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Computer

Overview

-ANNU SAINI

WHAT IS A
COMPUTER?
An electronic device
that performs various
tasks and operations
or stores, correlates,
or otherwise processes
data as per the set of
instructions given to
it.

FUNCTIONING OF A
COMPUTER

DATA vs
INFORMATION
DATA IS RAW FACTS AND
FIGURES
FOR EXAMPLE MOHAN, 1977, A,162.9, 752
PROCESSED DATA IS CALLED
INFORMATION
FOR EXAMPLE MOHAN WHOSE
ROLLNO IS 1977, HAS GOT GRADE
A

WHAT GOES IN IS DATA AND


WHAT COMES OUT IS
INFORMATION
THE PROCESS OF TURNING DATA INTO
INFORMATION IS ALSO KNOWN AS
INFORMATION PROCESSING CYCLE.
(IPO CYCLE) i.e it needs certain input,
carries out a process and produces the
output

FUNCTIONAL
COMPONENTS
OF A COMPUTER

BASIC STRUCTURE OF A
COMPUTER

Input Device:
Punch card
reader,
Keyboard,
Mouse,
Scanner,
Voice.

Computer:

Output Device:

CPU,
Internal Memory

Monitor,
Printer,
Plotter,
Modem,
Disk Drive

External Storage:
Floppy disk,Hard disk,
Optical disk, Tape drive

BASIC COMPONENTS
OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS
Underlying Structure

Secondar
y
Memory

Logical Structure of Digital Computers

Input Unit
Data and instruction
from the user to the
computer
Converts raw data into
electronic form i.e
binary form so that it
can be understood by
the computer

The Central Processing Unit

brain of a computer
The CPU contains:
Arithmetic / Logic Unit

Control Unit

Registers

Performs
calculations and
makes decisions
Coordinates
processing
steps
Small
storage
areas

10

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT


(CPU)
Central Processor Unit (CPU)

Coordinating all computer operations


Performing arithmetic and logical
operations on data
Contains two subcomponents

Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)

Control Unit (CU)

Carries on all types of calculation (Arithmetic


and logical operations)
Controls the actions of the other components.

An integrated circuit (IC)


that is a full central
processing unit is called a
microprocessor (p); a CPUs
current instruction and data
values are stored temporally
inside the CPU in special
high-speed memory location
called registers.

Computer Output
Devices
The output information from the
computer is in the form of electronic
binary signals which needs conversion in
some form which can be easily
understood by human beings
i.e characters, graphical,or audio visual
This function of conversion is performed
by output units

Common output methods:


Printer output to paper using various
types of printers
Computer output microfilm (COM)
microfilm generated for archive copies
in small space
Voice response units computer
recognizes input, generates verbal
response messages

Computer Memory
All data flows to and from memory
Divided into cells:
Each has a unique address
Memory cell types:

Byte stores one character


of data
Word stores two or more
characters of data

Memory

Types of memory

Main
Memory

Read
Only
Memory

Secondary
Memory

RandomAccess
Memory

Hard
Disk

Flopp
y Disk

CDROM

Measuring Memory
Each 0,1- is called a bit
1 Byte is 8 bits
1 Nibble is 4 bits
1 Kilobyte (KB) = 210 bytes (1024 bytes)
1 Megabyte (MB) =210 KB = 220 bytes(1024x1024)
1 Gigabyte (GB) = 210 MB= 230 bytes
(1024x1024x1024)
1Terabyte(TB) = 210 GB=240 bytes
1 Petabyte(PT) = 210 TB=250 bytes

Types of Memory
M e m o ry
P r im a r y

ROM

PROM EPROM EAPROM EAPROM

S e c o n d a ry

RAM

SRAM

DRAM

Main memory
A PC's main memory place (or primary
storage) is fast storage space that is
directly accessible by the CPU, used to
store the currently executing program and
immediate data.
Main memory is usually much faster than
mass storage devices like hard disks or
optical discs, but cannot retain data
without power. Thats why, it isnt suitable
for long-term data storage.
In PCs main memory usually called RAM
(Random Access Memory).

Primary Memory
It is the main or internal memory
where execution takes place.
It can be broadly categorized into
two parts
RAM (Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)

RAM

It is known as the Read and Write


memory.
This memory is volatile.
Whatever information you store is
temporary in nature and when you switch
off the computer everything is erased.

Dynamic RAM
Dynamic Memory is often referred to as volatile
memory.
Data is stored within the capacitance of a
transistor. The capacitor is unable to prevent
the charge from slowly discharging. This would
result in the loss of data. A solution to this
problem is the introduction of additional
circuitry which performs a 'memory refresh' by
periodically restoring the charge.
Dynamic memory is cheaper than Static memory
and is used in larger memory systems.

Static RAM
Static memory is more expensive to
produce than Dynamic memory, but
because of its lower power consumption
it is often used in small to medium sized
systems.
Static memory retains data within a cell
until the data is overwritten or lost as a
result of power being shut down.

ROM
It is a memory unit that performs the
Read operation only and does not have
a write capability.
The Binary information in the ROM is
made permanent during the hardware
production of the unit and it is not
accessible to users to store information.

Secondary Memory
It is the Permanent memory. The
information stored is permanent in
nature and it uses external storage
devices like Floppy disk, Magnetic
disk, CD-ROM etc.

(Secondary Storage)
When power is off, everything stored in
memory is lost
Computer files are used to store data long
term
File storage devices:
Magnetic tape drives, disk drives, floppy drives
Optical CD or DVD drives

(Secondary Memory
Storage)
Sequential access files
Usually stored on magnetic tape drives

Direct access files


Stored on Direct Access Storage
Devices (DASD) - magnetic disk drives

Types of DASD

Fixed (hard) drives

Figure 2.7 Diagram of a Magnetic Disk Drive

Types of DASD
Removable:
Floppy drives
Zip drives
Newest: portable
DASD for PCs
keychain/pen drive

Figure 2.8 USB Keychain Drive

Winchester Disks

SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM,


DDR,RDRAM, ..BLAM..
SRAM
CPU
Static Random Access Memory
BLAM
doesnt need to be refreshed - but like all
10 ns
speed

RAM, is erased when the power is OFF

5-10X
slower

DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a type of memory that is constantly


refreshed or will loose its contents.

SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) designed to work with


the CPU clock to work faster than DRAM

DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) works twice as


fast as SDRAM

So how much and what type


of memory should you get?
It will depend on the type of computer
you have/or are buying
Older systems are no always compatible with
newer memory types
Sometimes too much memory can cause
problems with Windows

It will depend on the applications you


wish to run

Photoshop or other graphical applications


require much more memory than simple word
processing
Do you wish to have many applications running
simultaneously?

To save data for later use we


can store data on Secondary
(Auxiliary) Memory devices
Auxiliary Memory is cheaper/slower than Primary
memory but is not erased when the Power Supply is
OFF.
Hard drive A non-removable device 20-250GB ranges
Floppy disk drive- 1.44MB
CDs & DVDs 600 MB. (Read vs. RW)
Removable Hard drives Zip, Jazz
Memory Sticks

Hardware
and Software

Hardware represents the physical and tangible


components of the computer i.e the components
that can be seen and touched.
Example CPU, floppy disk, hard disk , input
devices, output devices etc
Peripherals are the devices that surround the
system unit
Example keyboard, mouse, speakers, printers,
monitors etc are peripherals

A computer consists
of five primary
hardware
components

Input devices
Output devices
CPU
Storage devices
Memory
These components work together with
software to perform calculations,
organize data and communicate with
other components

SOFTWARE
Software represents the set of programs
that govern the operation of a computer
system and make the hardware run.
Its three categories are:
Operating System
Language Processors
Application Software

System
Software

OPERATING SYSTEM

An Operating System?
What is an Operating System?
A program that acts as an intermediary between
a user of a computer and the computer hardware.
What is the purpose of an operating system?
To provide an environment in which a user can
execute programs.
What are the goals of an Operating System?
The primary goal of an Operating System is to
make the computer system convenient to use.
The secondary goal is to make the computer
system efficient to use.

Computer System Components

Hardware provides basic computing resources


(CPU, memory, I/O devices).
Operating system controls and coordinates the
use of the hardware among the various
application programs for the various users.
Applications programs define the ways in which
the system resources are used to solve the
computing problems of the users (compilers,
database systems, video games, business
programs).
Users (people, machines, other computers).

ROLE OF OPERATING SYSTEM


USER
Interacts
with

APPLICATION
SOFTWARE

Interacts
with

OPERATING
SYSTEM

Interacts
with

CPU &
HARDWARE

OPERATING SYSTEM
PERFORMS THE
FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS
1. Provides the instructions to prepare userinterface i.e way to interact with user
whether through typed commands or
through graphical symbols
2. Loads necessary programs into RAM which
are required for proper functioning
3. Coordinates how programs work with the
CPU, Keyboard, mouse,printer and other
hardware as well with other software
4. Manages the information is stored on and
retrieved from disks.

Types of OS
Single User
Multiuser
Batch
Processing
Multiprocessing
Real Time

Supports single user


Can support many users
Processes the group of
processes
Can handle many CPUs
at same time
Bound to dead lines

LANGUAGE
PROCESSORS
CONVERTS HIGH LEVEL
LANGUAGE INTO MACHINE
LANGUAGE SO AS TO MAKE IT
UNDERSTANDABLE TO THE
COMPUTER

TYPES OF
LANGUAGE PROCESSORS

ASSEMBLER
INTERPRETER
COMPILER

Assembler converts the program written


in assembly language into machine language
Interpreter converts HLL program into
machine language by converting and
executing it line by line.
Compiler converts the entire HLL program
in one go, and reports all the errors of the
program along with the line numbers

APPLICATION
SOFTWARE
An Application software is the set
of programs necessary to carry
out operations for a specified
application

TYPES OF
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
1. Customised Application Software
It is developed to meet all the requirements
specified by the user

2. General Application Software


It is developed keeping in mind the general
requirements for carrying out a specific task

Applications Software

Computer programs written to perform


specified tasks. They work in tandem
with specific Operating Systems

Word Processing
Spreadsheets
Database Management Systems
Web design software
Internet Access & E-mail
Graphics Packages

STRENGTHS AND
WEAKNESSES OF A
COMPUTER
STRENGTHS
Speed
High Storage
Capacity
Accuracy
Reliability (immune to
fatigue & boredom)

Versatility (can

perform repetitive jobs


efficiently)

WEAKNESSES
Lack of decision making
IQ Zero

EVOLUTION OF
COMPUTERS
THE CONCEPT OF A COMPUTER DID
NOT MATERIALIZE OVERNIGHT.
LET US LOOK AT THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTER
THROUGH VARIOUS STAGES

ABACUS
An ABACUS
consists of beads
divided into two
parts which are
movable on the
rods of the two
parts

NAPIER LOGS AND


BONES
John Napier developed the
idea of logarithm.
He used logs to transform
multiplication problem to
addition problem
This device later became
the basis for a SLIDE
RULE
Napier also devised set of
numbering rods known as
Napier Bones.

PASCALS ADDING
MACHINE
Blaise Pascal, French mathematician
invented a machine in 1642 made up of
gears which was used for adding and
subtracting numbers quickly.
This machine was called ADDING
MACHINE
it worked on clock work mechanism

LEIBNITZS
CALCULATOR
Gotfried leibnitz, a German
mathematician ,improved on ADDING
MACHINE and constructed a machine
in 1671 that was able to perform
multiplication and division.

JACQUARDS LOOM
JOSEPH JACQUARD
manufactured punched
cards at the end of
American Evolution to
control looms in 1801.
The entire process was
automatic and under a
programs control.
With the invention of
punched cards the era of
storing and retrieving
information started that
greatly effected later
inventions.

BABBAGES
DIFFERENCE ENGINE
Charles Babbage developed
a machine called
Difference Engine in 1822.
It was expected to
calculate logarithmic
tables to a higher degree
of precision.
It was made to calculate
various mathematical
functions

BABBAGES
ANALYTICAL ENGINE
This device becomes real
ancestor of the modern day
computer
It was capable of performing
all four arithmetic operations
as well as comparison.
It included the concept of
central processor, storage
area, memory and inputoutput devices in his design.

HOLLERITHS MACHINE
Herman Hollerith, an
American fabricated the
dream of Charles Babbage.
This machine was used by
American Department of
Census to compile their data .
And were able to complete
compilation in 3 years which
earlier used to take around
10 years.

Mark-I
Prof. Howard Aiken in U.S.A.
constructed in 1943 an
electromechanical computer
named Mark-I
It could multiply two 10 digit
number in 5 seconds. It was
the 1st machine which could
perform according to pre
programmed instructions
automatically without manual
interference.
This was the first operational
general purpose computer.

The Generation of
Modern Computer
The term computer Generation is used in
relation to the hardware of computers.
Each phase of computer development is
known as separate generation of
computers. Each phase of development is
characterized by type of switching
circuits it utilizes.

Stored Program
Computer
Most computers today use the idea
of stored program computer that was
proposed by Dr. John Von Neumann in
1945.
The Van Neumann architecture is
based on three key concepts.

Von Neumann
Architecture
Data & instructions are stored in a
single read-write memory.
The memory contents are
addressable by locations.
Execution takes place in a sequential
fashion i.e. from one instruction to
the next unless modified explicitly.

The First Generation


Computers
(1949-55)

Key Features of First


Generation Computers

Used vacuum tubes


Big and clumsy computers
Electricity consumption high
Electric failure occurred regularly
Large air conditioners were necessary
(computers generated heat)
Programming in machine language

Examples of First
Generation Computers

ENIAC
EDVAC
EDSAC
UNIVAC-I

The Second
Generation Computers
(1956-65)

Key Features of Second


Generation Computers
Transistor replaced vaccum tubes
Computer became small
Generated less heat
Electricity consumption lower
More reliable
Faster
First operating systems used
Programming in machine language as well as assembly
language
Core memory developed
Magnetic tapes and disks used.

Examples of Second
Generation Computers

IBM 1401
IBM 1620
IBM 7094
CDC 1604
CDC 3600
UNIVAC 1108

The Third
Generation
Computers
(1966-75)

Key Features of Third


Generation Computers
Integrated circuits developed
Computers smaller, faster and more
reliable
Power consumption lower
High level languages appeared

Examples of Third
Generation Computers

IBM-360 SERIES
ICL-1900 SERIES
IBM-370/168
ICL-2900
HONEYWELL MODEL 316
HONEYWELL 6000 SERIES
SOME MINI COMPUTERS DEVELOPED
DURING THIS PHASE ARE

ICL-2903 BY INTERNATIONAL COMPUTERS


LIMITED
CDC-1700 BY CONTROL DATA CORPORATION
PDP-11/45 BY PERSONAL DATA PROCESSOR

THIRD GENERATION
COMPUTERS ARE USED IN THE
FOLLOWING AREAS

EDUCATION
SURVEY
SMALL BUSINESSES
ESTIMATION
ANALYSIS ETC ALONG WITH
THEIR PREVIUS USAGE AREAS I.E
SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING

THE FOURTH
GENERATION
COMPUTERS
(1976- PRESENT)

Types of Computers

1. PC
The personal computer (PC) defines a computer
designed for general use by a single person. While
a Mac is a PC, most people relate the term with
systems that run the Windows operating system.
PCs were first known as microcomputers because
they were a complete computer but built on a
smaller scale than the huge systems in use by
most businesses.

2. Desktop
A PC that is not designed for
portability is a desktop computer. The
expectation with desktop systems are
that you will set the computer up in a
permanent location. Most desktops
offer more power, storage and
versatility for less cost than their
portable brethren.

http://www.paramounttraining.com.au/stor
age/ComputerWorkshop.jpg

3. Laptop

Also called notebooks, laptops are


portable computers that integrate
the display, keyboard, a pointing
device or trackball, processor,
memory and hard drive all in a
battery-operated package slightly
larger than an average hardcover
book.

http://blog.loaz.com/media/blogs/timw
ang/mini-laptop-fujitsu-P7230.jpg

4. PDA

http://sartechnology.ca/sartechnology/PDA6.jpg

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)


are tightly integrated computers
that often use flash memory
instead of a hard drive for
storage. These computers usually
do not have keyboards but rely on
touchscreen technology for user
input. PDAs are typically smaller
than a paperback novel, very
lightweight with a reasonable
battery life. A slightly larger and
heavier version of the PDA is the
handheld computer.

5. Work Station
The fifth type of computer is a
workstation. A workstation is simply a
desktop computer that has a more
powerful processor, additional
memory and enhanced capabilities for
performing a special group of task,
such as 3D Graphics or game
development.

6.
Server
A computer that has been optimized to
provide services to other computers
over a network. Servers usually have
powerful processors, lots of memory
and large hard drives. The next type
of computer can fill an entire room.

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2369/2084311380_
0906fd827d_o.jpg

7. Mainframe
In the early days of computing,
mainframes were huge computers
that could fill an entire room or
even a whole floor! As the size of
computers has diminished while
the power has increased, the term
mainframe has fallen out of use in
favor of enterprise server. You'll
still hear the term used,
particularly in large companies to
describe the huge machines
processing millions of transactions
every day.
http://www.geekzone.co.nz/images/news/IBMSystemz
10mainframe.jpg

8. Mini computer
Another term rarely used anymore,
minicomputers fall in between
microcomputers (PCs) and
mainframes (enterprise servers).
Minicomputers are normally referred
to as mid-range servers now.

9. Super Computer

This type of computer


usually costs hundreds of
thousands or even millions
of dollars. Although some
supercomputers are single
computer systems, most are
comprised of multiple high
performance computers
working in parallel as a
single system. The best
known supercomputers are
built by Cray
Supercomputers.

http://huehueteotl.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/supercomputer.jpg

10. Wearable Computer


The latest trend in computing
is wearable computers.
Essentially, common computer
applications (e-mail, database,
multimedia,
calendar/scheduler) are
integrated into watches, cell
phones, visors and even
clothing! For more
information see these articles
on computer clothing, smart
watches and fabric PCs.

http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/images/fast2_b.jpg

Optical computers
current research in computer
architecture includes much work on the
design of computers which use light
beams to perform computation; these
machines should be smaller, faster and
cooler than current electronic machines

Biological computers
computers based on DNA: problems
are encoded on strands of DNA which
are mixed in solution and react to form
DNA-coded answers

ANALOG COMPUTER

1. Analog computers measure the


continuous change in something

Current in a wire
Movement of the tide
Rate at which a wheel turns

2. More complicated to build than digital


computers
3. Analog computers are very rare today

DIGITAL COMPUTERS

1. Use discrete numbers (whole digits) to


control the electrical circuits
2. Built of switches that are either on or off

Can not have values in-between 0 or 1 like the


analog computer
1 turns the switch on
0 turns the switch off

3. Almost all computers built today are


digital computers

First Generation - Vacuum Tubes

. From 1946 to 1956


did from 2,000 to 16,000 additions per
second
Had main memory 100 bytes to 2
kilobytes
2. Used vacuum tubes
3. Very large machines
special rooms to house them with air
conditioning
specially trained technicians to run &
maintain

Transistors
1. From 1959 to around 1965
2. Smaller, faster, and more reliable

used transistors
6,000 to 3,000,000 operations/s
main memory 6 kilobytes to 1.3 megabytes
Contained in four cabinets about 6 feet
high by 4 feet wide, each weighing 250
pounds

3. one-tenth the price of a 1st Generation


4. become common in larger businesses
and universities

Circuits
1. Form 1965 to around 1972
2. Used integrated circuits many
transistors on one piece of silicon
3. Smaller, faster, more reliable, and
lower in price

Size of a stove or refrigerator, some can


fit on desktops
Can do 100,000 to 400,000,000 operations
per second
Cost about one-tenth the amount of second
generation computers

4. Computers become very common in


medium to large businesses

Microprocessors

1. From 1972 until now


2. Used large scale to very large scale integrated circuits

Put more than one IC on a silicon chip


Can do more than one function

Size of a television or much smaller


Can do 500,000 to 1,000,000,000 operations/second

3. smaller, faster, more reliable, and lower in price


Cost one-tenth, or less, the amount of third generation

4. very common in homes and business

Future Computer
Generations
1. Most likely the following will happen to
computer technology

It will become lower in price


Computers will become smaller and faster
Computers will have larger memories and
more storage space

2. Computers will become an integral part


of everyone's life

COMPUTER TYPES

CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION

HISTORY
TWO BASIC KINDS
GENERATION
MANUFACTURER
WIDELY ACCEPTED
CLASSIFICATION

WIDELY ACCEPTED WAYS

SIZE (Early days): mainframe,


minicomputer, microcomputer.
SIZE (Now): Floortop, Desktop,
Laptop, Palmtop, Wearable.
POWER: Supercomputer, server,
enterprise server (mainframe), midrange server (minicomputer), PC.

PC
computer designed for general use by
a single person.
PCs were first known as
microcomputers because they were a
complete computer but built on a
smaller scale than the huge systems in
use by most businesses.

DESKTOP
A PC that is not designed for
portability.
you will set the computer up in a
permanent location.
Most desktops offer more power,
storage and versatility for less cost
than their portable brethren.

Laptop
Also called notebooks.
Laptop are portable computers that
integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing
device or trackball, processor, memory and
hard drive all in a battery-operated package
slightly larger than an average hardcover
book.

Palmtop
More commonly known as Personal
Digital Assistants (PDAs)
palmtops are tightly integrated
computers that often use flash memory
instead of a hard drive for storage.
usually do not have keyboards but rely
on touchscreen technology for user
input.
A slightly larger and heavier version of
the palmtop is the handheld computer.

Workstation
A desktop computer that has a
more powerful processor, additional
memory and enhanced capabilities
for performing a special group of
task, such as 3D Graphics or game
development.

Mainframe
In the early days of computing, mainframes
were huge computers that could fill an entire
room or even a whole floor!
the term mainframe has fallen out of use in
favor of enterprise server.
the term still used, particularly in large
companies to describe the huge machines
processing millions of transactions every day.

Minicomputer
term rarely used anymore,
minicomputers fall in between
microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes
(enterprise servers).
Minicomputers are normally referred to
as mid-range servers now.

Supercomputer
Costs hundreds of thousands or
even millions of dollars.
Most are comprised of multiple
high performance computers
working in parallel as a single
system.
Used for military purposes or in
large companies

Wearable
The latest trend in computing
Essentially, common computer
applications (e-mail, database,
multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are
integrated into watches, cell phones,
visors and even clothing!

TYPES OF COMPUTER

What software you need will affect you


decision of what hardware to buyFor
example how much hard drive space will
you need with the following
requirements?

Windows XP Professional Operating System - *1.5 GB


Full install of MS Office 2003 - *450 MB
Dream Weaver - *800 MB
Adobes Photoshop - *280MB
Have room to store my photo album with 150 pictures
- .. Average of 500KB each

In GB: 1.5+.45+.8+.28+150*.005=3.78

Hardware Development
First Generation (1946-1959)
Second Generation (1960-1965)
Third Generation (1966-1975)
Fourth Generation (1975 - Now)
Accessories

Software Development
System Software

Operating Systems
Utility Programs
Language Translators

Operating System
Without operating system, a software application or
a program language software cant communicate with
the computer.
Operating System is just like a brain on human body
which organize all process inside a human body

OS/360
UNIX

CP/M

OS/2

OS/400

WINDOWS
MS-DOS

There are six basic functions


that an operating system can
perform :
1. Schedule Jobs.
2. Manage Hardware and Software Resources
3. Maintain Systems Security
4. Enable Multiple User Resource Sharing
5. Handle Interrupts
6. Maintain Usage Records

Utility Programs
Utilities enable users to copy files, erase
files, sort the content of files, merge two or
more files together, and prepare
removeable storage mediafor use.Other
utilities allow the computer operations
manager to recover lost or bad files,
monitor performance of the system, and
event control the flow data between users
and computers.

Language Programming :There are three


different kind of Language programming:
Machine Language
Low level Language
Assembler

High Level Language


Fortran, Lisp, Algol, Cobol,
RPG, Basic, Pascal, Prolog, C,
Matlab, etc.

Machine Language
A computer's native language, containing instructions that are
binary numbers.
It is difficult for human to learn and use.
Instructions to the control unit must be expressed in terms of the
machine language of the particular computer.
A machine language instruction conveys the operation to
performed and the operands, or memory cells, that are to take part.
Example, compute the cost of an item
cost = price + tax

Operation Code Operation Meaning


001

Load

010

Store

011

Add

...
111

Halt

Copy the value of the memory cell addressed into


the accumulator
Copy the value of the accumulator into the word
addressed
Replace the present value of the accumulator with
the sum of its present value and the value of the
memory cell addressed.
Terminate execution
Sample Instruction Set

Assembly Language
- Is programming language in English-like abbreviations
- Later be converted into machine code by program's translator
called assemblers
- Example, adds to number and store in another variable
LOAD A
ADD
B
STORE C

High-Level Language
- A programming language whose instructions resemble every day
language
- Has a language standard that describe the grammatical form
(syntax) of the language
- Every high-level language instruction must conform to the syntax
rules specified in the language standard.
- Example, BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, LISP, PASCAL,
Java
- Example of C++ code,
cost = price + tax;

Topic

History of computer development


Computer generation
Programming language

Development
Charles Babbage
Design first modern computer
Invent
difference engine
Analytical Engine (main part of copmuter
system)

Development
Count Ada Lovelace
First programmer
Assist in developing instruction for
Babbage device computation

Development
Herman Hollerith
Develop first computer using
electrical power
Founder of electronic punch card

Development
John V. Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
Build first electronically operated
digital computer
ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)

Development
UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic
Computer)
First generation comercial computer
For scientific and comercial
applications
Eckert & Mauchly send first UNIVAC
to U.S Census Bureau in 1951.

Development

Development
UNIVAC characteristic
Easier to use compared to ENIAC
Less vacuum tube (more reliable)
Stored program found by John Von
Neumann
General purpose
Use machine language

Development
Apple Computer
Found by Steve Jobbs dan & Steve
Wozniak in 1977
First computer with easy to use
screen and keyboard

Development

Computer Generation
First Generation

1940s early 1950s


Vacuum tube as switch
Bulky, slow, easily heated
Always fail
ABC, MARK1, ENIAC, UNIVAC
Stored program concept (Von Neumann)
Assembly Language

Computer Generation
Second Generation

1950s mid 1960


transistor as switch
Smaller and faster (x1000)
Less heat, more reliable, cheap
The usage of high level language begins
DEC-PDP-1

Computer Generation
Third Generation

Late 1960s
Silicon chip as switch
Smaller and faster (x1000)
More reliable

Computer Generation
Fourth Generation
1970s current
Single processor microchip as switch
Very low cost and afforded by
individual

HISTORY AND COMPUTER REVOLUTION


Generati
on

Electronic
circuit

Main
Memory

Secondary
Memory

Vacuum Tube

Magnetic reel

-Magnetic reel
Magnetic tape

transistor

Integrated
circuit

Magnetic
core

Magnetic
core

Semiconduct
or circuit

Output

Computer
Size

-paper tape

punch card
- printer

Room size
30
ton,1500
kps,18000
vacuum
tube,140k/
w

punch card
- printer

Drawer
size

punch card

punch card
Magnetic tape
- Magnetic
disk
Magnetic tape
Magnetic disk

microprocesso
r

Input

-magnetic disk
-diskette
-magnetic
wave

-keyboard,
Magnetic
tape,Magneti
c disk
keyboard
Optical
recognition
Light pen
Graphic
tablet

Table size
-printer
video
display
-printer,
video
display,
audio
response

Typewriter
size

Programming Language

Generatio Programming Language


n
1
Machine Language
2

Assembly Language

High Level Language

Very High Level


Language
Natural Language

Programming Language
Assembly language
Low level
Use mnemonic code, abbreviation
Program written in this language is
translated by assembler into machine
language program code before
execution

Programming Language
High Level Language
Exist 1960
Similar to English
Program written in this language is able to
overcome more complex problem/task
Translator is known as compiler which
change program to machine language before
execution
Commercial application such as C/C++

Example of High Level


Language for Displaying Hello
World

Cobol : DISPLAY Hello World


Basic : PRINT Hello World
C : printf (Hello World);
Java : System.out.println(Hello World)
C++ : cout<< Hello World

Programming Language
Very High Level Language
Known as 4GL
Program is written shorthand form
Able to handle hundreds instruction
lines (3rd generation language can
handle few lines only)
Example: Query Language

Programming Language
Natural Language
Similar to spoken English Language
Natural Language translate human
instruction into codes that
understandable by computer
Also known as knowledge base language
Interact with knowledge base

UNIT OF MEMORY