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BONDING

Chemistry 1
By Mialo C. Lacaden
Oxidation Number
• The oxidation state of an uncombined
element is zero.

• The sum of the oxidation states of all


the atoms or ions in a neutral compound
is zero.

• The sum of the oxidation states of all


the atoms in an ion is equal to the
charge on the ion.
• The more electronegative element in a
substance is given a negative oxidation
state. The less electronegative one is
given a positive oxidation state.
Remember that fluorine is the most
electronegative element with oxygen
second.
• Some elements almost always have the same
oxidation states in their compounds:
element usual oxidation state exceptions

Group 1 metals always +1


Group 2 metals always +2
Oxygen usually -2 except in peroxides and
F2O (see below)

Hydrogen usually +1 except in metal hydrides


where it is -1 (see
below)
Fluorine always -1
Chlorine usually -1 except in compounds
with O or F (see below)
Ions and Ionic Bonding
• atoms
– lose or gain electrons in order to attain
a full valence shell

– becomes positively or negatively charged


as it loses or gains an electron

– with a net charge (whether positive or


negative) is called an ion (cation,
anion)
Atomic Size
• distance of the furthest (valence) electrons
from nucleus

• can affect the properties of atoms & elements

Larger
Larger

• Br: [Ar]4s23d104p5

• focus on valence electrons: they are involved


in reactions and determine size

• Two factors affect size: n and the balance


between attractions & repulsions in the atom.
Decreasing Atomic Size Across a
Periodthe + nucleus and the
• As the attraction between
- valence electrons ↑, the atomic size ↓.

• From left to right, size decreases because


there is an increase in nuclear charge and
Effective Nuclear Charge (# protons – # core
electrons)
• Each valence electron is pulled by the full ENC
Li (ENC = 1) Be (ENC = 2) B (ENC = 3)

++ ++ +++
+ ++ ++
Sizes of ions
• Ions are atoms that have either gained or
lost electrons (so that the # of electrons
is not equal to the # of protons)

• The size of an atom can change dramatically


if it becomes an ion

• E.g. when sodium loses its outer electron to


become Na+ it becomes much smaller.

• Na+ is smaller than Na because it has lost


its 3s electron. Its valence shell is now
2s22p6 (it has a smaller value of n)

• Changing n values is one explanation for the


size of ions. The other is …
Sizes of ions: electron repulsion
• Valence electrons push each other away
• When an atom becomes a –
ion (adds an electron to
its valence shell) the
repulsion between
valence electrons
increases without
9+
changing ENC

• Thus, F– is larger than


F
Sizes of ions: electron repulsion
• Valence electrons push each other away
• When an atom becomes a -
ion (adds an electron to
its valence shell) the
repulsion between
valence electrons
increases without
9+
changing ENC

• Thus, F– is larger than


F
• Sort from largest to smallest:
• Mg, Mg+, Mg2+
• Na, Co2+ , Cl-
Ionization energy
• Ionization energy is the energy required to remove
an electron from a gaseous atom

• If n is small & ENC is large, electrons will be


difficult to remove (i.e. the IE will be high)

Be
B

+++ +++
+ ++
• Ionization
Ionization energy
energy is the energy required to
remove an electron from a gaseous atom

• If n is small & ENC is large, electrons will be


difficult to remove (i.e. the IE will be high)

• There are as many IEs as there are electrons

• Subsequent IEs are higher than the first because


you are removing a - charge (electron) from an
increasingly + atom/ion

• Subsequent IEs make a huge jump after the


electrons in the outer shell are lost - it is not
difficult for Mg to lose 12th and 11th electron,
but very difficult for it to lose it’s 10th
electron.
Electron Affinity
• Electron affinity is the energy related to
adding an electron to a gaseous atom

• Represented as X(g) + e– → X–(g)


• Whereas IE is: X(g) → X+(g) + e–

• The trend for EA is the same as that for IE

• Imagine an atom with a high IE. It is


difficult to remove an electron (due to a
small size or high ENC); so, it will also be
easy to add a new one

• Noble gases do not follow the trend in EA (a


filled valence shell makes it energetically
unfavorable to add an electron)
Trends in Size, IE, and EA
• IE, and EA are the opposite of atomic radius

Larger
Size Larger

Ionization Larger
energy Larger

Electron Larger
Affinity Larger
Energy: exothermic, endothermic
• Energy can be described according to whether
we are gaining or losing energy

• Endothermic: requires energy (given a + sign)


E.g. lifting a book, removing an electron
• Exothermic: gives off energy (given a – sign)
E.g. dropping a book.

• IE is positive (it takes energy to remove an


e–)

For more lessons, visit


www.chalkbored.com
• 1st EA is negative (energy is given off –
i.e. it is energetically favorable to
add an electron)

• After 1st EA, energy may be required to


add electrons to an increasingly
negative atom/ion

• Note an EA of –200 is greater than –100


TYPES OF BONDING

1. Ionic Bonding
-electrostatic attraction of positively and negatively
charged ions

• ionic bonds are adirectional


• a metal donates an electron, due to a low electronegativity,
to form a cation
• ionic compounds do not occur as discrete units but as large
aggregates
• when ionic compounds are placed in water or similar solvents they
dissociate into their component ions

• they will almost always occur as free ions in solution


Examples:

Na+ + Cl-  NaCl

Mg+2 + O-2  MgO


Ca+2 + 2Cl-  CaCl2

K+ + O-2  K2O
TYPES OF BONDING
2. Covalent Bonding
-two electrons are shared by two atoms
- A molecule (molecular compound) is a
collection of atoms held together by
covalent bonds
-electron cloud or charge density
LEWIS STRUCTURES
• representation of covalent bonding in which
shared electron pairs are shown either as
lines or as pairs of dots between two atoms

• pairs of dots can be lone pairs (lone pairs


are pairs of valence electrons that are not
involved in bond formation)

• follows the octet rule


Drawing Lewis Structures
• Step 1
Calculate he total number of valence electrons in
the molecule or ion
• Step 2
Determine the central atom(s) of the molecule or ion
(least electronegative)
Exception: Hydrogen never the central atom
Carbon is less electronegative than chlorine
Carbon is always the central in species with carbon
• Step 3
Draw a tentative diagram for the molecule or
ion
Considerations:
a)Hydrogen is always a terminal atom
b)Carbon normally forms four bonds
c)Carbon atoms are usually bonded with each
other
d)Oxygen atom/s are arrange around the central
nonmetal atom. If hydrogen is present, it is
bonded to oxygen
• Step 4
Compare the number of valence electrons
you have available from Step 1 to the
number used in the Lewis diagram
• Step 5
Check to be sure that each atom other
than hydrogen has four electron pairs
and that hydrogen has only one electron
pair