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Circuit Theory

1. Basic Circuit
2. Circuit Network With Load Resistance
3. Circuit Analysis/Electrical Network
4. Circuit With Inductor(L)
5. Circuit With Capacitor(C)
6. Circuit With Reactance(X) and Impedance(Z)

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1. Basic Theory
1. Draw the Basic Circuit
2. Unit and Term-
1. Ampere (A)-electrical current
2. Volt (V)-different potential. Figure 3: Basic Circuit

3. Ohm(Ω)-resistance At least 4 part:


1.Source of emf
4. Coulomb (Q)-electrical charge 2.Conductor
3.A load
5. E.m.f.- Electromotive force 4.Switch (control)
3. Part of Basic Circuit (next page)

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Symbol Symbol

Wire no Wire
connected connected

Node /
Resistor Junction

Variable Resistor Lamp

w
w

Cell Watt meter


A
A

Inductor Amp meter


V
V

Capacitor Volt meter

Impedance
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2. Circuit Network With Load
Resistance(R)
• Connection of resistors
1. Series-
• R total=R1+R2+Rn
• I total=I (R1) = I (R2) = I (Rn)
• E=V(R1) + V (R2) +V(Rn)
• Voltage drop depend on resistor value
2. Parallel-
• 1/R total=1/R1+1/R2+1/Rn
• I total=I (R1) + I (R2) + I (Rn)
• E=V(R1) = V (R2) = V(Rn)

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3. Circuit Analysis/Electrical Network
1. Ohm’s law
2. Kirchhoff’s Current Laws (KCL)
3. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Laws (KVL)
4. Thevenin’s Theorem
5. Maximum Power Transfer
6. Wye-Delta Transformations

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1. Ohms Law (1)
• Ohm’s law states that the voltage across a resistor is
directly proportional to the current I flowing
through the resistor.
• Mathematical expression for Ohm’s Law is as
follows:
v  iR

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Example
V
I R

V
I R

V
I R
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Nodes, Branches and Loops
• A branch represents a single element such as a
voltage source or a resistor.
• A node is the point of connection between
two or more branches.
• A loop is any closed path in a circuit.

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Nodes, Branches and Loops
Example

Original circuit

Equivalent circuit

How many branches, nodes and loops are there?

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3. Kirchhoff’s Current Laws (KCL)
• states that :
– the algebraic sum of currents entering a node is zero. or
– The total currents enter a node=The current exit a node

i
n 1
n 0

itotal=i1+i3+i2+i4+i5=0…(i)
itotal=i1+i3+i4=i5+i2…….(ii)
Mathematically,

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Example: Give the expression of itotal

Answer:

itotal=i1-i3+i2=0…(i)
itotal=i1=i2+i3…….(ii)
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4. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
• states that:
– the algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is
zero.

Mathematically,

v1  v2  v3  v4  v5  0
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4. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Example

• Applying the KVL equation for the circuit of the figure below.

va-v1-vb-v2-v3 = 0

V1 = IR1 v2 = IR2 v3 = IR3

 va-vb = I(R1 + R2 + R3)

va  vb
I
R1  R2  R3
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5. Thevenin’s Theorem

It states that a linear two-terminal circuit (Fig. a)


can be replaced by an equivalent circuit (Fig. b)
consisting of a voltage source VTH in series with a
resistor RTH,

where

• VTH is the open-circuit voltage at the terminals.

• RTH is the input or equivalent resistance at the


terminals when the independent sources are turned
off.

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Step of Thevenin’s Theorem
• Step 1:
– Remove resistor(RL) and mark terminal a-b
• Step 2:
– Find RTH by close voltage supply and open current
supply
• Step 3:
– Find VTh at terminal a-b
• Step 4:
– Draw equivalent circuit for Thevenin and put RL

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6. Maximum Power Transfer
If the entire circuit is replaced by its
Thevenin equivalent except for the load,
the power delivered to the load is:

2
 VTh 
P  i 2 RL    RL
 RTh  RL 

For maximum power dissipated in RL,


Pmax, for a given RTH,
and VTH,
2
VTh
RL  RTH  Pmax 
4RL The power transfer profile with different RL

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7. Wye-Delta Transformations

Delta -> Star Star -> Delta

R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
R1 
Rb R c Ra 
( R a  Rb  R c ) R1

Rc R a R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
R2  Rb 
( Ra  Rb  Rc ) R2

R a Rb R1 R2  R2 R3  R3 R1
R3  Rc 
( R a  Rb  R c ) R3
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