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Properties of Fluids

SPH4C

Fluids
Liquids and gases are both fluids:
a fluid is any substance that flows
and takes the shape of its
container.

Fluids
Liquids and gases are both fluids:
a fluid is any substance that flows
and takes the shape of its
container.
If the fluids are at rest, the study of
them is called __________.
If the fluids are in motion, the study
of them is called ____________.

Fluids
Liquids and gases are both fluids:
a fluid is any substance that flows
and takes the shape of its
container.
If the fluids are at rest, the study of
them is called fluid statics.
If the fluids are in motion, the study
of them is called ____________.

Fluids
Liquids and gases are both fluids:
a fluid is any substance that flows
and takes the shape of its
container.
If the fluids are at rest, the study of
them is called fluid statics.
If the fluids are in motion, the study
of them is called fluid dynamics.

Fluids
The

science and technology of


the mechanical properties of
liquids is called _________.
Similarly, the science and
technology of the mechanical
properties of air and other gases
is called ___________.

Fluids
The

science and technology of


the mechanical properties of
liquids is called hydraulics.
Similarly, the science and
technology of the mechanical
properties of air and other gases
is called ___________.

Fluids
The

science and technology of


the mechanical properties of
liquids is called hydraulics.
Similarly, the science and
technology of the mechanical
properties of air and other gases
is called pneumatics.

Systems
The study of hydraulics and
pneumatics includes the study of
fluids that are not enclosed, such
as lakes and air in the
atmosphere, as well as
pressurized systems that are
enclosed.

Systems
A

hydraulic system is a
mechanical system that operates
using a liquid under pressure
A pneumatic system operates
using a gas under pressure.

Whats the difference?


Liquids flow and take the shape of
their container but maintain a
constant volume.

Whats the difference?


Gases expand to
fill the available
volume.

States of Matter Revisited


This is because the difference in
what the particles are doing.

Particle Theory
Revisited

1.

All matter is made up of


extremely tiny particles.
2. Each pure substance has its own
kind of particles, different from
the particles of other pure
substances.
The same pure
substance in three
different states.

Particle Theory
Revisited

3.

Particles are always moving.


Particles at a higher temperature
are generally moving faster on
average than particles at a lower
temperature.

Remember the
Dance of the Molecules?

Particle Theory
Revisited

4.

Particles attract each other.

See? Theyre smiling.

Solids
In a solid, the particles are moving
slowly enough that this attraction
keeps them in a rigid structure.

Liquids
In a liquid, the particles move fast
enough that they cant stay in a
rigid structure but they still want
to stay close by.

Gases
In a gas, however, the particles are
moving even faster and fly by
each other, bouncing off the
edges of the container.
Evaporation: a liquid
molecule becoming
a gas molecule.

Plasma
Note that there is a 4th state of matter
called plasma which has free electrons
that can conduct electricity and be
influenced by magnetic fields.
It is similar to a gas in its properties.

Compressibility
Gases are therefore highly
compressible: their
particles can be forced
back closer together.

Density
This means that their density,
their mass per unit volume, is
variable.

Density
This means that their density,
their mass per unit volume, is
variable.

Density
This means that their density,
their mass per unit volume, is
variable.

m
m
D
m D V V
V
D

Density
This means that their density,
their mass per unit volume, is
variable.

m
m
D
m D V V
V
D
Density has units of kg/m3.

Density: Example
A quantity of helium gas at 0C
with a volume of 4.00 m3 has a
mass of 0.712 kg at standard
atmospheric pressure.
Determine the density of this
sample of helium gas.

Density: Example
A quantity of helium gas at 0C
with a volume of 4.00 m3 has a
mass of 0.712 kg at standard
atmospheric pressure.
Determine the density of this
sample 3of helium gas.
V 4.00 m

m 0.712 kg
D?

Density: Example
A quantity of helium gas at 0C
with a volume of 4.00 m3 has a
mass of 0.712 kg at standard
atmospheric pressure.
Determine the density of this
sample 3of helium gas.
V 4.00 m

m 0.712 kg
D?

Density: Example
A quantity of helium gas at 0C
with a volume of 4.00 m3 has a
mass of 0.712 kg at standard
atmospheric pressure.
Determine the density of this
sample 3of helium gas.
m
V 4.00 m
D

m 0.712 kg
D?

V
0.712 kg
kg
D
0.178 m3
3
4.00 m

More About Density


Density is a characteristic property
of a substance: any sample of a
pure substance at the same
temperature and pressure has
the same density.

More Practice
The Density of Fluids Lab Activity

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