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The Human Person

What
What is
is man
man that
that you
you
should
should be
be mindful
mindful of
of him,
him,
or
or the
the son
son of
of man
man that
that you
you
should
should care
care for
for him?
him? You
You
have
have made
made him
him little
little less
less
than
than the
the angels,
angels, and
and
crowned
crowned him
him with
with glory
glory
and
and honor.
honor. You
You have
have given
given
him
him rule
rule over
over the
the works
works of
of
your
your hands,
hands, putting
putting all
all
things
things under
under his
his feet.
feet.
-Ps.
-Ps. 8:5-78:5-7-

Sacra Scriptura
Et Liturgia
PLATO
ARISTOTELES
Plotinus

Macrobius
Apuleila

Augustinus
Porphyrius

Boethius

PS. Dionysius
Proclus

Avicenna

De Causis

THOMAS AQUINAS

Averroes

3 Applications: NATURA

1st

Cosmic (Reality)

rd
Divine (God)

nd
Human (Man)

Cosmic: Order of Nature

Commonly what we see around us.

A. Composition:
1. Visible realities (v.c.)
2. Invisible realities (iv.c.)

B. Characteristics:
1. Existence of Order with graded perfections
2. Distinctions within order.
3. Coordination of distinctions within
(harmony) and towards immediate ends and
ultimate end (finality).

Cosmic:

HIERARCHY OF BEINGS
COMPREHENSION

iv
iv GOD
GOD

being
being

iv
iv ANGELS
ANGELS

living
living

being
being

being
being

intelligent
intelligent

living
living

vv

MAN
MAN

vv

BRUTES
BRUTES

being
being

bodily
bodily

living
living

veget
veget

vv

PLANTS
PLANTS

being
being

bodily
bodily

living
living

veget
veget

vv

Minerals
Minerals

being
being

bodily
bodily

BEING
BEING

bodily
bodily

living
living

intelligent
intelligent

LIFE
LIFE

veget
veget

sensit
sensit

intelligent
intelligent

sensit
sensit

INTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE

Cosmic: Conclusions
Vegetative

A.f

Sensitive

Ma

A.f

God

e
tt

A
A nn gg ee ll

Cosmic: Conclusions

A.f
GOD
GOD

Angels
Angels

P.
P. Spt.
Spt.

P.
P. Spt.
Spt.

SOUL
SOUL
BODY
BODY

Human:
Therefore, the second application of
nature is: What is nature as human? or
What is the nature of man?
H.N. is not of GOD
x of angels
x of beasts
x of plants
x of minerals

YES precisely of
being a corporeal
rational being.

Man, therefore, belongs to the human species.

3 Approaches in Study of

Human Nature:

A. By Essential Physical Definition


B. By Essential Logical Definition
C. By Supposital Definition

Human: Essential - Physical


Man = Body + Soul
B

IN
W
T
O
E
I
LSOUL
L
L
L
E D
C
T

Human: Essential - Physical


Being
Being

The Tree of Porphery

Substance
Substance
Material

Non-material

SPIRIT

Non-living

MINERAL

Non-sensitive

PLANT

Irrational

BRUTE

Body
Body
Living
Organism
Organism
Sensitive
Animal
Animal
Rational
MAN
MAN

Human:

a. Essential-Logical
Man = Rational + Animal
Species + Genus
Specific Difference

Human:
b. by Essential - Logical
(by way of two properties of idea)
a. Comprehension
b. Extension

uman: b. by Essential - Logical


by way of two properties of idea)
. Comprehension

M
A
N

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E

S
M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L

M
L
V
S

LL
II

V
V

E
E

II

G
G

N
N

E
E

S
S
E
E
N
N
S
S
II

rational
rational

uman: b. by Essential - Logical


by way of two properties of idea)
. Extension
Comprehension
substance

Extension
spirits, minerals, plants, brutes, men

material substance

minerals, plants, brutes, men

vegetative, living, material substance

plants, brutes, men

sentient, vegetative, living, material substance


rational, sentient, vegetative, living, material substance

brutes, men
men

Human:
Supposital Definition

Man = Supposit, i.e., a complete


individual substance of a rational
nature.
3 Attributes:

Individuality
Substantiality, i.e., subsistence
Rationality

QUESTION:
What makes man the noblest
among visible creatures?

NOBILITY
Intelligence

To know

To will

Application
RATIONALITY
MAN

RATIONALITY
GOD

deficient

eminent

S
S
II
M
M
PP
LL
E
E
A
A
PP
PP
R
R
E
E
H
H
E
E
N
N
S
S
II
O
O
N
N

Percept
Image
A
A
B
B
S
S
TT
R
R
A
A
C
C
TT
II
O
O
N
N

An Idea of an Apple
JJ
U
U
D
D
G
G
M
M
E
E
N
N
T

It IS a red
APPLE!!!

Proposition

Verbal

Mental

Certitude
KNOWLEDGE

Truth

Oral

Written

D
E
S
I
R
E

I want to enjoy
the red APPLE!!!

TO WILL
Therefore,
Therefore, Man is intelligent means:
INTELLECT

HUMAN NATURE

To know the truth

assimilation

WILL

To have/enjoy the good

union/possession/enjoyment

SI
SI
MI
MI
L
A
RI
RI
T
T
Y
Y
DI
DI
S
S
SI
SI
M
M

Man
Intelligence
K

GOD
Intelligence

::
K

person

person

subsistence
rationality
individuality

subsistence
rationality
individuality

Effect
Effect

Uncaused
Uncaused Cause
Cause

contingent
contingent

Necessary

participated
participated

unparticipated
unparticipated

Schema:
Principle

Causality

S. Reason

Uncaused

reason for

necessary

the SOURCE:

Caused

existence

being, i.e.,

IPSUM ESSE

Pure Act

within

cannot but be

SUBSISTENS

O.N.

effect

reason for

contingent

PARTICIPANT:

or is

act and

existence

being, i.e.,

esse per

G
O is
D

MAN

potency

outside

Contingency

Participation

can be & not be participationem

Summary
Conclusions
b. To Human Nature (H.N.):
Thinking and willing are principles of operations in man.
These faculties are natural to man because they are the
roots of his being a man. Take them away, man ceases to
be what he is.
c. To Divine Nature (D.N.):
Thinking and willing are principles of operations in God.
But unlike in man, there are not participated. Hence, by a
single act of Gods knowing and willing God creates the
world. God is the source of the highest perfection (i.e.,
rationality) in man.

COMPARISON
Whereas in
PHILOSOPHY

Man as rational
God (in one divine nature).

END: Contemplation of God as a philosophical conclusion


Method: By pure reasoning

Man as rational
THEOLOGY

God (in one divine nature


but in three persons)

END: Contemplation of God as revealed


Method: By faith plus pure reasoning

COMPARISON

PHILOSOPHY

nature

REASON

grace

FAITH

MAN

THEOLOGY

COMPARISON
BUT, in Theology,

wounded
wounded

MAN

in
in Philosophy
Philosophy

natural
natural

in
in Theology
Theology

graced
graced
superntl
superntl

similar
similar

image
image of
creation
creation
image
image of
recreation
recreation

PERSONHOOD

Has
Inalienable
Rights
Has life
after
Death

Dignity

Are
Fundamentally
Equal

PERSON

Pro-creator

Called
for
Holiness

Social

Wounded

What is man that you should be mindful of


him, or the son of man that you should care
for him? You havecrowned him with glory
and honor.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:

A.

DIGNITY
H.

In
In communion
communion with
with God.
God.

B.

A
A participant
participant in
in the
the divine
divine wisdom.
wisdom.

C.

Self-subsistent.
Self-subsistent.

D.
E.
F.

G.

Unique.
Unique.
Free.
Free.

Responsible.
Responsible.
Conscious
Conscious of
of ones
ones origin.
origin.

A
A pilgrim
pilgrim to
to ones
ones self.
self.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:


FUNDAMENTALLY EQUAL

The Order of
Nature

We share one and the


same origin and we
possess the same human
nature

We share one and the


same faith and hope, the
Supernatural same destiny, the same
baptism, all of us have
Order
been redeemed by Christ
and all of us are children
of God.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:

SOCIAL

The Order of
Nature

Rationality

It is in our nature to long


to belong. We need to
belong to a group,
community or society.
This need comes from our
inner being.
The social nature of human
beings is based on a
constituent element of our
nature, that is, we can
communicate. Such is the
deepest ground of the
social nature of human
beings.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:

WOUNDED

Christian faith tells us that all of us


have to bear the consequences of
sin. These consequences are bitter
and hard and as a result our whole
life is a dramatic struggle between
good and evil.
Revelation tells us that thi is a
result of the coming in of sin in this
world.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:

TO BE HOLY

Jesus Christ invites us to be holy just as


our heavenly Father is holy.
Christs coming to this world opened to us
the gate to holiness and perfection.
The Holy Mother Church provides us with
necessary help and guidance to achieve
holiness and the examples of the saints
who lived their lives in imitation of Christ
provide us with adequate motivtion and
inspiration to go on.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:

PRO-CREATOR

Though we are a fallen nature, we are not


without hope. Christ the Lord who created
every human being essentially good has
come to redeem us all. Christ has achieved
the redepmtion completely and to the very
limit, but at the same time, he did not bring
it to a close.
Sweat and toil present the Christian with
the possibility of sharing lovingly in the
work that Christ came to do and
collaborating with the Son of God for the
Redemption of humanity.

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:

ETERNAL LIFE

The Church teaches in the light of divine


Revelation, that our God has created us
for a blissful life that we can hope in the
future. This is what constitutes our
Christian hope.
For God has called man, and still calls
him to cleave with all his being to him in
sharing for ever a life that is divine and
free from all decay. Christ won this
victory when He rose to life, for by his
death he freed man from death. (GS 18)

THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD:


INALIENABLE RIGHTS

Right to a decent existence


Right pertaining to moral and cultural values

The right to worship


The right to choose ones way of life
Rights pertaining to economic life
Right of assembly and association
The right to emigrate and
immigrate
Right in the political order

The Universal Declaration


of Human Rights

Individual Rights
(Art. 1-21)
Rights that are
essentially entitle a
person not to be
prevented from
retaining or attaining
certain fundamental
goods

Social Rights
(Art. 22-30)
Rights that are
essentially rights to be
helped. It requires
active aids, which
involve time, finance,
and other resources on
the part of others .

On
Human
Work

Duties of Workers
Perfect

GOD
Main Issue

Creator
Co-cretor

Man
imperfect

Work::

Any
Any serious
serious and
and purposeful
purposeful activity
activity that
that
utilizes
utilizes ones
ones corporal
corporal and
and spiritual
spiritual powers.
powers.

+Strictest
+Strictest sense
sense :: manual
manual labor
labor
+Widest
+Widest sense
sense :: all
all conscious,
conscious, serious
serious
and
and purposeful
purposeful activity
activity
of
of man,
man, including
including prayer
prayer
End
End of
of Work:Realization
Work:Realization of
of the
the real
real reason
reason of
of
human
human beings
beings existence
existence and
and of
of
world,
world, which
which is
is ultimately
ultimately for
for
greater
greater honor
honor and
and glory
glory of
of God.
God.

the
the
the
the

haracteristics of Work:

Personal
A man by his work gives his imprint to it,
acquiring as he does so, perseverance, skill
and a spirit of invention. (PP #27)
Implications:
1.
work
is
an
extension/expression of
the person
of the worker
2. work has dignity which is based on
the dignity of the worker
3. condition of work must respect the
personal character and dignity of the
worker

haracteristics of Work:

Necessary
make is a point of honor towork with your
hands as we directed you to do so, so that
you will give good examples to outsiders and
want for nothing. (1 Thes. 4:11)

haracteristics of Work:
Way to the Self-development of Human Beings
idle hands and idle minds are Satans
workshop. (PP #27)
Implications: 1. Being an image of God, the
creator
who is an infinite activity, the
human person must likewise, must
work.
2. Sloth is an attitude of laziness that
abhors doing nothing.

haracteristics of Work:

Shaping and Mastering the Earth


Fill the earth and subdue it.
(Gen. 1:23)
Implications:
1. Creation is not yet
finished.
It is an ongoing process
wherein human being shave
the
role to play.

haracteristics of Work:

Service
Through work, human beings can and
should place themselves at the service of
their brothers and sisters. In sharing their
insights and skills with their fellow human
beings, they can do very much to serve the
human family and to make the conditions
of life more favorable. (GS #57)

haracteristics of Work:

Social
Work unites men for the service of the people in a
common effort which tends to the perfection of one
and all to the glory of the Creator and RedeemerIn
this sense work is capable by its very nature, of
closely uniting men together.
Work, as a collective effort, is a venue for workers to
share hopes, aspirations, hardships and joy with one
another thus drawing men together and uniting their
minds, hearts and wills. With this human beings find
themselves to be brothers and sisters. (PP #27)

haracteristics of Work:

Union with Christ


Whatever you do whether in speech or in
action, do it in the name of the Lord Jesus.
Give thanks to God the Father through him.
(Col. 3:17)

Rights of Workers:

The Right to Work


Every
Every person
person has
has the
the right
right to
to work
work by
by virtue
virtue of
of every
every
persons
persons right
right to
to exist
exist and
and support
support his
his own
own existence.
existence.
The
The obligation
obligation to
to earn
earn ones
ones bread
bread from
from the
the sweat
sweat of
of
ones
ones brow
brow also
also presumes
presumes the
the right
right to
to do
do so.
so. A
A society
society
in
in which
which this
this right
right is
is systematically
systematically denied,
denied, in
in which
which
economic
economic policies
policies do
do not
not allow
allow workers
workers to
to reach
reach
satisfactory
satisfactory levels
levels of
of employment,
employment, cannot
cannot be
be justified
justified
from
from an
an ethical
ethical point
point of
of view,
view, nor
nor can
can that
that society
society
attain
attain social
social peace.
peace. (CA
(CA #43)
#43)

Rights of Workers:
The Right to a Just Wage
ItIt refers
refers to
to the
the payment
payment aa worker
worker receives
receives in
in return
return of
of the
the
labor
labor or
or services
services rendered.
rendered.
Classification:
Classification: 1.
1. Just
Just Wage
Wage equitable
equitable return
return for
for the
the
workers
or
workers contribution
contribution to
to production
production
or
services
services rendered
rendered
2.
2. Unjust
Unjust Wage
Wage
Criteria
Criteria for
for aa Just
Just Wage:
Wage:
1.
1. Enough
Enough to
to support
support the
the worker
worker or
or
those
those under
under his/her
his/her care.
care. (QA
(QA #71)
#71)
2.
2. The
The state
state of
of the
the business.
business.
3.
3. The
The public
public economic
economic good.
good.

Rights of Workers:
The Right to Protection and Social Security
A
A human
human being
being has
has the
the right
right to
to be
be looked
looked after
after
in
in the
the event
event of
of ill-health,
ill-health, disability
disability due
due to
to his
his
work;
work; widowhood;
widowhood; old
old age;
age; enforced
enforced
unemployment;
unemployment; or
or when
when ever
ever through
through no
no fault
fault
of
of his
his own
own he
he is
is deprived
deprived of
of the
the means
means of
of
livelihood.
livelihood. The
The state
state authorities
authorities have
have the
the duty
duty
to
to see
see to
to it
it that
that those
those who
who cannot
cannot anymore
anymore
take
take care
care of
of themselves
themselves be
be taken
taken cared
cared of.
of.

Rights of Workers:
The Right to Children
(United
(United Nations
Nations Declaration)
Declaration)

To
To be
be born,
born, be
be given
given aa name
name and
and nationality.
nationality.
To
To be
be free.
free.
To
To belong
belong to
to and
and be
be taken
taken cared
cared of
of by
by aa family.
family.
To
To be
be given
given sufficient
sufficient education.
education.
To
To have
have the
the chance
chance to
to develop
develop skills
skills and
and talents.
talents.
To
To receive
receive adequate
adequate food,
food, shelter
shelter &
& physical
physical health.
health.
To
To be
be educated
educated on
on good
good manners
manners and
and right
right conduct.
conduct.
To
To be
be given
given the
the chance
chance to
to play
play and
and recreate.
recreate.
To
To be
be protected
protected from
from abuses,
abuses, dangers
dangers &
& violence
violence of
of war.
war.
To
To live
live in
in aa harmonious
harmonious and
and peaceful
peaceful environment.
environment.
To
To be
be defended
defended and
and assisted
assisted by
by the
the government.
government.
To
To express
express oneself.
oneself.

Rights of Workers:
The Right of Women
At
At present
present women
women are
are involved
involved in
in nearly
nearly all
all
spheres
spheres of
of life:
life: they
they ought
ought to
to be
be permitted
permitted to
to
play
play their
their part
part fully
fully according
according to
to their
their own
own
particular
particular nature.
nature. It
It is
is up
up to
to everyone
everyone to
to see
see to
to
it
it that
that womens
womens specific
specific and
and necessary
necessary
participation
participation in
in cultural
cultural life
life be
be acknowledged
acknowledged
and
and fostered.
fostered. (Gaudium
(Gaudium et
et Spes
Spes #60)
#60)

Rights of Workers:
The Right of the Migrant Workers
The
The most
most important
important thing
thing is
is that
that the
the person
person
working
working away
away from
from his
his native
native landshould
landshould not
not
be
be placed
placed at
at aa disadvantage
disadvantage in
in comparison
comparison with
with
the
the other
other workers
workers in
in that
that society
society in
in the
the matter
matter of
of
working
working rightsThe
rightsThe value
value of
of work
work should
should be
be
measured
measured by
by the
the same
same standard
standard and
and not
not
according
according to
to the
the difference
difference in
in nationality,
nationality,
religion
religion or
or race.
race. (LE
(LE #23)
#23)

Rights of Workers:
The Right To Organize Trade Union
The
The catholic
catholic Church
Church highly
highly supports
supports trade
trade
unions
unions and
and even
even considers
considers them
them as
as the
the most
most
important
important association
association for
for mutual
mutual aid
aid and
and social
social
assistance.
assistance. (RN
(RN #50)
#50)
Among
Among the
the basic
basic rights
rights of
of the
the human
human person
person
must
must be
be counted
counted the
the right
right of
of freely
freely founding
founding labor
labor
unionsto
unionsto represent
represent the
the workers
workers and
and to
to
contribute
contribute to
to the
the proper
proper arrangement
arrangement of
of
economic
economic lifewithout
lifewithout risk
risk of
of reprisal.
reprisal. (GS
(GS #68)
#68)

Duties
Duties of
of Trade
Trade Unions:
Unions:
1.
1. Trade
Trade unions
unions must
must consider
consider the
the general
general
economic
economic interest
interest and
and the
the state
state of
of their
their
branch
branch of
of industry
industry when
when making
making wage
wage
claims.
claims.
2.
2. It
It has
has to
to be
be emphasized
emphasized that
that trade
trade unions
unions
are
are voluntary
voluntary organizations,
organizations, hence,
hence, itit must
must
rest
rest upon
upon the
the will
will of
of their
their members.
members.
3.
3. Trade
Trade unions
unions posses
posses influential
influential powers
powers that
that
could
could influence
influence social
social policies
policies and
and that
that
could
could even
even extend
extend to
to political
political affairs.
affairs.

Rights of Workers:
The Right To Go On Strike
ItIt is
is aa refusal
refusal to
to work
work on
on the
the part
part of
of the
the organized
organized
workers.
workers. In
In itself,
itself, aa strike
strike is
is aa powerful
powerful weapon
weapon of
of
trade
trade unions
unions in
in their
their struggle
struggle with
with employers
employers
particularly
particularly when,
when, in
in the
the course
course of
of collective
collective
bargaining,
bargaining, the
the workers
workers group
group cannot
cannot obtain
obtain the
the
rightful
rightful conditions
conditions that
that they
they desire.
desire.
Conditions
Conditions for
for Strike
Strike to
to be
be Morally
Morally Permissible:
Permissible:
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.

Objective
Objective is
is morally
morally acceptable
acceptable
Morally
Morally acceptable
acceptable and
and proportionate
proportionate means.
means.
No
No other
other peaceful
peaceful means
means left.
left.

On Private Property

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
The right to private property has
always been affirmed by the Church in
response to those who oppose this
right and consider it as the root cause
of inequality in the society.
The Church insists on the universal
destination of all created goods and on
the right of every individual to own
private property.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Forms of Private Property:

Wage/
Salary

It is through which workers


experience what it means to
have something as his or her
own and it forms the most
important source for the
employee from which all
other forms of property must
rise.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Forms of Private Property:

Furniture,
Household
furniture,
etc.

This is more
permanent than
the previous one.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Forms of Private Property:

Social
Security

A legal claim to social


insurance for sickness,
unemployment; disability and
old age has become a fourth
form of property in our
modern society.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Forms of Private Property:

Home

Owning a home has a


very high socio-political
importance in our present
society.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Forms of Private Property:

Ownership
Of Capital

This form of private


property if broadly
distributed will eliminate a
great portion of the
economic imbalance existing
in the world today.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Forms of Private Property:

Savings

It may include savings


account, building and
loan association and life
insurance policies.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Other Forms of Private Property:
1. Consumer goods: food, clothing
2. Movables: furnishings, tools,
cars, animals, jewelry
3. Immovables: lands, houses, plants
4. Intellectual: patent rights,
copyrights
5. Claims: bank accounts, shares,
securities, insurance
6. Money in general

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Private Property and the Holy Scripture
OLD TESTAMENT:
-Gen. 24:34f; 1 Kings 3:11-13Wealth is regarded as a sign of Gods favor.
-Prov. 10:4; 20:13; 24:3f; 21:17It is seen as a result of acquiring qualities
pleasing to God, i.e., diligence, wisdom,
temperance, etc.
Violation: 7th & 10th commandments
Reminder: You shall open wide your hand to y
our brother, to the needy and the
poor
(Deut. 15:11)

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Private Property and the Holy Scripture
NEW TESTAMENT:
-Lk. 16:19-31Jesus teaches that not the possession of property
as such is evil but turning wealth into idol. The
scandal was not that there was a rich man and a
poor Lazarus but that Lazarus wanted to eat the
crumbs which fell from the table of the rich man
and that he did not receive a particle of them.
-1 Tim. 6:17-19Spiritual riches over material riches. Share and use the material
wealth in good works in order to store up treasures for eternal life.

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Basis for the Right to Private Property
1. For Self-expression
2. For the fulfillment of ones duties
3. For
ones
freedom.

independence

4. For Peace
5. For better Utilization of Goods.

and

ON PRIVATE PROPERTY
Principles of the Right to Private Property
1st Principle:
creation are
the goods
meant to

The resources of
destined for all
of the earth are
be shared.

2nd Principle: There is a distinction


between
the
right
of
ownership and
use.

The State

(Its
(Its Origin
Origin and
and Meaning)
Meaning)

The State

Different
Different Backgrounds
Backgrounds of
of the
the State
State

As a manifestation of the
Divine

2
3
4

As a result of power struggle

For the satisfaction of basic human


needs

STC: Socio-theological and socipolitical

The State

Two
Two Main
Main Functions
Functions of
of the
the State
State
The Ordering Function

It establishes and protects the legal/external


order. It makes sure that just laws exist and
that they are being observed by all and peace
and order are maintained.

The State

Two
Two Main
Main Functions
Functions of
of the
the State
State
The Welfare Function

It promotes the general economic, sanitary,


ecological, cultural, moral and spiritual
welfare of the citizens.

The State

The Principle
of Subsidiarity

The state must take into


consideration what private
individuals or enterprise can
and should do by themselves
and allowing them to do it.

Private individuals or group


of individuals must also
respect those functions that are
meant for the larger higher
organization.

The
The State
State

Political
Political Athority
Athority
Etymology:
Authority Lt. word auctoritas
Verb: augere
to increase/to enrich
Strict Sense:
the power meant or the institution meant
for the enrichment and promotion of those
whom it is exercised.

over

The State

Two Kinds of Authority

Personal Authority

Official or Social
authority

ItIt is
is derived
derived on
on aa superiority
superiority
of
of aa person
person in
in terms
terms of
of
intellectual
capacity,
intellectual
capacity,
professional
professional and
and technical
technical
skill,
skill, and
and higher
higher degree
degree of
of
moral
moral and
and spiritual
spiritual life.
life.

ItIt is
is based
based on
on the
the will
will of
of
the
the society
society which
which is
is
often
manifested
often
manifested
through
through an
an election.
election.

The State

Political Authority
Legitimate

Illegitimate

An
An authority
authority acquired
acquired the
the
power
power through
through an
an explicit
explicit
consent
consent of
of the
the citizens
citizens and
and
performs
performs its
its God
God given
given
duties.
duties. Hence,
Hence, the
the citizens
citizens
have
have the
the duty
duty to
to follow
follow aa
legitimate
legitimate and
and competent
competent
authority.
authority.

An
An authority
authority that
that claims
claims or
or gets
gets
hold
hold of
of the
the power
power unjustly,
unjustly, by
by
the
the use
use of
of three
three Fs:
Fs: force,
force,
fraud,
fraud, and
and fear.
fear. Illegitimate
Illegitimate
rulers
rulers do
do not
not have
have any
any binding
binding
authority
authority over
over the
the citizens,
citizens, and
and
the
the citizens
citizens do
do not
not owe
owe
obedience
obedience to
to them.
them.

The State

Duties
Duties of
of the
the citizens
citizens towards
towards the
the State
State

1
2
3
4

Love of ones country

Civic Responsibility and


Participation
For the satisfaction of basic human
needs
STC: Socio-theological and sociopolitical

The State
Essential
Essential Components of Common Good
Good

Public external order

Intellectual and
Moral development

Public well-being
and prosperity

Spiritual development

The State

Freedom
Social
Authority

conditions of
common good

Promotion of
Every Individual

Protection of
Basic Rights

Thank You

Mabuhay!