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HANDOVER PROCESS

BSSPAR S8

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 1

HANDOVER PROCESS
Contents

1. Overview

2. Handover Decision
3. Target Cell Selection
4. Algorithms
5. Power Budget Handover
6. Level & Quality Handover
7. Umbrella Handover
Combined Umbrella & Power
Budget
MS Speed
8. Imperative Handover
9. Timers for Handovers
10. C/I Based Handover Candidate
Evaluation
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 2

HANDOVER PROCESS
Causes
Uplink Quality

AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO

Downlink Quality

AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO

Uplink Level

AV_RXLEV_UL_HO

Downlink Level

AV_RXLEV_DL_HO

MS Speed

AV_MS_SPEED

Timing Advance

AV_RANGE_HO

QUALITY
&
INTERFERENCE
LEVEL

THRESHOLD
COMPARISON

MS SPEED

DISTANCE
RAPID FIELD DROP

Adjacent Cells

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)
CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION

Others:
Intelligent Underlay Overlay
Traffic Reason
.

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 3

IMPERATIVE
HO

DIRECTED RETRY

POWER BUDGET
UMBRELLA

PERIODIC
CHECKS

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover Desicion

Handover process may be triggered by :


Quality, field strength or distance values
fall below/exceed their threshold
Periodic checks
Power budget HO
Umbrella HO

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 4

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover Priority
Handover priority
1. Uplink and downlink Interference
2. Uplink quality
3. Downlink quality
4. Uplink level
5. Downlink level
6. Distance
7. Rapid Field Drop
8. Slow moving MS
9. Better cell i.e. Periodic check (Power Budget HO or Umbrella HO)
10. PC: Lower quality/level thresholds (UL/DL)
11. PC: Upper quality/level thresholds (UL/DL)

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 5

HANDOVER PROCESS
Target Cell Selection (1)
Best candidates to RR Management:
intra BSC HO max 16 cells under the same BSC as the source cell
inter BSC HO numberOfPreferredCells

Only for Adjacent


Cell of the
same BSC

Load check of Candidates by btsLoadThreshold (0..100%)


1.
If overloaded priority decreased by hoLoadFactor (0...7)

2.

Comparison of priorities of Candidates


(hoLevelPriority (0..7))
If two or more Adjacent cells with equal priorities

3.

NOKIA

-> Ranking based on radio properties

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 6

HANDOVER PROCESS
Target Cell Selection (2)
All cells have equal priority
cell

One cell has higher priority because of so

Rx_Level
-75
1. Load
overl.
hoLoadFactor
2. Priority
3
New Priority 2

-80
overl.
1
3
2

-83
Rx_Level
-75
-80
n.overl. 1. Load
n./overl.
1
1
hoLoadFactor
2
3
2. Priority
4
3
3
New Priority 4/2
3

3.

-80

3.

c , a ,b

=> cell list


=> cell list

Rx_Level
=> cell list

NOKIA

-75

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 7

cell

Rx_Level

-75

-83
n.overl. n
1
1
3
3

-80/-80 -83

a,b,c (if cell a is not overl


b,c,a

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover Algorithms
In all Handover cases (in imperative HO only requirement)
1.

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, A)


A = msTxPwrMax(n) - P
P = MS Classmark

Except for Umbrella Handover


1.

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > hoLevelUmbrella(n)

The additional condition


2.

PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n)


PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - (btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR)) - (msTxPwrMax(n) - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n))

2.

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AV_RXLEV_DL_HO + (btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR) + hoMarg


If enableHoMarginLevQual = Y

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 8

HANDOVER PROCESS
Power Budget Handover (1)
Equations 1 and 2 are used
Serving Cell:

Best Adjacent Cell:

AV_RXLEV_DL_HO = -90 dBm


AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) = -80 dBm
msTxPwrMax = 33 dBm (= 2W) rxLevMinCell(n) = -99 dBm
btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W)msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm (= 2W)
BTS_TX_PWR = 42 dBm = (16 W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W)
hoMarginPBGT(n) = 6 dB
1.

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, msTxPwrMax(n) - msTxPwrMax)


-80 dBm > -99 dBm + (33 dBm - 33 dBm) = -99 dBm

2.

PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - (btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR)) - (msTxPwrMax(n) - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n))


PBGT = (33 dBm - -90 dBm - (42 dBm - 42 dBm)) - (33 dBm - -80 dBm)
= 10 dB
10 dB > 6 dB OK !!!!

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 9

HANDOVER PROCESS
Power Budget Handover (2)

Trigger

Candidate Selection

Periodic Check ( hoPeriodPBGT )


Equation 1 & 2 used
Priority and Load Considered

Typically used between cells of the same "Layer"

Parameter

NOKIA

Value

hoPeriodPBGT
enablePwrBudgetHandover

1 ... 63 (SACCH Period)


Y/N

rxLevMinCell(n)
msTxPwrMax(n)
hoMarginPBGT(n)

-110 -47 dBm


5 43 dBm
-24 24 dB

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 10

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover due to Level
Trigger
Threshold Comparison ( hoThresholdsLevUL/DL (px - nx) )
Candidate Selection
Equation 1 used
Equation 2 used if enableHoMarginLevQual = N
Equation 2' with hoMarginLev used if enableHoMarginLevQual = Y
Priority and Load Considered
Parameter
hoThresholdLevUL/DL
px
nx
rxLevMinCell(n)
msTxPwrMax(n)
hoMarginLev(n)

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 11

Value
-110 -47
1 32
1 32
-110 -47 dBm
5 43 dBm
-24 24 dB

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover due to Quality
Trigger
Threshold Comparison ( hoThresholdsQualUL/DL (px - nx) )
Candidate Selection
Equation 1 used
Equation 2 used if enableHoMarginLevQual = N
Equation 2' with hoMarginQual used if enableHoMarginLevQual = Y
Priority and Load Considered
Parameter
hoThresholdQualUL/DL
px
nx
rxLevMinCell(n)
msTxPwrMax(n)
hoMarginQual(n)

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 12

Value
07
1 32
1 32
-110 -47 dBm
5 43 dBm
-24 24 dB

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover due to Level or Quality

Equations 1 and 2 are used if parameter enableHoMarginLevQual is set Yes

hoMarginLev = 4 dB
hoMarginQual = 0 dB

Handover Attempt

A
Threshold (Lev)

2 dB

=> Handover (Level) is unsuccesfull, 2 dB < 4


=> Handover (Qual) is successfull,
2 dB > 0

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 13

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover due to Interference (1)

Trigger : Threshold Comparison

Threshold Comparison for Quality ( hoThresholdsQualUL/DL (px - nx) )


Threshold Comparison for Level ( hoThresholdsInterferenceUL/DL (px - nx) )

Candidate Selection

Priority InterCell / Intracell selected at BSC independently UL / DL


Priority Intra
Priority Inter
Quality HO if Any TargetIntra Cell HO
Otherwise Intra Cell HO

Parameter

NOKIA

Value

hoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL
px
nx
enableIntraHoInterfUL/DL

-110 -47
1 32
1 32
Y/N

hoPreferenceOrderInterfUL/DL

INTER / INTRA
BSC

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 14

HANDOVER PROCESS
Handover due to Interference (2)

Equations 1 and 2 are used if parameter enableHandoverMarginQual is set

hoThresholdQual
=4
hoThresholdInterferenceDL = -90 dBm
hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL = intra Handover Attempt

Threshold (Lev)A
-90 dBm
B
- Field strength higher than threshold
- Bad quality
=> interference
=> intra cell handover !!

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 15

0
5

HANDOVER PROCESS
Umbrella Handover (1)

Trigger

Candidate Selection

Periodic Check ( hoPeriodUmbrella )


Equation 1' used
Consistency between mobile classmark and target cell power constraints
Priority and Load Considered

Multi-Layered Network
Example

Macro cell
Umbrella
Handover

GSM MS class 4 (33 dBm)


A
gsmMacrocellThreshold = 35 dBm
gsmMicrocellThreshold = 33 dBm -85 dBm
msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm
-90 dBm
B
hoLevUmbrella = -85 dBm
Umbrella
hoThresholdLevDL = -90 dBm
Handover
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 16

Micro cell

Handover due
to Level

6 dB

Handover due
to Level

HANDOVER PROCESS
Umbrella Handover (2)
Max power capability of MS >= gsmMacrocellThreshold
HO allowed only to a macrocell ( MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) >= gsmMacrocellThreshold )

gsmMicrocellThreshold < Max power capability of MS < gsmMacrocellThreshold


HO only to middle size cell ( gsmMicrocellThreshold < MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) <
gsmMacrocellThreshold )
Max power capability of MS <= gsm MicrocellThreshold
HO allowed only to microcell ( MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) <= gsmMicrocellThreshold )

Parameter
enableUmbrellaHandover
hoPeriodUmbrella
hoLevelUmbrella
gsmMicrocellThreshold
gsmMacrocellThreshold
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 17

Value
Y/N
0 63 (SACCH)
-110 -47
5 43
5 43

BSC

HANDOVER PROCESS
Combined Umbrella & Power Budget

When
enablePowerBudgetHo = Yes & enableUmbrellaHo = Yes

Power Budget Handover to cells of the same layer


Umbrella Handover to cells of different layer

Based on

gsmMacrocellThreshold, gsmMicrocellThreshold
msTxPwrMax, msTxPwrMax(n)

UMB
RR
PBGT

umbrella HO
radio reason HO
power budget HO

macrocells

MS classmark

PBGT,RR
UMB,RR

UMB,RR
PBGT,RR
microcells

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 18

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed

Multi-Layer Network

Problem :

NOKIA

Slow Moving MS in Microcells

Determine the MS speed


Direct MS to correct Layer

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 19

Fast Moving MS in Macrocells

Methods

Fast moving MS handling


MS speed detection

HANDOVER PROCESS
Adjacent Cell Layer Definition

Three layers visible to serving cell


To be used in

Fast moving MS handling in macro cell


HOs based on MS speed (BSS6)
Combined umbrella and power budget
Umbrella HO

Supports multilayer networks


upper layer (macro)
Parameter
adjacentCellLayer

same layer (serving layer)


lower layer (micro)
N (not in use)

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 20

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed : Fast Moving MS Handling

Fast Moving MS Handling in macro layer

# of measurements received from adjacent microcells


slow or fast moving MS
Macro cells parameters
for each adjacent micro cell:

Counter for each adjacent micro cell


+2
measurement and over rxLevMinCell
-1
no meas. or bad level

fastMovingThreshold 0 .. 255
rxLevMinCell
hoLevelUmbrella

Target cell selection based on adjacent


cell RX_LEVEL and on hoLevelUmbrella
BSC

micro
macro as serving cell
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 21

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed
FMMS Example

macrocells
time t

hoLevelUmbrella = -85 dBm

measured
signal strength

HO

RxMinCell = -95 dBm

microcells

HO
FMT Threshold=40

time t

NOKIA

FMT Counter

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 22

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed
FMMS Example
macrocells
time t
hoLevelUmbrella = -85 dBm
RxMinCell = -85 dBm
measured
signal strength

HO

HO

microcells
FMT Threshold=40

time t
FMT Counter

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 23

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed : MS Speed Detection (1)
BTS detects the MS speed by using crossing rate algorithm
BTS supports measurement of MS speed
Call is on non-hopping TCH (no SDCCH, no Hopping TRX)

BTS sends MS speed indications every SACCH multiframe period (480 msec.)
Speed Indications are not valid if
( * ) UL DTX was used during the SACCH period
( ** ) MS was changing output power during the SACCH period

BSC Averages MS speed indications


Window Size is msSpeedAveraging ( pre processing in BTS )
Result is AV_MS_SPEED
BSC ignores non valid speed indications ( * , ** )

AV_MS_SPEED is compared with Thresholds


LowerSpeedLimit
UpperSpeedLimit
px and nx are in common
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 24

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed : MS Speed Detection (2)

LowerSpeedLimit : Enables identification / triggers handover for slow-moving MS


UpperSpeedLimit : Enables identification / triggers handover for fast-moving MS
Target Cell Selection

Fast-moving to upper / Slow-moving to lower layer adjacent cells


Equation 1' used
Priority considered

0 means "Not Used"

Parameter
msSpeedAveraging
lowerSpeedLimit
upperSpeedLimit
msSpeedThresholdNx
msSpeedThresholdPx
adjCellLayer
hoLevelUmbrella

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 25

Value
1 ... 32 (SACCH Period)
0
0
1
1

255
255
32
32

N / Same / Upper / Lower


-110 ... -47 dBm

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed : MS Speed Detection (3)

Reporting the MS Speed

MS speed is included to the "Supplementary Measurement Information" (SMI) of the


"Uplink Measurement" Information Element.

"Uplink Measurement" is one of the Information Elements of the MEASurement


RESult message

BTS can develop the speed detection algorithm independently, no affect on the BSC

Uplink Measurements:

rfu

DTXd

Reserved
Reserved

Element identifier

Length

RXLEV-FULL-up

RXLEV-SUB-up

RXQUAL-FULL-up

RXQUAL-SUB-up

Supplementary
Measurement
Infmormation
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 26

5
6-N

1st
1stbyte
byte==MS
MSspeed
speed
0..254
0..254 speed,
speed,2km/h
2km/h
255
not
valid
255
not valid

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed : MS Speed Detection (4) Statistics
HO causes, cell specific MS speed in 3 classes

HO counters:

HO due to fast MS (micro-macro)

Statistical measurement / Example:

HO due to slow MS (macro-micro)

Upper speed limit of class 1, MSSpeedClass1: 10 (speed 0-10 km/h)


Upper speed limit of class 2, MSSpeedClass2 : 30 (speed 11-30 km/h)
Otherwise the speed belongs to class 3 (more than 30 km/h)

MMLs: HSMMML, GPAHAN


header information (observed cell)
speed class 1

number of samples in speed class 1

speed class 2

number of samples in speed class 2

speed class 3

number of samples in speed class 3


total number of indications

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 27

HANDOVER PROCESS
MS Speed
Combination of Fast Moving MS Handling (BSC) and MS Speed Detection (BTS)

macrocell

with RF hopping

fast MSs
BSS5/Fast MS

BSS6/MS speed

Adjacent cell
measurements

slow MSs

meas_res
BTS

HO&PC
algorithm

Crossing rate algorithm


, no RF hopping
microcell(s)

NOKIA

BSC

BTS

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 28

HANDOVER PROCESS
Imperative Handover (Distance)

The Handover is considered to be imperative:

Handover due to Distance


Order to empty a cell ( from O&M )
Directed Retry and IDR

Distance Process
Distance Process ---> msDistanceBehaviour (0,1..60,255) in BSC
0
: Release immediately
1 - 60
: Release after certain time 1 - 60 s, try handover d
255 : No release, only imperative Handover attempt

Parameter

NOKIA

Value

enableMsDistanceProcess
msDistanceHoThresholdParam
px
nx

Y/N
0 63
1 32
1 32

msDistanceBehaviour

0, 1 60, 255BSC

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 29

HANDOVER PROCESS
Imperative Handover (Rapid Field Drop)
Trigger
Threshold Comparison ( HoThresholdRapidLevUl (px) )
Rx_Lev_UL (Not averaged / Only UL)

Candidate Selection
Chained adjacent cell
Equation 1 only / no priority

Multi-Layered Network
Example

NOKIA

Serving
Cell
MS

Serving
Cell

-93 dBm
hoThresholdRapidLevUl = - 93 dBm
.
1st
.
hoThresholdRapidLevUlN (px) = 2
chainedAdjacentCell = Yes Rapid Field Drop Handover

Parameter

Value

hoThresholdLevULforRapidFieldDrop
hoThresholdRapidLevU1N

-110 ... -47 dBm


0 ... 32

chainedAdjacentCell

Y/N

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 30

Chained
Cell

2nd

HANDOVER PROCESS
Imperative Handover (Enhanced Rapid Field Drop)

In case of DDE (Deep Dropping Edge), the averaging window


sizes and power budget period are reduced
level downlink window size
level uplink window size
adjacent cell averaging window size
handover period power budget

Signal Level

Signal Level

A MS moves away from cell site,


the signal is dropping gradually

MS turns a corner, the


signal drops faster than
moving in straight line

A MS turns a corner,
the signal drops rapidly

Figure 7 Signal Strength of a Fast Moving MS

NOKIA

MS moves away from cell site,


the signal is dropping gradually

Time

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 31

Figure 8 Signal Strength of a Slow Moving MS

Time

HANDOVER PROCESS
Imperative Handover (Enhanced Rapid Field Drop)
Parameter
erfdEnabled
ddeThresholdLev
Nx
Px
ddeWindow
modifiedAveWinNcell
modifiedNOZ
erfdOver

NOKIA

Value

0
1
1
1
1
1

DIS, UL, DL or UDL


63 dB
32
32
32 SACCH
32
1 32
64 sec

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 32

HANDOVER PROCESS
Imperative Handover (Enhanced Rapid Field Drop)
Example
ddeWindow = 3 SACCH
ddeThresholdLev = 10, px = 2 and nx =3

the BSC compares the most recent measurement sample 4 (multiframe k) with the
measurement sample 1 (multiframe k-2).
Sample
Signal
level

1
-71
dBm

2
-68
dBm

3
-70
dBm

4
-71
dBm

5
-69
dBm

6
-70
dBm

7
-75
dBm

8
-83
dBm

DDE_LEVEL = RXLEV(k- ddeWindow) RXLEV(k) = -69 dBm (-83 dBm) = 14 dB

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 33

HANDOVER PROCESS
Practical Examples
a

1. Adjacent Channel in Adjacent Cell


- 9dB

C Ia - 9 dB

In practice after -6 dB -> interferencies + quality goes down to 4-5


hoMarginLev > -6 dB

-> Ping-Pong !!
X

2. Cell with Very Large Coverage Area A

MS switched off in cell A and


transferred to area of cell X
20 km
MS switched on in new place
-> MS tries first old channel + neighbours
MS camped on cell A which is not in neighbour list of cell X
-> do not listen BCCH of cell X -> no HOs to cell X !!!

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 34

HANDOVER PROCESS
Timers

Minimum time between consecutive handovers related to the same connections

Minimum time between handover attempts after a failure

MinIntBetweenHoReq
MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt
Applied differently in Intercell / Intracell handovers

Additional Guard Periods are used for Back-handovers

Quality
Distance
Traffic reason
Interference
Parameter
minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt
minIntBetweenHoReq

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 35

Value
0 ... 30 (seconds)
0 ... 30 (seconds)

HANDOVER PROCESS
Timers (HO Failure)

Reversion to old channel OR no radio resource available


MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied only to intra-cell handover attempts

Other failure cases (BSS failures)


MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied to all types of handover attempts

Reversion to old channel


( 1 + NUMBER_OF_HO_FAIL ) * MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt
applied to handover attempts to the same target cell

No Radio Resource Available


MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied to handover attempts to the same
target cells ( all those in the list )

Other Failure Cases


MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied to all types of handover attempts

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 36

HANDOVER PROCESS
Timers ( Guard period for back - handover )
after a HO due to quality (UL/DL) and interference (UL/DL):
a Power Budget HO back is not allowed during
GUARD_TIME = 2 * HoPeriodPBGT

an Umbrella HO back is not allowed during


GUARD_TIME = 2 * HoPeriodUmbrella

after an inter-cell HO due to MS-BS distance:


a HO back to the source cell is not allowed during
GUARD_TIME = 20sec + MinIntBetweenHOReq

after a Traffic Reason HO:


Power Budget HO and Umbrella HO back to the source are not allowed during
GUARD_TIME = 20sec + MinIntBetweenHOReq

Repetitive Intra Cell HO not allower during


GUARD_TIME = 4 * MinIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 37

HANDOVER PROCESS
C/I Based Handover Candidate Evaluation

Designed to estimate the level of the potential interference for each handover
candidate.

The purpose is to direct the mobile station to a cell which can provide interference
free service at the current location of the MS

Enabled by usedC/IEstimationMethod
Each Adjacent Cell can have up to 5 "reference cell"

Real source of interference or just reference


Parameter

Value

usedC/IEstimationMethod

LAC1-5
CI1-5
L1-5
W1-5
NOKIA

AVE (Average taking meth


MAX (Maximum taking met
NONE (C/I estimation not us

Location area code of reference cell 1-5


0 ... 65535
Cell identification of reference cell 1-5
0 ... 65535
Level adjustment for reference cell 1-5
- 63 ... 63 dB
C/I estimation weight parameter for reference cell 1-5 0 ... 10

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 38

HANDOVER PROCESS
C/I Based Handover Candidate Evaluation

C/I is calculated for the handover candidates

Averaged over the reference cells (Average)


By taking the worst interferer (Maximum)

C/I is compared to 7 user-defined bands

priorityAdjStepforBand1
priorityAdjStepforBand1
priorityAdjStepforBand2
priorityAdjStepforBand2
.
.
priorityAdjStepforBand6
priorityAdjStepforBand6
priorityAdjStepforBand7
priorityAdjStepforBand7

>=
>=LowerC/ILimit1
LowerC/ILimit1
>=
LowerC/ILimit2
>= LowerC/ILimit2
.
.
>=
LowerC/ILimit6
>= LowerC/ILimit6
>=
>=LowerC/ILimit7
LowerC/ILimit7

Priority of the Cell is incremented of the


quantity associated to the band
-8 Eliminates the Adjacent Cell from the candidates list

Parameter

Value

lowerC/ILimit
... 127 dB

L1 (Lower C/I limit for band 1)

-128

L2 (Lower C/I limit for band 2)

-128

... 127 dB
... 127 dB

NOKIA

priorityAdjStepforBand1

L6adj.
(Lower
C/I limit
band
P1 (Priority
for band
1) for -8
...
P2 (Priority adj. for band 2) -8 ...

P6 (Priority adj. for band 6) -8 ...

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 39

6)
7
7
7

-128

HANDOVER PROCESS
Traffic Reason Handover
Traffic reason handover procedure consists of the following
parts:

radio frequency (RF) resource indication;


BTS sends information on idle channels and interference levels to the
BSC periodically.

resource indication;
During resource indication, the BSC sends resource information on
idle channels to the MSC using a method defined by the MSC.

handover candidate enquiry;


TRHI On / TRHO Of

During handover candidate enquiry, the MSC requests the BSC to


perform a specified number of handovers from one specified cell to
other specified cells.

TRHI Of / TRHO On

MSC controlled handover.


The MSC-controlled handover, which is external from the BSC's point
of view, is started.

Parameter
Traffic Reason HO Function To Cell
Traffic Reason HO Function From Cell

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 40

TRHI On / TRHO On

Value
(TRHI)
(TRHO)

Off / On
Off / On

HANDOVER PROCESS
Traffic Reason Handover, Resource Indication (1)
Resource Indication Method in "Resource Request" message (from MSC to BSC)
No indication: no indication will be sent from the BSC (in the acknowledgment message no
resource information)

One single indication: one indication will be sent from the BSC in the acknowledgment
message

Periodic: the BSC will immediately send one resource indication and then periodically according
to the Resource Indication Period, RIP

Spontaneous: BSC will send resource indications for a cell every time the load on a cell
exceeds the BTSLoadThreshold value.

RI must be set to ON

Parameter
Resource Indication Function
(RI)
Resource Indication Method
(RIM)
Periodic / Spontaneous
Resource Indication Period
(RIP)
Load Information Validity Time (LIV)

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 41

Value
On / Off
No Indication / One Single Indication

e.g. 080 (x 100 msec)


e.g. 010 (sec)

HANDOVER PROCESS
Traffic Reason Handover, Resource Indication (2)

ERI : Enables the use of TAR and SM

SM : MSC asks for a single Resource Indication (Resource Request) without the BSC

TCHF & TCHH : Define the number of available TCH (Half Rate or Full Rate) in the BTS in

TAR : Usage of the Information available in Resource Indication or rather use TCHF and
TCHH

changing the Resource Indication Method

question ( operator input in MSC )

Parameter

NOKIA

Value

Extended Resource Indicator Function


Total Accessible Resource Indication
Subsequent Mode (SM) On / Off

(ERI) On / Off
(TAR) On / Off

Full Rate Traffic Channel Max Count


Half Rate Traffic Channel Max Count

(TCHF)
(TCHH)

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 42

00000
00000

HANDOVER PROCESS
Traffic Reason Handover, Handover Candidate
Enquiry (1)

OUTC : is used by MSC to recognize the Source Cell for Traffic Reason Handover

Target Cell must be an adjacent cell to Source Cell in MSC.

INC : is used by the MSC to identify the candidate Target Cell for Traffic Reason Handover

HO_Cand_Amount = COEF * (OUTC * Number of TCH - FREE_CH) + HYST


Number of Channels that SHOULD be free

Parameter

Number of Channels that ARE free

Value

In_Criterion
(INC)
e.g. 030 (%)
Out_Criterion (OUTC)
e.g. 010 (%)
Handover Candidate Enquiry Jitter
(HOJ) 000 (sec)
Coefficient
(COEF)
010 (x 0.1)
Hysteresis Value (HYST) 000
Interference Levels for In-Criterion
Interference Levels for Out-Criterion
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 43

(INTI) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(INTO) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

HANDOVER PROCESS
Traffic Reason Handover, Handover Candidate
Enquiry (2)
BSC receives an "Handover Candidate Enquiry" message from MSC
A list of the candidate target cells
A number of MS to be handed over

For a generic ongoing call


A ranked list of adjacen cell is created based on :
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > trhoTargetLevel(n) + Max( 0 , ( msTxPwrMaxCell(n) - P ) )

The list is compared to the one received from MSC


If some cells appear in both, they are target cells for an MSC controlled HO.

BSC checks all ongoing calls in order of TRX / TSL until


All ongoing calls are considered
Enough Handovers are triggered

No sorting of MS is done (based on quality / distance / level..)


Parameter
trhoTargetLevel(n)
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 44

Value

-109 -47 dBm / N (=-110 dB

Advanced Multilayer Handling: three


features concept (1)
Intelligent underlay-overlay
Handover

GSM/super
Multilayer
handling

DCS/micro

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 45

Load

PBGTm Penalty IUO

MCN

>80

60

<50

Yes

Yes

AMH 1:
BSC Initiated TRHO benefits (2)
Network wide load can be smoothed out by reducing power budget margins

between heavy loaded and less loaded cells => more trunking efficiency =>
more capacity
Capacity of the regular layer can be released and performance of IUO is
increased => Quality + capacity

Ping-pong handovers are avoided due to AMH penalty system => quality
Handover

+0 dB

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 46

+4dB

+6 dB

AMH 2:
IUO Load Control benefits (3)
During a very light load, only regular frequencies are used. Thus additional
handovers are avoided => increases quality

super-reuse TRX

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 47

AMH 3:
Multilayer Load Control benefits (4)
Avoid additional handovers between different layers => quality
In the night time, when the load is very small, and the speed of the MSs can
be very fast, the MSs can be kept in the macro cell layer => quality

GSM/macro

DCS/micro

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 48

Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (1)

DADL/B is DR like procedure, triggered due to exceded TCH load in accessed cell

Allows also the support for Phase 1 MSs

Target cells are selected according to MS properties, radio environment and adjacent cell
indications and priorities

accessed P-GSM
900 macro cell

SDCCH

3rd
P-GSM 900
micro cell

1st
TCH

TCH
TCH

2nd

GSM 1800 cell


E-GSM 900 cell

BENEFIT: By directing the calls to proper layer / band as early as possible the network can
absorb more traffic and thus provide more capacity

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 49

DADL/B functionality (2)

DADL/B is applied in call setup phase if

DADL/B feature is enabled with BSC level optionality management parameter


TCH load of accessed cell exceeds the BTSLoadThreshold
There are adjacent cells defined with the dadlbTargetCell parameter (cells verified according to MS
capabilities), which are to be used as target cells for DADL/B handover.

The signal level of the DADL/B target cell exceeds the HOLevelUmbrella(n)

BSC will evaluate the target cells for DADL/B handover during the time indicated with the MinTimeLimitDR
parameter

Adjacent cell priorities HOPriorityLevel(n) and load factors HOLoadFactor(n) are used in target cell
sorting for DADL/B handover

DR will be applied if there is real TCH congestion in accessed cell

Pre-emption has higher priority than DADL/B handover

If the DADL/B handover fails (no TCHs available in target cells, no DADL/B target cells, MS returns to old
channel) the TCH is tried to allocate attempted from the accessed cell

NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 50

DADL/B applications (3)

The use of DADL/B is flexible with adjacent cell indications and thus
DADL/B can be tailored to different environments / concepts

Multilayer

Office

2nd
2nd

Multiband

1st

1st

Multilayer & band

GSM 900 macro

GSM 900
GSM 1800
GSM 1800
GSM 900 micro
NOKIA

BSSPAR FOR S8 / 12.08.1999 / Cellular Network Planning page: 51