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Fiber Types

Fiber Types
 There are various MMF and SMF types currently used for
premise, metro, aerial, submarine, and long-haul
applications.
 The International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T), which
is a global standardization body for telecom systems and
vendors, has standardized various fiber types.
 These include the 50/125-µm graded index fiber (G.651),
 Nondispersion-shifted fiber (G.652),
 dispersion-shifted fiber (G.653),
 1550-nm loss-minimized fiber (G.654),
 and Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber - NZDSF (G.655).
Multimode Fiber with a 50-
Micron Core (ITU-T G.651)
 The ITU-T G.651 is an MMF with a 50-µm nominal
core diameter and a 125-µm nominal cladding
diameter with a graded refractive index.
 The attenuation parameter for G.651 fiber is
typically 0.8 dB/km at 1310 nm.
 The main application for ITU-T G.651 fiber is for
short-reach optical transmission systems.
 This fiber is optimized for use in the 1300-nm band.
It can also operate in the 850-nm band.
Nondispersion-Shifted
Fiber (ITU-T G.652)
 The ITU-T G.652 fiber is also known as standard SMF
and is the most commonly deployed fiber.
 This fiber has a simple step-index structure and is
optimized for operation in the 1310-nm band.
 It has a zero-dispersion wavelength at 1310 nm and
can also operate in the 1550-nm band, but it is not
optimized for this region.
 The typical chromatic dispersion at 1550 nm is high
at 17 ps/nm-km.
 The attenuation parameter for
G.652 fiber is typically 0.2 dB/km
at 1550 nm, and the PMD
parameter is less than 0.1 ps/ km.
 An example of this type of fiber is
Corning SMF-28.
Dispersion-Shifter Fiber
(ITU-T G.653)
 NDSF were initially intended for use near
1310 nm.
 The trend of shifting the operating
transmission wavelength from 1310 nm to
1550 nm initiated the development of a
fiber type called dispersion-shifted fiber
(DSF).
 DSF exhibits a zero-dispersion value around
the 1550-nm wavelength where the
attenuation is minimum.
 The DSFs are optimized for operating in the
region between 1500 to 1600 nm.
DSF contd..,
 With the introduction of WDM systems,
however, channels allocated near 1550
nm in DSF are seriously affected by
noise induced as a result of nonlinear
effects caused by FWM.
 This initiated the development of
NZDSF.
Nonzero Dispersion
Shifted Fiber (ITU-T G.655)
 Nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF),
specified in ITU-T G.655, is a type of single-
mode optical fiber which was designed to
overcome the problems of dispersion-shifted
fiber.
 NZDSF fiber overcomes these effects by moving
the zero-dispersion wavelength outside the
1550-nm operating window.
 There are two fiber families called nonzero
dispersion (NZD+ and NZD–), in which the zero-
dispersion value falls before and after the 1550-
nm wavelength, respectively.
NZDSF
 NZDSF is available in two primary flavors:
NZD+ and NZD-, in which the zero-dispersion
value falls before and after the 1550-nm
wavelength, respectively.
 The typical chromatic dispersion for G.655 fiber
at 1550 nm is 4.5 ps/nm-km.
 The attenuation parameter for G.655 fiber is
typically 0.2 dB/km at 1550 nm, and the PMD
parameter is less than 0.1 ps/ km.
 The Corning LEAF fiber is an example of NZDSF
Other Fiber Types
 MM optical fiber types include polarization-
maintaining fibers (PMF) and more recently
photonic crystal fibers (PCF)
 Polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PMF or PM
fiber) is an optical fiber in which the polarization
planes of light waves launched into the fiber are
maintained during propagation with little or no
cross-coupling of optical power between the
polarization modes.
 Photonic-crystal fiber (PCF), also spelled fibre, is
a new class of optical fiber based on the
properties of photonic crystals.
 Because of its ability to confine light in hollow
cores or with confinement characteristics not
possible in conventional optical fiber, PCF is now
finding applications in fiber optic systems