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Cyclone Hazard

Cyclone effects people, infrastructure and economic


The occurrence of wind events over the time period

has been quite consistent and low. However, a sudden
increase can be seen in the latter periods with highest
number of events taking place in 2007.

Seasonally, Sri Lanka takes on a cyclical pattern with

respect to the incidence of wind events. The incidence
of wind events is high in the months from April to June
and once again from November to December.

With respect to spatial distribution, wind events are

most prevalent in the districts of Rathnapura, Badulla,
Anuradhapura and Colombo.

It is observed that people in Sri Lanka are not very

much affected
by wind events. However, an exception to that are
the years 1978
and 2000 where people affected is
very high. Further, people located in the districts of
Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Trincomalee and Batticaloa

Fig: Cyclone tracks from 1900 A.D. to

2000 A.D.

Cyclone Hazard (contd.)

The occurrence of deaths due to wind events is quite rare except for the year 1978
where it
had reached nearly 850.

Fig: Spatial distribution of people effected by

wind event


Coastal erosion
Coastal erosion is a process of change that
occurs at the land sea interface and is severe
problem in Sri Lanka.
It has been estimated that 685 kilometers
of coast line in the south, south west and
the west coast, about 175,000 - 285,000
square meters of coastal land are lost each
Coastal erosion is also matter of issue
because of following reasons:
o 65% of urbanized land area is in coastal
o Factories producing 2/3 of industrial
o 40% of nations 18 million inhabitants
live in SW coastal districts from
Colombo to Galle.

Coastal erosion (contd)

Main cause for coastal erosions are identified as:
o Sand mining
o Coral mining
o Construction of maritime structures
The Master Plan for Coastal Erosion (1989) revealed
that more than 49,000 meters of revetment and
6,360 meters of grayness have been constructed.
Most of these structures were poorly designed and
in some cases led to an increase of coastal erosion.
Poorly designed fishery harbors also have created
coast erosion problems

Lareef Zubair and Vidhura Ralapanawe, Upamala Tennakoon,Zeenas Yahiya, and Ruvini Perera,
(2006),Natural Disaster Risks in Sri Lanka: Mapping Hazards and Risk Hotspots
Chandana Seneviratne, (2005), Coastal Zone Management In Sri Lanka: Current Issues And Management
http://servesrilanka.blogspot.jp/2005/02/coastal-zone-management-in-sri-lanka.html [viewed on
Srilanka, Disaster Management Centre ,United Nations Development Programme in Sri Lanka, United
Nations Development Programme Regional Centre, Bangkok, (2009), Sri Lanka National Report on Disaster
Risk, Poverty and Human Development Relationship (draft report).
Kem Lowry, The Evolution of Integrated Coastal Management in SriLanka,
http://www.loiczsouthasia.org/pdfdocuments/10-1.pdf, [viewed on 11/05/2014]