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Basics of Fire Sprinkler

Design
K.S. Buck Collier

K.S. Collier
NICET

Level III Fire Protection


Engineering Technology/Water
Based Systems Layout.
Have worked in industry 28 years.
January 1986 to December 1999
employed by Commonwealth
Sprinkler Company
February 2000 to present
employed by K & E Fire Sprinkler

Elements with Largest


Impact on Sprinkler Design
Water

Supply
Occupancy
Building Construction

Water Supply
Basic Definition- The water that is available
to the building/job site. The design of the
sprinkler system is based on this available
water
Varies from project to project
Can be public or private
Public- Locality provides water flow data

Some perform hydrant flow test


Some provide calculated information

Private- designs will include tank and pump

Water Supply
The

three elements of the water


supply are:
Static Pressure
Residual Pressure
Water Flow

Water Supply
Static

Pressure: The pressure


available with no water flow
Residual Pressure: The pressure
available with a water flow
Flow: The amount of gallons per
minute of the water flow
These three make up the Water Supply Curve

Water Supply Curve

Occupancy
Occupancy Determines Hazard Classification
Light Hazard
(Schools, Office Buildings, Restaurant Seating Areas, Hospitals)

Ordinary Hazard
Group I (Parking deck, restaurant service area, beverage
manufacturing)
Group 2 (Repair garages, mercantile, barns, chemical plants,
piers, wood shop)

Extra Hazard
Group 1 (Aircraft hangers, printing, saw mills,)
Group 2 (Flammable liquid spraying, Manufactured home
assemblies, plastic processing)

Occupancy
The Fire Hazards are based on fuel load
Each Fire Hazard has its own design criteria
Design Criteria are the requirements to which
the sprinkler system design is based

Design Criteria
Water Density
Coverage per Sprinkler
Spacing per Sprinkler
Remote Area

Design Criteria
Water Density= Gallons per minute (GPM)
per sq. ft. covered by the sprinkler
Light hazard= .10 gpm per sq. ft.
Ordinary hazard
Group 1= .15 gpm per sq. ft.
Group 2 =.20 gpm per sq. ft.
Extra Hazard
Group 1 = .30 gpm per sq. ft.
Group 2 = .40 gpm per sq. ft

Design Criteria
Coverage per Sprinkler (max. square
footage)
Light hazard= 225 sq. ft.
Ordinary hazard= 130 sq. ft.
Extra Hazard= 100 sq. ft.

Design Criteria
Spacing for a Standard Sprinkler (max.)
Light hazard= 15-0
Ordinary hazard= 15-0
Extra Hazard= 12-0

Design Critera
Remote Area- The area that must be
proven, by hydraulic calculations, that if all
sprinklers activate, the piping and supply
can provide the required pressure and gpm
Light Hazard- minimum of 1500 sq. ft
Ordinary Hazard- minimum of 1500 sq. ft
Extra Hazard- minimum of 2500 sq. ft.

Hazard Comparisons

Building Construction

Construction of Building Effects Design of


Sprinkler System
Sloped Ceilings
Impact reaction time of sprinklers thus requiring an
increase in remote area size by 30%.
1500 sq ft. +30% (450 sq. ft.) = 1950 sq. ft.

Unconditioned Spaces
Dry System required for unconditioned spaces
Dry Systems impact reaction time of sprinklers thus
requiring and increase in remote area size by 30%.
1500 sq ft. +30% (450 sq. ft.) = 1950 sq. ft.

Building Construction

Example: seasonal restaurant seating area


Heated flat ceiling
1500 sq ft remote area

Unheated flat ceiling


1500 sq ft. +30% (450 sq. ft.) = 1950 sq. ft. remote
area

Unheated sloped ceiling


1500 sq ft. +30% (450 sq. ft.) = 1950 sq. ft. +30%
(585 sq. ft.) = 2535 sq. ft. remote area

ASCET Central Virginia


Chapter
Thank you for allowing me to give this brief
presentation on Basics of Fire Sprinkler
Design

Sincerely,
K.S. Buck Collier
February 5, 2014