFRICTION BEARINGS
CLASSIFICATION
RADIAL TYPE
BALL
Deep groove
Double row deep groove
Self aligning
Angular contact
CYLINDRICAL ROLLER
SPHERICAL ROLLER
TAPER ROLLER

THRUST
Ball
Cylindrical Roller
Spherical Roller

BASIC COMPONENTS OF
ROLLING BEARINGS

PARTS OF AN ANTIFRICTION
BEARING
INNER RACE
OUTER RACE
ROLLING ELEMENT (SPHERICAL BALL,
CYLINDRICAL ROLLER, ETC)
CAGE OR SEPARATOR
SHIELD

THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE CAGE ARE:


Keeps the rolling elements apart to prevent mutual
contact.
Keeps the rolling elements evenly spaced to ensure a
more even load distribution.
Guides the rolling elements in the unload bearing zone.
Prevents the rolling elements from falling out of
separable and slew able bearings, thereby facilitating
bearing mounting.
THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF SHIELD:
It is fixed in the outer race and has close running
clearance with the inner race. It protects the bearing from
contaminating particles by preventing its entry into the
bearing. The shield may be provided in one or both sides
of the bearing.

DEEP GROOVE BALL BEARING

Can take large radial loads


and because of deep groove
can take some thrust load
also. Suitable for high speeds
application

DOUBLE ROW DEEP GROOVE BALL BEARING


There are two rows of
balls and hence the radial
and thrust load capacities
are almost doubled.

SELF-ALIGNING BALL BEARING


The inner side of the outer
race has a spherical face.
Because of this bearing can
take misalignment with the
shaft up to 2o

ANGULAR CONTACT BEARING


They can take radial
loads and large thrust
loads in one direction

CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING


Since the contact
between cylindrical rollers
and races is line contact ,
they have greater radial
load capacity

SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARING

These are generally made as double


row. The inside surface of the outer race
is spherical and also the roller are
spherical. Can take misalignment of the
bearing with the shaft. Have greater
radial load capacity as compared with a
self-aligning ball bearing

NEEDLE BEARING

The cylindrical rollers are large


in length and smaller in
diameter. Advantage of
greatest load carrying capacity
with the additional advantage
of less radial space.

TAPERED ROLLER

The rolling elements have the


shape of truncated cones or
tapered rollers. The outer the inner
race tapered rollers, cage
assembly are separate. They can
take large thrust loads and radial
loads.

THRUST BALL BEARING

Thrust bearing can take thrust


load only. The races are top and
bottom races instead of inner
and outer race. The top race,
bottom race and rolling elements
held in cage are separate

BEARING DESIGNATION

The first digit (or letter) designates the bearing type,


The second digit represents the width (or height) series.
The third digit the diameter series
The two last digits indicate the bore diameter (obtained by
multiplying the two last digits by five)

BEARING TYPE DESIGNATION


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Angular contact bearing, double row


Self-aligning ball bearing
Spherical roller bearing and spherical roller thrust bearings
Taper roller bearing
Deep groove ball bearing, double row
Thrust ball bearing
Deep groove ball bearing, single row
Angular contact ball bearing, single row
Cylindrical roller thrust bearing

SUPPLEMENTARY
DESIGNATION

Prefixes serve to identify designs (variants) which differ in some


way from the original design or which differ from the design, which
is the current production standard.
PREFIXES:
GS Housing washer of a cylindrical roller thrust bearing
K Roller and cage assembly of a cylindrical roller thrust bearing
K- Inner ring with roller and cage assembly (cone) or outer
ring(cup) of a taper roller bearing belonging to an AFBMA standard
series and generally having inch dimension
L
Removable inner or outer ring of a separable bearing
e.g. L 30207-outer ring of taper roller bearing 30207
R Separable bearing without removable inner or outer ring
WS Shaft washer of a cylindrical roller thrust bearing

SUPPLEMENTARY
DESIGNATION

SUFFIXES :
-Z
Shield fitted at one side of bearing.
-2Z
Shield fitted at both side of bearing.
-ZN Z shield at one side of bearing and snap ring groove at the other
-RS Rubber seal of synthetic rubber at one side of bearing
-LS Land riding seal (rubber seal) at one side of the bearing
-N
Snap ring groove in outside cylindrical surface of outer ring
CAGE:
J
Pressed cage of sheet metal
Y Pressed cage of sheet brass
F Machined cage of steel or special cast iron
M Machined cage of brass
P Moulded cage of glass fiber reinforced polyamide 6.6
TN Molded cage of plastic

FACTORS INFLUENCE THE OPERATING


PERFORMANCE OF THE BEARING

LOAD - MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION.


SHAFT SPEED.
BEARING SIZE.
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: TEMPERATURE AND
CONTAMINATION.
LUBRICATION: TYPE AND METHOD.
SEALS: TYPE AND CONDITION.
SHAFT ALIGNMENT.
MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING TECHNIQUE.
SHAFT AND HOUSING FITS

CAUSES OF VIBRATION /NOISE


IN THE BEARING

DAMAGED ROLLING ELEMENT / RACEWAY.


BROKEN CAGE.
PRELOADING.
LUBRICATION STARVATION/ FAILURE.
EXCESSIVE CLEARANCE.
OUT OF ROUNDNESS OF SHAFT /HOUSING.
EXCESSIVE DRIVE UP/ INTERFERENCE FIT.
LOOSE FIT ON THE SHAFT.
LACK OF SQUARENESS OF THE SHOULDER.
PRESENCE OF ABRASIVE PARTICLES.
UNBALANCE.
MISALIGNMENT.
EXTERNAL VIBRATION.
SOFT FOOT
GEAR MESH PROBLEM

CAUSES OF TEMPERATURE
RISE IN THE BEARING

DAMAGED ROLLING ELEMENT /RACEWAY.


BROKEN CAGE.
PRELOADING.
LUBRICATION STARVATION/FAILURE.
EXCESSIVE LUBRICANT.
EXCESSIVE DRIVE UP/ INTERFERANCE FIT.
LUBRICANT CONTAMINATED WITH WATER.
LOOSE FIT ON THE SHAFT.
OUT OF TOLERANCE OF SHAFT / HOUSING.
PRESENCE OF ABRASIVE PARTICLES.
UNBALANCE.
MISALIGNMENT.
BEARING DOESNT HAVE MINIMUM LOAD.
SPEED TOO HIGH.
LOAD TOO HIGH.

STEPS TO BE TAKEN TO INCREASE THE BEARING


LIFE

DON'TS:
Use emery paper on bearing seating on the shafts.
Damage the shaft while dismounting a bearing.
Use mechanical force on rolling elements( balls, rollers) while
mounting/dismounting a bearing.
Use lubricant for replenishment without knowing the grade of lube already in use.
Over lubricate.
Lubricate frequently.
Use dry felt strips for sealing.
Use old seal when the bearing is being replaced.
Deviate from O.E.M. specification without assessment of effect.
Use dirty oil for heating bearings.
Keep bearings at the bottom of the bath while heating.
Use induction heaters which doesn't have demagnetization cycle..

STEPS TO BE TAKEN TO INCREASE THE BEARING


LIFE

DO'S
Introduce condition monitoring and built up asset history.
Carry out seal audit and rectify faulty sealing arrangements.
Carry out lubrication audit and rectify faulty lubrication practices.
Introduce alignment and balancing program.
Introduce root cause failure analysis and corrective action practice.
Introduce proper mounting and dismounting tools and practices.
Train maintenance staff.
Store and handle bearing properly.
Keep lubricant containers closed and protected from contamination.
Bearing maintenance room should be clean and protected from easy
ingress of dirt.