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ME1100 DIGITAL RF COMMUNICATIONS

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1. Principles of Communications

Introduction to Communications
Definition:
Literally
A process by which information is exchanged between
individuals through a common system of symbols, signs,
or behavior (source: www.merriam-webster.com).
Technically
The transfer of information from one place to another.
Should be bandwidth and power efficient, reliable, and
secure.

Historical Development
Event

Year
1844

Telegraph: the first electrical communications system

1876

Telephone: long-distance calls are digitally transmitted (today)

1904

AM radio

1923

First TV with analog circuit (color TV in 1953)

1936

FM radio

1948

Invention of the transistor

1962

First satellite- Telstar I

1966

Optical links using lasers and fiber optics

1972

Analog cellular telephone

1990 - now

Digital communications: DSP processors widely used in household


appliances; digital TV, digital pagers, digital cellular phones
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Communication Systems
System
Components/subsystems that act together to achieve a
certain objective.

Communication Systems
Components/subsystems that act together to accomplish
information transfer/exchange between two parties.

Communication Block Diagram

SOURCE

Transmission
Channel

Transmitter

SINK
Receiver

Noise

Analog vs. Digital


Terminology
Signal
An impulse or fluctuating electric quantity, such as
voltage, current, or electric field strength, whose
variations could represent information.
Analog signals are composed of analog waveforms.
They are continuous and vary in amplitude, frequency,
phase, or combination of them.
Digital signals are composed of a finite set of waveforms
with discrete states (in frequency, amplitude, or phase).

Analog vs. Digital (contd)

intensity

Analog Signal example

intensity

Digital Signal example

Analog vs. Digital (contd)


System
Analog communication system: transfers information
from an analog source to the receiver, e.g., AM & FM
radio.
Digital communication system: transfers information from
a digital source to a receiver, e.g., digital TV, pagers,
mobile phones.

Analog vs. Digital (contd)


Source
Analog source: produces analog messages, e.g.,
microphone (where its output voltage describes the
information in the sound).
Digital source: produces digital messages, e.g.,
typewriter (where there is a finite number of characters).

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Elements of Communication Systems


Information input (SOURCE)

DATA
PROCESSOR

INPUT
TRANSDUCER

TRANSMITTER

SIGNAL
DISTORTION
(FADING,
BLOCKING, ETC)

RECEIVER

TRANSMISSION CHANNEL

OUTPUT
NOISE, INTERFERENCE TRANSDUCER
FROM OTHER SOURCES

DATA
PROCESSOR

Information output (SINK)

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Elements of Communication Systems (contd)


Transmitter
Processes the input signal to produce a transmitted
signal that suits the characteristic of the transmission
channel.
E.g., modulation, coding, amplification, filtering

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Elements of Communication Systems (contd)


Channel
The transmission medium between the transmitter and
the receiver.
Classified into two categories: wired and wireless

Wired channel:
Twisted-pair telephone lines, coaxial cable,
fiber optic cables, waveguide

Wireless channel:
Air, vacuum, seawater

Signal undergoes degradation from noise, interference,


and distortion.
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Elements of Communication Systems (contd)


Receiver
To extract the desired signal from the output channel
and to convert it to a form suitable for the output
transducer.
E.g., amplification, filtering, demodulation

Sink
The received signal will be converted back (by the
respective output transducer) to the form desired by the
systems.
E.g., speaker, monitor

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Communication System Overview

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Main Concerns in Communication Systems Design


Information-bearing waveform selection
Bandwidth and power of the waveform
Effect of the system noise on the received signal
Cost of the system

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Analog Communication System


Its objective is to transfer information from an analog
source to the sink (user). Analog communication
signals, such as AM and FM signals, are analog signals.
They are continuous and vary in amplitude, frequency,
or phase.

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Analog Modulator / Demodulator


Analog
Source

Analog
Modulator

TRANSMISSION CHANNEL

Analog
Demodulator

Analog
Sink

Noise and Distortion

Subsystem

Function

ExamplesOutput

Analog
Modulator

Modulates the analog baseband signal into the


analog bandpass signal

AM and FM signals

Analog
Demodulator

Demodulates the analog bandpass signal into


the analog baseband signal

Analog baseband
signal

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Digital Communication System


Its objective is to transfer information from a digital
source to a sink. Digital communication signals are
digital signals. They are discrete, discontinuous pulses
that have one of M distinct waveforms. If M = 2, this is a
binary digital system.

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Digital Communication System (contd)


Analog
Source

ADC

DAC

Analog
Sink

Digital
Source

Channel
Encoder

Channel
Decoder

Digital
Sink

Analog
Source

Subsystem

Digital
Modulator

Noise and Distortion

TRANSMISSION
CHANNEL

Digital
Demodulator

Function

Output

Analog-digital
Converter

Converts the analog signal into the digital


signal for digital processing (Pulse Code
Modulation)

Digital data

Digital codeword

Channel Encoder

Adds redundant bits to digital data to


reduce bit errors caused by channel noise
(error control coding)

Digital Modulator

Maps digital codeword into analog bandpass


waveforms

ASK, FSK, and PSK


signals
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Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Inexpensive
Privacy preserved (data
encryption)
Can merge different data

Expensive
No privacy preserved

Error correction can be


implemented

Cannot merge different


data
No error correction
capability

Disadvantages:

Advantages:

ANALOG

DIGITAL

Analog vs. Digital Communication System

Larger bandwidth
Smaller bandwidth
required
Synchronization problem
Synchronization problem
is relatively easier
is relatively difficult
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Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum and Allocations


The total span of frequencies and corresponding
wavelengths used in Communication Systems is
called the EM/frequency spectrum.
The overall useful EM spectrum ranges from 50 Hz to
several billion hertz!
The total EM spectrum is divided into different
sections or bands. Each band has a name and
boundaries.

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Frequency Spectrum Assignment


Radio

Microwave

Infrared

Visible

104 102

102

105

Ultraviolet
106

X-ray

Gamma Ray

108

1010 1012

Wavelength in centimeters

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Frequency Spectrum Assignment (contd)


Spectrum

Frequency in Hz

Examples of Applications

Electric power

50 / 60

Radio

30 to 3000 M

Main source of energy for


home appliances
TV, radio, cellular, GPS, walkietalkie

3 to 3 G

Microwave oven, radar, remote


sensing

Infrared
Visible
Ultraviolet
(UV)
X-ray

43-430 THz
430 - 750 THz

Night vision, obstacle avoiding


system
What we can see

1014 1016
1016 1019

Photo-electric, photo-chemical
Medical X-ray

Gamma
Audio

1019
20 to 20k

Research on nucleus
Speaker phone

Microwave

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