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CRANE BASIC

KNOWLEDGE

CRANE BASIS ENZHI LI 2008

Contents
What is crane?
Crane type
Basic mechanics
theory
Crane components
Power supply
Electric controls

What is crane?
Crane definition
Crane is one kind of facility which are used for lifting,
moving, load or unloading object or material.

Crane type (according utilization )

Crane type (according to form)

Process crane and standard crane

Standard crane Types

Crane : A machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with
the hoisting mechanism as an integral part of the machine.
Pole jib crane
EOT double girder crane

EOT single girder crane

XM

Properties

Lifting height

Crane general properties

Properties

Crane general properties and terms

EOT = Electronic Overhead Travelling


Cranes
WRH = Wire Rope Hoist
ECH = Electronic Chain Hoist
Nominal capacity (tons)
Crane span = dimension measured from
middle of a crane railway to another
railway
Height of lift (HOL) = dimension from
floor to highest hook position
C-dimension, dimension from hook to
hoist fixing point (travelling wheel
surface, or fixed fixing point)
Hoisting speed = m (ft)/min
Cross travelling speed = m (ft)/min for
trolley on a main girder
Long travelling speed = m (ft)/min

Main girder track

C
Main girder
flange

Industrial Cranes

ndard crane is a predesigned crane, extended with options and predefined applications .

Konecranes Standard Lifting

Konecranes Heavy Lifting

Condition
monitoring

Outdoor use

Load display

Steel warehouses

Remote controls Galvanizing plants

industrial crane

options

applications

process crane
Duty
Environment

Industrial Cranes

Single girder crane is an overhead travelling crane with one main girder.
Top Running Single Girder Cranes
I-beam (profile) type main girder
Spans up to 18 m (59 ft)
Loads up to 10 Tons
Box type main girder
Spans up to 30 m (98 ft)
Loads up to 40 Tons

Under Running Single Girder Cranes


Spans up to 22 m (72 ft)
Loads up to 12,5 Tons

1 main girder

Industrial Cranes

ouble girder crane is an overhead travelling crane with two


ain girders.
Spans up to 30 m (98 ft)
Loads up to 80 Tons

2 main girders

Gantry Cranes

Gantry crane is an overhead travelling crane,


where the track is on the ground and the main
girder is on top of legs!
Hoist and hoist power supply are as in

standard cranes
Maximum load 30 tons
Maximum crane span 20 m (65 ft)
Maximum height from ground to main
girder 8 m (59 ft)
As a standard for indoor use, as a special
for outdoors

hinge
joint leg
runway

main girder
solid leg
end carriage

Gantry Cranes

Hinge joint
Gantry cranes have a hinge joint in the other
end of the main girder.
Purpose
Deflection of the main girder causes torque
to the legs that is avoided with hinge joint.

Maximum load

This affects also to dimensioning of the leg


Prevents wearing of drive mechanism
Hinge joint

Torque

Main girder deflection

Semi Gantry Cranes

Semi gantry crane is an overhead travelling


crane, where one end carriage runs on a track
which is mounted on a wall while the other
one is on a track on the ground.
Hoist and hoist power supply are as in

standard cranes
Maximum load 30 tons
Maximum crane span 20 m (65 ft)
Maximum height from ground to main
girder 8 m
As a standard for indoor use, as a
special for outdoors
Does not need hinge joint

runway

leg

runway

Workstation Cranes

Workstation cranes are chain hoist based light lifting solutions.


Pillar jib cranes
9

XPCO

XICU

7
6
5
4
125

250

500

1000

1500

2000

kg

Wall jib cranes

Hollow Profile or I-profile


X

9
XPWO
XIWU
8

Column or Wall jib

Over braced or
Under braced

6
125

250

500

1000
kg

1500

2000

Workstation Cranes

Single girder bridge crane (XMS)


articulated construction
rigid construction
low headroom construction

aximum load and span, single girder (XMS) and double girder (XMD)
16000
14000
12000
10000
XMS

mm 8000

Articulated trolley does


not have this support

XMD

6000
4000
2000
0
125

160

250

320

500

630
kg

800

1000 1250 1600 2000

Rigid construction

Low headroom

Workstation Cranes
Double girder bridge crane
(XMD)
articulated construction
rigid construction
low headroom construction

Articulated trolley does


not have this support

Rigid construction

Low headroom

Workstation Cranes
Monorail Crane

Maximum load 2 tons

Hoist moves on a monorail profile track, curved or straight

Profile types
Profile size increases with the load increase.
Same profiles are used also in single girder and double girder bridge cranes

UKA20

UKA30

UKA40

Basic mechanics theory

Gravity force

F=m*a
F = The force of the load [N]
m = The mass of the load [kg]
a = The acceleration of free fall [9.81m/s2 (32,18 ft/s2 )]

Basic force theory

Tension stress

Force
Tension stress =
Cross-sectional area

Force

Crossectional
area

F
A
Force

Basic force theory

Shear stress

Shear stress

F
A

____Force_______
Cross-sectional area

Basic force theory

Mass of the main girders and the trolley

B
Mass of the load

Basic force theory

Compression / tension

F
Compression

Neutral center axis

Tension

Basic force theory

Force distribution

F = Weight of load and trolley

Twist

Basic force theory

Force distribution

Trolley rail web plate point

<- Rail

<- Web plate

Basic force theory

Maximum allowed deflection

y = L / 500
y = deflection due to SWL (Safe
Working Load) + Trolley mass
L = the span of the crane

In elasticity range

Main girders

Types of main girders

Box girder

I Beam

Main girders

Main parts of an I-beam

Main girders

F
Operation of the
diaphragms

diaphragm

Main girders

The camber

To compensate the
deflection and to
make sure that the trolley
does not need to travel upor down hills on the main
girder.

R = 2000 m

Main girders

Main girder stress calculation

True load

Static loads

Dynamic loads

Gravity forces

Crane movement

Wind loads

True stress
=
Calculated stress

Earth quake

Main girders

Main girder dimensioning

Calculated stress

Elastic limit

Breaking limit

bending

True main girder dimensions

Fatigue

Crane Components

Hoist

End Carriage
Main Girder

Power Supply

Pendant Controller
Travelling Machinery

Main Girder
Main girder is a track for hoist trolley.
Girder types:

Box girders are mainly used for top running


(double girder) trolley types, longer beams or
higher loads.

I-beam girders are mainly used for underrunning


(normal headroom and low headroom) trolley
types, shorter spans or lower loads.

Top running

Under hanging

I-Beam Main Girder

The I-beams of the IPE/INP type are mostly used in


single girder cranes with chain hoists.

HEB, HEA type are usually used in double girder


cranes or single girder cranes with low headroom
hoists.

IPN + U beam is more ridig than a simple I-beam.

Box-Type Main Girder

Diaphragms
Stiffeners

Rail

Top and
bottom
flange
Web- or
side plate

End Carriages

End carriages travel the crane on the runway.

Top Running End Carriages

op running end carriages drive on top of runway.

Joint plate

nd carriage types:

2 wheel end carriages


4 wheel end carriages (bogie type)

Fixing for crane


towing arm
Buffer

Wheel
diameter

Wheel groove

2-wheel end carriage

Derailment support

4-wheel (bogie) end carriage

Underrunning End Carriages

derslung end carriages drive on the bottom flange of runway beam.

Wheel sets
(idle)

derrunning = Underslung = Underhanging


Wheel sets
(driving)

d carriage types:

4-wheel end carriages

Buffer

Wheel
diameter

Flange width

Main girder connection

Joint Types

int is a connection between main girder and end carriage.


Top running end carriages

Top connection, standard

Side connection standard low

Top connection, medium

Side connection, standard

Side connection low

Joint Types
Underslung end carriages

Standard connection

Medium connection

Joint Plates
Joint plates are plates that are used between end carriage
and main girder
Plates are welded to main girder and connected to end
carriage with bolts.
Joint plates are used to increase crane capacity,
strengthen the connection.

High connection

Travelling Machineries

Travelling machinery is an electric drive unit


which is used to move the the load in
horizontal cross movements.
Components
Gear box case
Transmission parts
- Gear shafts (primary, intermediate and
secondary shafts)
- Gear wheels
- Bearings
Motor and brake
- Brake can be a compact brake or DC
brake
Series
ECH trolley drive (TMU); two sizes, two gear ratios
WRH trolley drive (GEK); one frame size, one gear ratio
Crane and WRH D-trolley drive (GES); three frame sizes, 4
gear ratios per frame size
All gears are grease lubricated

Power Supply

Hoist Power Supply

Hoist power supply is a complex system which is


designed for controlling hoist or crane
movements.
System is made by using mechanical and

electrical components in different


configurations according customer needs.
Main power is supplied to machines (hoist,
crane) via cables (flat or round).
Control signals for movements (hoisting,
moving) are supplied via separate cables.
Limiting devices (limit switches, safety
devices) are also supplied via same system.

Hoist Power Supply

Flat cables and cable


trolleys
Main power and control signals are
transported via flat cables between bridge
electric panel and hoist panel.
Flat cables are fixed to the cable trolleys.
Cable trolleys run on a C-track
1st track is for the hoist power supply
2nd track is for sliding pendant hanger

Hoist Power Supply

Energy Chain
Crawler type solution where power and
control cables are inside crawler which runs
in a route channel that is mounted on the
top of lower flange of Ibeam.
Energy chain

Option

Only for I-beam main girders


Only for remote controlled cranes
Smaller dimensions for the crane

Route channel

Crane Power Supply

Crane power supply system feeds the main


power from power supply to crane bridge
cubicle
Crane power towing arm
Crane power townig arm connects crane
power supply, festoon or conductor to crane
electric panel.
Usually towing arm is bolted on the side of
end carriage.
If crane is equipped with bridge travelling
limit switch, limit switch is also fixed on the
towing arm

Towing arm

Crane Power Supply

Copper conductor type power supply


Power is fed through copper conductor rails and

moved to crane bridge panel with collectors and


towing arm.
2 basic models of ductor
Click ductor = 4 m (13 ft) long quick installation
parts
Continuous ductor = seamless conductor for
runway length
Festoon type power supply
Power for crane can also be delivered with with
festoon type solutioon, similar to hoist power
supply.
Collector trolleys

Crane Power Supply

Bridge Electric Panel

Bridge electric panel is a nerve center for crane


or crane movements controlling designed
applications.
Electric panel includes whole crane drive
logics which has been built with mechanical
and electrical components.
All information on driving the crane goes
through this panel.
Controlling of crane functionality is due to
crane electric panel design and thus panel
size varie from small (400 mm * 400 mm) (1
3 * 1 3 ) up to length of several meters
(inverters, PLCs etc.) For example Electric
panel line which is 6 m (20 ft) long can be
1,5 m (5 ft) tall.

Electric Controls

Pendant and Remote Controllers

Industrial cranes are almost in all cases operated


with handheld controller.

Pendant Controller

Pendant controller is a pusbutton station which is used by operator for controlling


crane movements.
Pendant is sliding on festoon c-track

independent of hoist movement.


In some cases pendant can be fixed on
the hoist unit.
In case of remote controller, pendant is
located in bridge panel as spare
controlling device if needed.
Main power

Load display (optional)


Emergency stop pushbutton
Hoist operation
Trolley operation
Bridge operation

Radio Controllers

Radio controller is a push-button or joystick type


controller which is used by operator for wireless
controlling of the crane.
Optional feature
Safer controlling of the crane for the operator
2 product families available:
- Rad for standard applications
- Remox for special applications to control also
lights, lifting devices etc.
Push-button controllers
2 step push-buttons for every movement direction
Joystick controllers
2 multi-step joysticks for 3 movement direction

Speed Controls

Hoisting Speed Controls

Purpose of hoisting speed controls is to make the


hook move vertically according command comming
from the crane user.
Contactor control
Standard feature in hoisting motion
Controls hoisting movement, up/down
Mechanical contactors
2 speeds, high/low
Contactors

Hoisting Speed Controls

Inverter control

Optional control

Controls hoisting movement, up/down

Controls speed by controlling motor frequency

Variable speed control

Soft start and stop of motions through slow speed


Hoisting inverter in bridge electric panel

Travelling Speed Controls

Purpose of travelling speed controls is to make the hook


move horizontally according command comming from the
crane user.

Inverter control
Standard
control in trolley movement

standard control in bridge movement

Controls speed by controlling motor frequency

Smooth start and stop with ramp

Variable speed control

Contactor control

optional control in bridge movement

Optional control in trolley movement

Mechanical contactors

2 speeds, high/low

inverter in bridge electric panel

Condition Monitoring

Condition Monitoring Unit is to supervise and protect


the hoist.
Measures the use of the hoist and prevents the
hoisting or lowering in case a potential dangerous
situation is detected
Can be used both in 2-speed and in variable speed
controls
Protection
Overload protection
Supervision
Hoist motor overheating supervision

Condition Monitoring unit in hoist panel

Run and fault supervision


Is running safe
Is motor actually running when requested
Supply voltage phase supervision
Sudden load increase supervision
Starting and stopping through slow speed
In 2-speed applications

* Some additional supervisions as option

Condition Monitoring

Monitoring
Monitoring items read through the display
Display can also be located as remote
Primary monitoring items according to
ISO/FeM regulations
Hoist Safe Working Period, SWP%
Starts counter
Run time counter
From monitoring items also additional
information of the hoist usage.

Monitoring SWP%

Crane application

Steel mail

Power plant

Crane application

Paper mill

Steel mill

industry

Crane application

Waste power plant

NOT JUST LIFTING


THINGS, BUT ENTIRE
BUSINESS