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Katrice L. Herndon, MD
Internal Medicine/Pediatrics
June 2, 2005

What is this?

Acne Vulgaris
Acne is a self-limited disorder primarily of
teenagers & young adults.
Acne is a disease of pilosebaceous follicles.
4 factors are involved:
Retention hyperkeratosis
Increased Sebum production
Propionbacterium acnes within the follicle

Acne Vulgaris
External Factors that contribute to Acne

Oils, greases, dyes in hair products

Detergents, soaps, astringents
Occlusive clothing: turtlenecks, bra straps
Environmental Factors: Humidity & Heavy
Psychological stress
Diet is controversial

Acne Vulgaris
Acne vulgaris typically affects those areas of the body that have the
greatest number of sebaceous glands:

the face, neck, chest, upper back, and upper arms.

In addition to the typical lesions of acne vulgaris, scarring and

hyperpigmentation can also occur.

Hyperpigmentation is most common in patients with dark complexions

Acne Vulgaris
Classification of Acne
Type 1 Mainly comedones with an occasional small inflamed
papule or pustule; no scarring present

Type 2 Comedones and more numerous papules and pustules

(mainly facial); mild scarring
Type 3 Numerous comedones, papules, and pustules, spreading to
the back, chest, and shoulders, with an occasional cyst or nodule;
moderate scarring
Type 4 Numerous large cysts on the face, neck, and upper trunk;
severe scarring

Acne Vulgaris

What is this?

Acne Rosacea
Rosacea is an acneiform disorder of middle-aged and
older adults.

Characterized by vascular dilation of the central face,

including the nose, cheek, eyelids, and forehead.

The cause of vascular dilatation in rosacea is unknown.

The disease is chronic.

Acne Rosacea
rosacea is a chronic disorder characterized by periods
of exacerbation and remission.

Increased susceptibility to recurrent flushing

reactions that may be provoked by a variety of

stimuli including hot or spicy foods, drinking alcohol,
temperature extremes, and emotional reactions.

The earliest stage of rosacea is characterized by facial

erythema and telangiectasias.

Acne Rosacea
Patients with rosacea may develop severe

sebaceous gland growth that is accompanied by

papules, pustules, cysts, and nodules.

The diagnosis of rosacea is based upon clinical

findings(1 or more of the following):

Flushing (transient erythema)

Non-transient erythema
Papules and pustules

Acne Rosacea
Topical antibiotics or benzoyl peroxide are the
initial treatments of choice.

Tretinoin cream is used in patients with papular or

pustular lesions that are unresponsive to other

The chronicity of rosacea requires that medical

therapy be continued long-term, not just for flareups of the condition.

What is This?

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis refers to any dermatitis
arising from direct skin exposure to a
substance. It can be allergic or irritantinduced.

An allergen induces an immune response,

while an irritant directly damages the skin.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

The most common sensitizer in North America is the plant

oleoresin urushiol found in poison ivy, poison oak, and poison


Other common sensitizers in the US:

nickel (jewelry)
formaldehyde (clothing, nail polish),
fragrances (perfume, cosmetics),
preservatives (topical medications, cosmetics),
chemicals in shoes (both leather and synthetic)

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Avoidance of exposure to the offending

Use of corticosteroids topical or oral in the acute

phase of the reaction maybe helpful.

Cooling of the skin by using calamine lotion or

aluminum acetate

What is this?

Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disorder
typically characterized by erythematous
papules and plaques with a silver scale.

Most of the clinical features of psoriasis

develop as a secondary response triggered
by T-lymphocytes in the skin.

Several clinical types of psoriasis have been described:
Plaque psoriasis - symmetrically distributed plaques

involving the scalp, extensor elbows, knees, and back.

Guttate psoriasis - abrupt appearance of multiple small

psoriatic lesions.

Pustular psoriasis - most severe form of psoriasis.

Characterized by erythema, scaling, and sheets of
superficial pustules with erosions.

Inverse psoriasis - refers to a presentation involving the

intertriginous areas.


Nail psoriasis -the typical nail abnormality in

psoriasis is pitting w/ color changes & crumbling of
the nail.


Most patients w/ psoriasis tend to have the disease
for life.

There is variability in the severity of the disease

overtime w/ complete remission in 25% of cases.

The diagnosis of psoriasis is made by physical

examination and in some cases skin biopsy.

Treatment modalities are chosen on the basis of
disease severity.
Topical emmollients, topical Steroids, tar
Calcipotriene(Dovonex) affects the growth and

differentiation of keratinocytes via its action at the level of

vitamin D receptors in the epidermis.

Tazarotene, is a topical retinoid, systemic retinoids

Methotrexate, cyclosporine
Immunmodulator therapy (embrel, remicade)
Ultraviolet light.

What is this?

Vitiligo is an acquired skin depigmentation that affects all races
but is far more disfiguring in blacks.

The precise cause of vitiligo is unknown Genetic factors appear

to play a role.

20-30 percent of patients may have a family history of the


The pathogenesis is thought to involve an autoimmune process

directed against melanocytes.

Peaks in the second and third decades.
The depigmentation has a predilection for acral areas

and around body orifices (eg, mouth, eyes, nose, anus).

The course usually is slowly progressive.

The diagnosis of vitiligo is based upon the clinical
presence of depigmented patches of skin

Repigmentation therapies include:
calcineurin inhibitors
Ultraviolet light

Pseudocatalase cream
Surgery minigrafting techiniques
Depigmentation therapy w/ hydroquinone

What is this?

Pityriasis Rosea
Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limited, exanthematous
skin disease characterized by the appearance of
slightly inflammatory, oval, papulosquamous lesions
on the trunk & proximal areas of the extremities.

The eruption commonly begins with a "herald" or

"mother" patch, a single round or oval, rather sharply

delimited pink or salmon-colored lesion on the chest,
neck, or back.

2 to 5 cm in diameter.

Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis Rosea
A few days later lesions similar in appearance to the herald
patch, appear in crops on the trunk & proximal areas of the

The eruption spreads centrifugally or from the top down in

just a few days.

The long axes of these oval lesions tend to be oriented along

the lines of cleavage of the skin, like a christmas tree pattern.

Then the lesions fade without any residual scarring.

Pityriasis Rosea
The presence of a herald patch by history or on

The characteristic morphology and distribution of

the lesions.

The absence of symptoms other than pruritus

combine to make PR an easy diagnosis in most


Pityriasis Rosea
Differential Dx include: Psoriasis, secondary syphilis,
tinea corporis, Lyme disease, & drug eruptions.

Treatment is usually reasurrance.

Topical Steroids
Antipruitic lotions (prax, pramagel)
Erthyromycin in severe cases
Rash usually persists for 2-3 months

What is this?

Cellulitis is an infection of the skin with
some extension into the subcutaneous

An extremity is the most common location

but any area of the body can be involved.

Five factors were identified as independent
risk factors:
Site of entry (leg ulcer, toe web intertriginous,
and traumatic wound)

Venous insufficiency
Leg edema
Being overweight

Cellulitis is a recognizable clinical syndrome with
both local & systemic features.

Systemic symptoms include:

Fever and chills
Increased WBC count

Local findings typical of cellulitis:

Macular erythema that is largely confluent

Generalized swelling of the involved area
Warmth to the touch of the involved skin
Tenderness in the affected area
Tender regional lymphadenopathy is common
Lymphangitis may be present
Abscess formation also may be present

Cellulitis in the majority of patients is

caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci

groups A, B, C, G, and Staphylococcus

Other less common pathogens include

H.flu, P.aeruginosa, Aermonas hydrophilia,

Pasturella multocida.

Diagnosis is clinical
Treatment: Anti-strep/Anti- staph

Fluoroquinolones (3rd & 4th generations)
Macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin)

Duration of treatment is usually 10-14 days

What is this?

Erysipelas is a characteristic form of cellulitis that

affects the superficial epidermis, producing marked


Bacterial Organisms:

Beta-hemolytic streptococci group A

Group C & G less commonly
Staph. Aureus
Streptococcus pneumoniae, enterococci, gram negative

The erysipelas skin lesion has a raised border which is
sharply demarcated from normal skin.

This is its most unique feature and allows it to be

distinguished from other types of cellulitis.

The demarcation is sometimes seen at bony


The affected skin is painful, edematous, intensely

erythematous, and indurated (peau d'orange appearance).

The face historically was the most common area
of involvement.

Erysipelas is diagnosed clinically

It can mimic other skin conditions:
Herpes zoster (5th cranial nerve)
Contact Dermatitis


Penicillin is the preferred treatment


Erysipelas does have the propensity of


What is this?

Ecthyma is an ulcerative pyoderma of the skin caused
by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

Because ecthyma extends into the dermis, it is often

referred to as a deeper form of impetigo.

Preexisting tissue damage (excoriations, insect bites,

dermatitis) & immunocompromised states ( diabetes,

neutropenia) predispose patients to the development
of ecthyma.

Ecthyma begins as a vesicle or pustule overlying an inflamed area
of skin that deepens into a dermal ulceration with overlying crust.
A shallow, punched-out ulceration is apparent when adherent
crust is removed.

The deep dermal ulcer has a raised and indurated surrounding


Ecthyma lesions can remain fixed in size or can progressively

enlarge to 0.5-3 cm in diameter.

Ecthyma heals slowly and commonly produces a scar.

Regional lymphadenopathy is common.

Topical mupirocin ointment
Gentle surgical debridement
Oral/IV antibiotics

What is this?

Tinea Vesicolor
Tinea versicolor is a common superficial
infection caused by the organism
Pityrosporum orbiculare.

Which is a saprophytic yeast that is part of

the normal skin flora.

Tinea Vesicolor
Lesions can be hypopigmented, light brown, or salmon
colored macules.

A fine scale is often apparent, especially after


Individual lesions are typically small, but frequently


Lesions are limited to the outermost layers of the skin.

Tinea Vesicolor
Most commonly found on the upper trunk &
extremities, & less often on the face and
intertriginous areas.

While most patients are asymptomatic, some

complain of mild pruritus

The diagnosis of tinea versicolor is confirmed by

direct microscopic examination of scale with 10 %

potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Tinea Vesicolor
The differential diagnosis includes seborrhea,
eczema, pityriasis rosea, and secondary syphilis.

Treatment includes topical antifungals. Oral

antifungals can be used for more extensive
disease: Ketocanozole 400mg x 1 dose.
Fluconazole and itraconazole are also effective.

What is this?

Cutaneous Warts
Cutaneous warts AKA verrucae are caused by HPV
which infects the epithelium of skin and mucus

Cutaneous warts occur most commonly in children and

young adults.

Also more common among certain occupations such as

handlers of meat, poultry, and fish.

Predisposing conditions include atopic dermatitis & any

condition in which there is decreased cell-mediated

Cutaneous Warts
Infection with HPV occurs by skin-to-skin contact
Incubation period following exposure in 2-6 months.
Warts can have several different forms based upon
location & morphology (flat, mosaic, and filiform

Lesions may occur singly, in groups, or as coalescing

lesions forming plaques.

Cutaneous Warts
The diagnosis of verrucae is based upon clinical

Scrape off any hyperkeratotic debris & reveal

thrombosed capillaries (seeds).

The wart also will obscure normal skin markings

Cutaneous Warts
Differential Diagnosis:
Lichen Planus
Seborrheic Keratosis
Acrochordon or skin tag
Clavus or corn
Spontaneous regression in 2/3 over 2yrs
Salicylic acid, liquid nitrogen, cantharidin
Cyrotherapy, curettage, laser therapy
Immunotherapy, intralesional injections

What is this?

Secondary Syphilis
Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by the
bacterium Treponema pallidum which is
sexually transmitted.

Syphilis occurs in 3 stages:

1st stage is characterized by the classic chancre,
which is a 1-2cm ulcer with raised indurated
borders, usually painless and occurs at site of
innoculation. Heals spontaneously.

Secondary Syphilis

Secondary Syphilis
Secondary or systemic syphilis is characterized by a rash.
The rash is classically a symmetric papular eruption involving
the entire trunk & extremities including the palms and soles.

Systemic symptoms include fever, headache, malaise, anorexia,

sore throat, myalgias, & weight loss.

Lymphadenopathy (inquinal, axillary)

So-called "moth-eaten" alopecia
Condyloma lata, grayish white lesions involving the mucus

Secondary Syphilis

Secondary Syphilis
Diagnosis at this stage is usually by serologic testing
but darkfield microscopy can also be done for direct
visualization of spirochete.

Non-treponemal testing:
Veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL)
Rapid plasma reagent (RPR)

Treponemal testing:
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test
Microhemagglutination test for antibodies

Seconday Syphilis
T.Pallidum remains very sensitive to PCN.

Long-acting benzathine penicillin G should be used.

If documented chancre or a NR serologic testing was done in
the past 1 yr, one IM dose is appropriate.

If neither of the above applies this needs to treated as latent

syphilis and 3 q week doses must be given.

Doxycycline, erythromycin or zithromycin in pen allergic

patients x 14 days.

What is this?

Herpes Zoster
Reactivation of endogenous latent VZV infection within

the sensory ganglia results in herpes zoster or "shingles",

a syndrome characterized by a painful, unilateral vesicular
eruption in a restricted dermatomal distribution.

How the virus emerges from latency is not clearly


Patients frequently experience a prodrome of fever, pain,

malaise and headache which precedes the vesicular
dermatomal eruption by several days.

Herpes Zoster
The rash initially appears along the dermatome as grouped

vesicles or bullae which evolve into pustular or

occasionally hemorrhagic lesions within three to four days.

The thoracic and lumbar dermatomes are the most

commonly involved sites of herpes zoster.

The complications of herpes zoster include ocular,

neurologic, bacterial superinfection of the skin and

postherpetic neuralgia

Herpes Zoster

Antivirals w/ corticosteroids
Analgesics: opioids/acetominophen

What is this?

Actinic Keratosis
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant

lesions that develop only on sun-damaged


AKs appear as patches of hyperkeratosis

with some surrounding erythema on sunexposed areas of the head and neck,
forearms and hands, and upper back.

Actinic Keratosis

Actinic Keratosis
The differential diagnosis of AKs includes

seborrheic keratoses, verruca vulgaris, SCC, and

superficial BCC.
The treatment of AKs begins with prevention.
Avoiding sun exposure
sunscreens reduce the development of AKs,
Active treatment of AKs depends upon the size of the
lesion and the number of lesions present.
Liquid Nitrogen

Surgical curettage
Chemotherapy (5-FU, diclofenac, imiquimod)
Photodynamic therapy

Which one is which?

Basal Cell Carcinomas begins as small

shiny nodules and grows slowly. It is the

most common form of skin cancer.

Frequently, the central portion breaks down

to form an ulcer with a reddish-purple scab.

These tumors usually remain fairly
localized and rarely spread elsewhere.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma is another common form of

skin cancer. When these tumors first appear they are firm
to the touch. They appear most often on sun-exposed areas
of your body.

Squamous cell carcinoma evolves very slowly through a

premalignant stage known as a solar or actinic keratosis.

Untreated, significant numbers of these lesions can

metastasize to distant sites. Tumors on the lower lip and

ears are at higher risk to spread.

Malignant Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer.

They arise from either pre-existing moles or normal skin.
Malignant melanoma, like basal and squamous carcinomas, is
linked to overexposure to the sun.

But it can appear any place on your body.

When detected early & with proper treatment, the recovery rate
from this form of skin cancer can be very high.

Harrisons 15th Edition. Principles of Internal

Up to Date
Dermatology Pearls Adult and Pediatric

Thank You