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Wastewater Treatment

WATER : THE MOST PRECIOUS


NATURAL RESOURCE
Without this seemingly invaluable compound, life on
earth would have been non-existent
The need to maintain clean water for both humans and
animals has become a major, even a critical concern

MORE THAN 99 % OF THE EARTHS WATER IN ITS


NATURAL STATE IS UNAVAILABLE OR UNAVITABLE
FOR HUMAN USE
THUS, THE AMOUNT OF WATER FOR ALL THE
PEOPLE, PLANTS AND ANIMALS COMPETE IS MUCH
LESS THAN 1 % OF THE TOTAL

WATER SOURCES CAN BROADLY BE


CLASSSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES :
i) SURFACE WATER
ANY WATER BODY WHICH IS FOUND FLOWING OR
STANDING ON THE SURFACE, SUCH AS STREAMS,
RIVERS, PONDS, LAKES AND RESERVOIRS
ii) GROUND WATER
UNDERGROUND WATER BEARING LAYERS OF
POROUS ROCKS THROUGH WHICH WATER CAN FLOW
AFTER IT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE UPPER LAYERS OF
SOIL.

Water is utilized primarily for three major


activities :
Industrial
Domestic
Agricultural

water when utilized for the above activities, results


in water contamination / pollution which is a major
issue in todays context

WHERE DOES POLLUTION COMES


FROM ?
Sources of water pollution can be categorised
into two major types :
i) point source pollution
pollution that enters through pipes, sewers or
ditches from specific sites such as factories or
sewage treatment plants
eg. the exxon valdez oil spill in 1989

ii)

non point source pollution


also called polluted runoff caused by land pollutants that enters
bodies of water over large areas rather than at single point
eg. agricultural runoff
mining wastes
municipal wastes
construction sediments

Wastewater Treatment
Purpose:
To manage water discharged from homes,
businesses, and industries and to reduce the
threat of water pollution.

WASTE WATER
Most effluents are heterogenous, contain dissolved
and suspended matters organic or inorganic.
Treatment involves removal of contaminants.

Wastewater Treatment

Pre-treatment
Preliminary treatment
Primary treatment
Secondary treatment
Sludge (biosolids) disposal

Wastewater Treatment

Pre-treatment
- Occurs prior to discharge
- Prevention of toxic chemicals or excess
nutrients being discharged in wastewater

Wastewater Treatment
Water discharged from homes, businesses,

and industry enters sanitary sewers


Water from rainwater on streets enters
storm water sewers
Combined sewers carry both sanitary
wastes and storm water

Wastewater Treatment
Water moves toward the wastewater plant

primarily by gravity flow


Lift stations pump water from low lying areas

over hills

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Treatment
Preliminary Treatment

removes large objects and non-degradable


materials
- protects pumps and equipment from damage
- 2 phases : bar screen and grit chamber

Wastewater Treatment

Preliminary Treatment

Bar Screens:
To remove sticks, rocks, logs, shoes, dead
animals.

Grit Removal:
grit causes undue wear downstream unit
processes

Wastewater Treatment
Bar Screen

- catches large objects

that have gotten into


sewer system such as
bricks, bottles, pieces of
wood, etc.

Wastewater Treatment
Grit Chamber

- removes rocks, gravel, broken glass, etc.


Mesh Screen
- removes diapers, combs, towels, plastic bags,
syringes, etc.

Preliminary Treatment:
Screens
Bar Screens
Bar Racks

Wastewater Treatment

Preliminary Treatment

Wastewater Treatment
Measurement and sampling at the inlet

structure
- a flow meter continuously records the

volume of water entering the treatment plant


- water samples taken for determination of
suspended solids and B.O.D.

Wastewater Treatment
Suspended Solids

the quantity of solid


materials floating in the water column

B.O.D. = Biochemical Oxygen Demand

a measure of the amount of oxygen required


to aerobically decompose organic matter in
the water

Wastewater Treatment
Measurements of Suspended Solids and

B.O.D. indicate the effectiveness of


treatment processes

Both Suspended Solids and B.O.D.

decrease as water moves through the


wastewater treatment processes

Wastewater Treatment
Primary Treatment

--

a physical process
-- wastewater flow is slowed down and suspended
solids settle to the bottom by gravity
-- the material that settles is called sludge or
biosolids
- sedimentation, chemical coagulation, precipitation
remove coarse and fine suspended solids.

Wastewater Treatment
Primary Treatment

Wastewater Treatment
Primary Treatment

Wastewater Treatment
Primary Treatment

Wastewater Treatment
Sludge from the primary sedimentation tanks is

pumped to the sludge thickener.


- more settling occurs to concentrate the sludge
prior to disposal

Wastewater Treatment
Primary treatment reduces the suspended solids

and the B.O.D. of the wastewater.


From the primary treatment tanks water is
pumped to the trickling filter for secondary
treatment.
Secondary treatment will further reduce the
suspended solids and B.O.D. of the wastewater.

Wastewater Treatment
Secondary Treatment

Secondary Treatment
Secondary treatment is a biological process
Removal of colloidal and DO substances
Utilizes bacteria and algae to metabolize
organic matter in the wastewater.
Principles of biodegradation and biosorption

SECONDARY TREATMENT
Principal requirements :
Adequate supply of microbes
Contact with effluents
Oxygen availability

Secondary treatment is usually carried out in a


bioreactor shortens treatment time, manipulation of
the process.
Conventional system 2 main processes
i)

i)

Fluidized or suspended microbial culture


activated sludge process
Film-flow system
trickling filter
rotating biological contactor ( RBC )

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS


Aerobic process
Organic matter is brought in contact diverse
microbes in the presence of a mechanical aerator.
Microbes are agglomerated in the form of flocs
(floculant suspension culture ) separate cells from
treated liquid.
Continuous inoculation of aerated culture with
microbes

The process consists of :


An aeration tank
Solid-liquid separator
Recycling sludge pumps
Activated sludge 95% bacteria and 5% higher microbes

Activated sludge
mixed community of microorganisms
Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria may exist
Biological floc is formed

Wastewater after primary treatment enters the aeration


tank
Aeration tank organic matter is brought in contact
with the sludge ( from secondary clarifier )
Effluent from aeration tank is separated in a settling
tank / secondary clarifiers
Settling tank/secondary clarifiers separated sludge
exists without contact with the organic matter and
becomes activated.

5 physical components of activated sludge


process
aeration tank
oxygen is introduced into the system

aeration source
ensure that adequate oxygen is fed into the tank
provided pure oxygen or compressed air

secondary clarifiers
activated-sludge solids separate from the surrounding
wastewater

Activated sludge outflow


line
Pump activated sludge
back to the aeration tank

Effluent outflow line


discharged effluent into bay
or tertiary treatment plant

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS


Effluent from the aeration tank contaning sludge
( flocculant microbial biomass ) is separated in a settling
tank
Separated sludge becomes activated.
Activated sludge is recycled in the aeration tank as a
seed or inoculum
High O2 levels maintained by mechanical aeration or
bubbling through rotating paddles
Sludge usually disposed as fertilizer

Lagoon Systems
hold the waste-water for several months
natural degradation of sewage
Usually reeds are preferred

Treatment stages Tertiary treatment


remove disease-causing organisms from
wastewater
3 different disinfection process
Chlorination
UV light radiation
Ozonation

Chlorination
Most common
Advantages: low cost &
effective
Disadvantages:
chlorine residue could
be harmful to
environment

UV light radiation
Damage the genetic
structure of bacteria, viruses
and other pathogens.
Advantages: no chemicals
are used
water taste more natural
Disadvantages: high
maintenance of the UV-lamp

Ozonation
Oxidized most pathogenic microorganisms
Advantages: safer than chlorination
fewer disinfection by-product
Disadvantage: high cost

What can effluent use for?


discharged into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or
wetland
used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or
park
If its sufficiently clean, it can be used for
groundwater recharge

Advanced Treatment
Nitrogen removal
Ammonia (NH3) nitrite (NO2-) nitrate (NO3-)

Phosphorous removal
Precipitation with iron or aluminums salt

Lead to eutrophication
May cause algae bloom

Sludge treatment
Primary sludge usually have strong odors
Secondary sludge have high concentration of
microorganism
Goals of treatments are:
Reduce odors
Remove water reduce volume
Decompose organic matter

Untreated sludge are about 97 percent water


Settling can reduce about 92 to 96 percent of water
dried sludge is called a sludge cake

3 different sludge treatments


Aerobic digestion
Anaerobic digestion
composting

Aerobic digestion
Bacterial process
Need oxygen
Consume organic matter
Convert into carbon dioxide (CO2)

Anaerobic digestion
Bacterial process
Do not require oxygen
Consume organic matter
Produce biogas, which can be used in generators
for electricity

Composting
aerobic process
requires the correct mix
of carbon, nitrogen,
oxygen and water with
sludge
Generate large amount
of heat

Sludge disposal
Superheat sludge and convert into small granules
that are rich in nitrogen
Sell it to local farmer as fertilizer

Spread sludge cake on the field


Save landfill space

Summary