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CSWIP 3.

1 Welding Inspection
Welding Terminology and Definitions

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Course Reference WIS 5
Course notes section reference 1
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Welding Terminology & Definitions

What is a Weld?

A localised coalescence of metals or non-metals produced


either by heating the materials to the welding temperature,
with or without the application of pressure, or by the
application of pressure alone (AWS)

A permanent union between materials caused by heat, and


or pressure (BS499)

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Welding Terminology & Definitions

What is a Joint?

The junction of members or the edges of members that are


to be joined or have been joined (AWS)

A configuration of members (BS499)

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Joint Terminology

Edge

Open & Closed Corner

Cruciform
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Tee

Lap

Butt

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Butt Preparations

Square Edge
Closed Butt

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Square Edge
Open Butt

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Single Sided Butt Preparations


Single sided preparations are normally made on thinner
materials, or when access form both sides is restricted

Single Bevel

Single Vee

Single-J

Single-U

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Double Sided Butt Preparations


Double sided preparations are normally made on thicker
materials, or when access form both sides is
unrestricted

Double -Bevel

Double -J
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Double -Vee

Double -U
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Joint Preparation Terminology


Included angle

Included angle
Angle of
bevel

Root
Radius

Root Face

Root Face

Root Gap

Root Gap

Single-V Butt

Single-U Butt

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Joint Preparation Terminology


Angle of
bevel

Angle of
bevel

Root
Radius

Root Face
Root Gap

Single Bevel Butt


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Root Gap

Root Face
Land

Single-J Butt

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Weld Terminology

Butt weld

Edge weld

Fillet weld

Spot weld

Plug weld
Compound weld

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Welded Butt Joints


Butt Welded butt joint
A_________

Fillet Welded butt joint


A_________

Compound Welded butt joint


A____________
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Welded Tee Joints

Fillet Welded T joint


A_________

Butt Welded T joint


A_________

Compound Welded T joint


A____________

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Welded Lap Joints


Fillet Welded lap joint
A_________

Spot Welded lap joint


A_________

Compound Welded lap joint


A____________
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Welded Closed Corner Joints


Fillet Welded closed corner joint
A_________

Butt Welded closed corner joint


A_________

Compound Welded closed corner joint


A____________
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Weld Zone Terminology


Face

Weld
metal
Heat
Affected
Zone

Weld
Boundary

D
Root

A, B, C & D = Weld Toes


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Weld Zone Terminology


Excess
Cap height
or Weld
Reinforcement

Weld cap width

Excess Root
Penetration
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Welding Technology

Maximum
Temperature

THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ)


solid
weld
metal

solid-liquid transition zone


grain growth zone
recrystallised zone
partially transformed zone
tempered zone
unaffected base
material

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Toe Blend
6 mm

80

Poor Weld Toe Blend Angle


3 mm

20

Improved Weld Toe Blend


Angle
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Most codes quote the


weld toes shall blend
smoothly
This statement is not
quantitative and therefore
open to individual
interpretation
The higher the toe blend
angle the greater the
amount of stress
concentration
The toe blend angle
ideally should be
between 20o-30o

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Features to Consider
Fillet welds - Toe Blend

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Fillet Weld Profiles


Fillet welds - Shape

Mitre Fillet

Convex Fillet

Concave Fillet
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A concave profile is
preferred for joints
subjected to fatigue
loading

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Fillet Weld Leg Length

b
a. = Vertical leg length
b. = Horizontal leg length
Note: The leg length should be approximately equal to the
material thickness
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Fillet Weld Features

Excess
Weld Metal
Vertical
Leg Length

Design
Throat

Horizontal leg Length

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Fillet Weld Throat Thickness

a
a = Design Throat Thickness
b = Actual Throat Thickness
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Deep Penetration Fillet Weld


Features

a
a = Design Throat Thickness
b = Actual Throat Thickness
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Fillet Weld Sizes


Calculating Throat Thickness from a known Leg Length:

Design Throat Thickness = Leg Length x 0.7

Question: The Leg length is 14mm. What is the Design Throat?

Answer: 14mm x 0.7 = 10mm Throat Thickness

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Fillet Weld Sizes


Calculating Leg Length from a known Design Throat Thickness:

Leg Length = Design Throat Thickness x 1.4

Question: The Design Throat is 10mm. What is the Leg length?

Answer: 10mm x 1.4 = 14mm Leg Length

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Features to Consider
Throat
Thickness
is larger

Throat
Thickness
is smaller
600

1200

Fillet welds connecting parts with fusion faces with an


angle more than 1200 or less than 600 should not use
the previous calculations.
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Features to Consider
Importance of Fillet Weld Leg Length Size
(a)

(b)
8mm

4mm
4mm

2mm

Approximately the same weld volume in both Fillet Welds, but


the effective throat thickness has been altered, reducing
considerably the strength of weld B
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Fillet Weld Sizes


Importance of Fillet weld leg length Size

4mm

6mm
(a)
4mm

(b)
6mm

Question: How larger in c.s.a. is (b) comparable to (a)?

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Fillet Weld Sizes


Importance of Fillet weld leg length Size
(a)

(b)

4mm

6mm
(a)

(b)

4mm

6mm

Area = 4 x 4 = 8mm2
2

Area = 6 x 6 = 18mm2
2

The c.s.a. of (b) is over double the area of (a)


without the extra excess weld metal being added
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