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Heikki Autio Breakers & Switches

Motor Protection
Type 2 Co-ordination
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Main electrical parameters of motors

Basics of fuse links

Main solutions for switching and protection of motors

Main standard prescriptions for coordination methods

SOC Selected Optimized Coordination


Main electrical parameters of motors

Motor data: Rated parameters

P = Rated motor power [kW]

V = Supply voltage [V]
cos = Power factor
= Efficiency
Ie = Rated current [A]

cos 3 V

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Main electrical parameters of motors

Motor data: Starting parameters

In accordance to the IEC 60947 - 4 - 1 standard the starting current is defined as:
Ia = 7.2 x Ie

With reference to the characteristics of the most common

motors is given a value for the typical maximum initial
starting current defined as:
Ip = 12 x Ie

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Main electrical parameters of motors

With reference to the starting typical current waveform of the

motor (in red) the previous parameters (Ie Ia Ip) are
drawing as below:
Ie = Rated nominal current
t [s]

Ia = Rated starting current (7.2 x In)

Ip = Maximum peak inrush current
(12 x In)


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I [A]


Switching and protection of motors

In order to realize the motor coordination, these kinds of devices are usually used:

Fuse (short-circuit protection)

Contactor (operation cycles-switching)

External thermal/electronic release (overload protection)

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Fuse link

Fuse link (known as fuse) is protection device that protects electrical circuit
against overcurrent and short-circuit current

Fuse link provides superior current limiting properties

Optimal solution for motor protection

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Fuse links structure

Fuse link breaks circuit under excessive current by melting the fuse element
inside the fuse body

Arch that is formed between blade contacts is cooled down by silica sand
inside the fuse body

All energy create by short circuit current is kept inside the fuse body

No emission of gases and no need for arching space

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It is the device intended to carry out the switch on/switch off operations of the
motor under normal conditions and also to disconnect the motor from the supply
network in case of over currents detected by the overload relay which commands
the tripping.

Besides, the contactor shall be chosen so as to be suitable to carry the rated

current of the motor with reference to the category AC-3.

The contactor carrying out motor operations allows to realize a number of

operations much higher than those which the switch could perform.

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Overload relay

It is the device intended to

realize the protection against
motor overload and it has
usually the function of
commanding the opening of
the contactor for those over
currents lower than the
operating currents of the fuse

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Motor starting current

With reference to the time current curve of the fuse link and the thermal protection must be
possible to realize a solution with the characteristics given in the picture: the starting current
of the motor is always under the tripping curve of the protection devices in order to permit the
starter of the motor
Time current
characteristic of
the fuse link

t [s]


Motor starting


I [A]


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Main solution for switching and protection of motors

DOL (direct-on-line) starting is perhaps the most traditional system and consists in
connecting the motor directly to the supply network, thus carrying out starting at full
voltage. This requires a big inrush current and develops a high starting torque with very
reduced acceleration times. It generates violent accelerations which stress the
transmission components such as belts and joints.
Star-delta () starting is the best known system and maybe the most common starting
system at reduced voltage; it is used to start the motor reducing the mechanical stresses
and limiting the current values during starting; on the other hand, it makes available a
reduced inrush torque.
The motor starts with the winding in the Y connection, the current absorbed by the motor is
reduced by 3 times in comparison with its rated current. When 80% of the speed is
reached, switching is carried out by changing over to the delta () phase. In this phase,
the motor absorbs a current reducing by 1.73 times the rated current, completes starting
and continues in the ON position with full load conditions.

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Main solution for switching and protection of motors

The most common used circuits of starters are:
Starter supply with full voltage starter (Direct online)
Starter initially supply with a partial voltage and current value starter

Direct on Line Starter DOL diagram




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Star-Delta Starter Y/ diagram






Cootrdination types
The Standard reference for motor starters is IEC 60947-4-1. This Standard
gives also the definitions for the classification of motor starters.

Starter type
Type 1 = Damages to the contactor and to the overload relay are acceptable.
The starters may be inoperative after each operation. Therefore the starter
shall be inspected and the contactor and/or the overload relay. There shall not
be damages for the users.
Type 2 = No damages to the overload relay or other parts have occurred;
except that welding of contactor or starter contacts is permitted, if they are
easily separated without significant deformation. Only fuse needs to be

Type 1 initial economic advantage - expensive maintenance - stops on the

plant due to faults.

Type 2 initial high investment - service continuity - easy

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Short circuit test modality

Duty cicle:

O - CO at Iq current
O - CO at r current
O : operation of the fuse link
under short circuit condition
CO:closing by contactor under
short circuit condition and operation
of the fuse link
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Short circuit test modality

Iq : Full short circuit current

(Maximum short circuit current
admitted by the combination)
r: critical short circuit current
(Depending from contactor size)
(1 - 3 - 5 - 10 kA)

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Solutions with other short circuit protecting device

Solution with soft starters

As a control component of the motor, this device bases its

functioning on power semiconductors, also called tyristors,
which allow to control and slowly increase the voltage
applied to the motor, making it start slowly and limiting the
starting currents.

Once the ramp time has elapsed, the tyristors are usually
by-passed with a contactor, and the line is directly
connected to the motor.

This means that tyristors do not remain constantly in

function, thus reducing any possible problem due to

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Solutions with other short circuit protecting device

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Selected Optimized Coordination (SOC)


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How to use Selected Optimized Coordination user

interface (SOC)

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With a few mouse click it is possible to search for and

select coordination table(s) most appropriate for the current

Following filters are available

Protection Device

Rated Voltage

Short-Circuit current (Iq current)

Coordination Type

Overload Relay

Motor Rated Power

How to use Selected Optimized Coordination user

interface (SOC)

You can select more than one filter at the time

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How to use Selected Optimized Coordination user

interface (SOC)

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How to use Selected Optimized Coordination user

interface (SOC)

Each result links to the whole coordination table

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How to use Selected Optimized Coordination user

interface (SOC)

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How to use Selected Optimized Coordination user interface (SOC) Table example

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Summary of Fusible Type 2 Motor Coordination

Ready made Type 2 coordination tables that are based on actual test results

Fast and easy selection motor control devices

No need to do expensive tests

Very high limiting capability of fuse link

The cheapest and the most optimized selection

After fault only fuse link replacement is needed

Keeps same protection level as before fault. No derating needed

No risk of re-energization

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