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Year 1 - Chapter 4/Cisco 1 - Module 4

Layer 1: Electronics and


Signals
By
Your Name

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Objectives
Understand the basics of electricity
Understand the basics of digital multimeters
Understand the basics of signals and noise in
communications systems
Understand the basics of encoding networking
signals

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Electricity Basics
The basic unit of all matter is an atom.

Nucleus center part of the atom (protons and neutrons)


Protons particles that have positive charge
Neutrons particles that have no charge (neutral)
Electrons particles that have negative charge and orbit
the nucleus

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Electricity Basics
Creating Stable Atoms
Electrons in certain atoms can be pulled free from the atom and
made to flow this is electricity (a free flow of electrons).

Static Electricity
Loosened electrons that stay in one place, without moving and
with a negative charge.
Can create electrostatic discharge, which can create serious
problems for computers.

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Types of Electrical Materials


Insulators
Electrons flow poorly
Plastic, paper, rubber, dry wood, air, and glass

Conductors
Electrons flow well
Copper, silver, gold, solder, water with ions, humans

Semiconductors
Electrons flow can be controlled precisely
Carbon, germontum, gallium arsenide, silicon

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Measuring Electricity
Voltage
Current
Resistance
Alternating Current
Direct Current
Impedance
Voltage, Current, Resistance Relationship
Ground
Analogy for Voltage, Resistance, and Current
Graphing AC and DC Voltage
Constructing a Simple Series Electrical Current
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Current Flow
A 6-volt
flashlight
uses a
simple
circuit.

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Electrical Grounds
Surge
suppressors,
uninterruptible
power
supplies, and
wall outlets all
connect to a
transformer
and to the earth
ground.

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Half Duplex Ethernet

Ethernet physical connector provides


several circuits.
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Measuring Devices

Safe handling and use of the multimeter


Using a multimeter to make resistance measurements
Using a multimeter to make voltage measurements

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Analog Signals

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Digital Signals

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Using Analog Signals to Build


Digital Signals

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One Bit on a Physical Medium

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Signaling and
Communications Problems
Network Signal Propagation
Network Attenuation
Network Reflection
Noise
Shielding
Cancellation
Dispersion, Jitter, and Latency
Collision
Messages in Terms of Bits
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Network Signal Propagation

Propagation delay (half the round-trip time) for a


bit traveling from Host A to Host B

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Network Attenuation

Loss of signal strength over distance

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Network Reflection Noise

Caused by discontinuities in the medium (that


is, kinks in a cable or poorly terminated cables)

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Noise

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Noise
Next
When two wires are near each other and untwisted, energy from
one wire can wind up in an adjacent wire.
NEXT-A Near End Crosstalk at computer A.
NEXT-B Near End Crosstalk at computer B.

Thermal Noise
Due to random motion of electrons unavoidable

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Noise
Impulse/Reference Ground Noise
AC power line noise all around us
Further compounded due to poor ground connection.

EMI and RFI


External sources of electrical impulses
Electromagnetic interference
Radio frequency interference

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Electrical Noise

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Flow of Current
Electrical
current in a
wire induces
a magnetic
field around
the wire.

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Collision
Occurs when 2
bits from 2
different
communicating
computers are
on a shared
medium at the
same time.

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Messages in Terms of Bits

Bits string
together to
form bytes,
and bytes
link together
to form
frames.

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Encoding Networking Signals

Encoding
TTL Encoding
Manchester Encoding
Modulation

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Encoding Networking Signals

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Encoding Signals as Voltage

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Types of Modulation
Three
ways to
encode
binary
data into
a carrier
wave

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