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E-Commerce

Dr. De Leon
Reporters:
Trishna Hemnani
Melissa Chang
Rolly Sabulao
Annaliza Viernes
Infrastructure for E- commerce

Technology Infrastructure: The Internet


and the World Wide Web

Objectives
In this chapter, you will learn about:
The origin, growth, and current structure of the
Internet
How packet-switched networks are combined to
form the Internet
How Internet protocols and Internet addressing
work- TCP/IP
The history and use of markup languages on the
Web, including SGML, HTML, and XML
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Objectives
How HTML tags and links work on the World Wide
Web
The differences among internets, intranets, and
extranets
Options for connecting to the Internet, including cost
and bandwidth factors
About Internet2 and the Semantic Web
Internet Search Engines and Portals
Uploading over the internet
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The Internet and the World Wide Web


Computer network
Any technology that allows people to connect
computers to each other

The Internet
A large system of interconnected computer
networks spanning the globe

World Wide Web


A subset of computers on the Internet
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Origins of the Internet


Early 1960s
U.S. Department of Defense funded research to
explore creating a worldwide network

In1969, Defense Department researchers


Connected four computers into network called
ARPANET

Throughout 1970s and 1980s


Academic researchers connected to ARPANET
and contributed to its technological
developments
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New Uses for the Internet


1972
E-mail was born

Mailing list
E-mail address that forwards any message
received to any user who has subscribed to the
list

Usenet
Started by group of students and programmers at
Duke University and the University of North
Carolina
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Growth of the Internet


In 1991, NSF
Eased restrictions on commercial Internet
activity
Began implementing plans to privatize the
Internet

Network access points (NAPs)


Basis of new structure Internet

Network access providers


Sell Internet access rights directly to larger
customers and indirectly to smaller firms and
individuals through ISPs
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Growth of the Internet

Emergence of the World Wide Web


The Web
Software that runs on computers connected to
the Internet

Vannevar Bush
Speculated that engineers would eventually
build a memory extension device (the Memex)

In the 1960s
Ted Nelson described a similar system called
hypertext
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Emergence of the World Wide Web


(Continued)
Tim Berners-Lee
Developed code for hypertext server program

Hypertext server
Stores files written in hypertext markup
language
Lets other computers connect to it and read
files

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


Includes set of codes (or tags) attached to text
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Packet-Switched Networks
Local area network (LAN)
Network of computers located close together

Wide area networks (WANs)


Networks of computers connected over greater
distances

Circuit
Combination of telephone lines and closed
switches that connect them to each other
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Packet-Switched Networks (Continued)


Circuit switching
Centrally controlled, single-connection model

Packets
Files and e-mail messages on a packetswitched network that are broken down into
small pieces
Travel from computer to computer along the
interconnected networks until they reach their
destinations
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Routing Packets
Routing computers
Computers that decide how best to forward
packets

Routing algorithms
Rules contained in programs on router
computers that determine the best path on
which to send packet
Programs apply their routing algorithms to
information they have stored in routing tables
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Router-based Architecture of the


Internet

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Internet Protocols
Protocol
Collection of rules for formatting, ordering, and
error-checking data sent across a network

Rules contributing to success of Internet


Independent networks should not require any
internal changes to be connected to the network
Packets that do not arrive at their destinations
must be retransmitted from their source network
Router computers act as receive-and-forward
devices
No global control exists over the network
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TCP/IP
TCP
Controls disassembly of a message or a file
into packets before transmission over Internet
Controls reassembly of packets into their
original formats when they reach their
destinations

IP
Specifies addressing details for each packet
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IP Addressing
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
Uses a 32-bit number to identify computers
connected to the Internet

Base 2 (binary) number system


Used by computers to perform internal
calculations

Subnetting
Use of reserved private IP addresses within
LANs and WANs to provide additional address
space
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IP Addressing (Continued)
Private IP addresses
Series of IP numbers not permitted on packets
that travel on the Internet

Network Address Translation (NAT) device


Used in subnetting to convert private IP
addresses into normal IP addresses

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)


Protocol that will replace IPv4
Uses a 128-bit number for addresses
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Domain Names
Sets of words assigned to specific IP
addresses
Top-level domain (or TLD)
Rightmost part of a domain name

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and


Numbers (ICANN)
Responsible for managing domain names and
coordinating them with IP address registrars
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Top-level Domain Names

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Web Page Request and Delivery


Protocols
Web client computers
Run software called Web client software or
Web browser software

Web server computer


Runs software called Web server software

Client/server architecture
Combination of client computers running Web
client software and server computers running
Web server software
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Web Page Request and Delivery


Protocols (Continued)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Set of rules for delivering Web page files over
the Internet

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)


Combination of the protocol name and domain
name
Allows user to locate a resource (the Web
page) on another computer (the Web server)
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Electronic Mail Protocols


Electronic mail (e-mail)
Must also be formatted according to common
set of rules

E-mail server
Computer devoted to handling e-mail

E-mail client software


Used to read and send e-mail
Example: Microsoft Outlook, Netscape
Messenger
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Electronic Mail Protocols (Continued)


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Specifies format of a mail message

Post Office Protocol (POP)


POP message can tell the e-mail server to
Send mail to users computer and delete it from
e-mail server
Send mail to users computer and not delete it
Simply ask whether new mail has arrived

Provides support for Multipurpose Internet Mail


Extensions (MIME)
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Markup Languages and the Web


Text markup language
Specifies set of tags that are inserted into text

Standard Generalized Markup Language


(SGML)
Older and complex text markup language
A meta language

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)


Not-for-profit group that maintains standards
for the Web
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Development of Markup Languages

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Standard Generalized Markup


Language
Offers a system of marking up documents
that is independent of any software
application
Nonproprietary and platform independent
Offers user-defined tags
Costly to set up and maintain
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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


Prevalent markup language used to create
documents on the Web today
HTML tags
Interpreted by Web browser and used by it to
format the display of the text

HTML Links
Linear hyperlink structure
Hierarchical hyperlink structure
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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


(Continued)
Scripting languages and style sheets
Most common scripting languages
JavaScript, JScript, Perl, and VBScript

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)


Sets of instructions that give Web developers
more control over the format of displayed pages
Style sheet
Usually stored in a separate file
Referenced using the HTML style tag

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Extensible Markup Language (XML)


Uses paired start and stop tags
Includes data management capabilities that
HTML cannot provide
Differences between XML and HTML
XML is not a markup language with defined
tags
XML tags do not specify how text appears on a
Web page
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Processing a Request for an XML Page

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SGML

Standard Generalized Markup Language, a system for


organizing and tagging elements of a document. SGML was
developed and standardized by the International Organization
for Standards (ISO) in 1986. SGML itself does not specify any
particular formatting; rather, it specifies the rules for tagging
elements. These tags can then be interpreted to format
elements in different ways.
SGML is used widely to manage large documents that are
subject to frequent revisions and need to be printed in different
formats. Because it is a large and complex system, it is not yet
widely used on personal computers. However, the growth
of Internet, and especially the World Wide Web, is creating
renewed interest in SGML because the World Wide Web
uses HTML, which is one way of defining and interpreting tags
according to SGML rules.
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Intranets and Extranets


Intranet
Interconnected network that does not extend
beyond organization that created it

Extranet
Intranet extended to include entities outside
boundaries of organization
Connects companies with suppliers, business
partners, or other authorized users
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Public and Private Networks


Public network
Any computer network or telecommunications
network available to the public

Private network
A private, leased-line connection between two
companies that physically connects their
intranets

Leased line
A permanent telephone connection between two
points
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Virtual Private Network (VPN)


Extranet that uses public networks and their
protocols
IP tunneling
Effectively creates a private passageway
through the public Internet

Encapsulation
Process used by VPN software

VPN software
Must be installed on the computers at both
ends of the transmission
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Internet Connection Options


Bandwidth
Amount of data that can travel through a
communication line per unit of time

Net bandwidth
Actual speed that information travels

Symmetric connections
Provide same bandwidth in both directions

Asymmetric connections
Provide different bandwidths for each direction
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Voice-Grade Telephone Connections


POTS, or plain old telephone service
Uses existing telephone lines and analog
modem
Provide bandwidth between 28 and 56 Kbps

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)


Connection methods do not use modem

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)


Offers bandwidths between 128 Kbps and 256
Kbps
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Broadband Connections
Operate at speeds of greater than 200 Kbps
Asymmetric digital subscriber (ADSL)
Transmission bandwidth is from 100 to 640 Kbps
upstream and from 1.5 to 9 Mbps downstream

Cable modems
Provide transmission speeds between 300 Kbps
and 1 Mbps

DSL
Private line with no competing traffic
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Leased-Line Connections
DS0 (digital signal zero)
Telephone line designed to carry 1 digital signal

T1 line (also called a DS1)


Carries 24 DS0 lines and operates at 1.544 Mbps

Fractional T1
Provides service speeds of 128 Kbps and upward in
128-Kbps increments

T3 service (also called DS3)


Offers 44.736 Mbps
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Wireless Connections
Bluetooth
Designed for personal use over short
distances
Low-bandwidth technology, with speeds of up
to 722 Kbps
Networks are called personal area networks
(PANs) or piconets
Consumes very little power
Devices can discover each other and
exchange information automatically
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Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi or 802.11b)


Most common wireless connection
technology for use on LANs
Wireless access point (WAP)
Device that transmits network packets
between Wi-Fi-equipped computers and other
devices

Has potential bandwidth of 11 Mbps and


range of about 300 feet
Devices are capable of roaming
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Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi or 802.11b)


(Continued)
802.11a protocol
Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to
54 Mbps

802.11g protocol
Has 54 Mbps speed of 802.11a
Compatible with 802.11b devices

802.11n
Expected to offer speeds up to 320 Mbps
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Fixed-Point Wireless
One version uses system of repeaters to
forward radio signal from ISP to customers
Repeaters
Transmitter-receiver devices (transceivers)

Mesh Routing
Directly transmits Wi-Fi packets through
hundreds, or even thousands, of short-range
transceivers
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Cellular Telephone Networks


Third-generation (3G) cell phones
Combine latest technologies available today

Short message service (SMS)


Protocol used to send and receive short text
messages

Mobile commerce (m-commerce)


Describes the kinds of resources people might
want to access using wireless devices
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Internet2 and the Semantic Web


Internet2
Experimental test bed for new networking
technologies
Has achieved bandwidths of 10 Gbps and
more on parts of its network
Used by universities to conduct large
collaborative research projects
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Internet2 and the Semantic Web


(Continued)
Semantic Web
Project by Tim Berners-Lee
If successful
Would result in words on Web pages being
tagged (using XML) with their meanings

Resource description framework (RDF)


Set of standards for XML syntax

Ontology
Set of standards that defines relationships
among RDF standards and specific XML tags
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Internet Search engines and portals

A web portal or links page is a web site that functions as a


point of access to information in the World Wide Web. A portal
presents information from diverse sources in a unified way.
Apart from the standard search engine feature, web portals offer
other services such as e-mail, news, stock prices, information,
databases and entertainment. Portals provide a way for
enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access
control and procedures for multiple applications and databases,
which otherwise would have been different entities altogether.
Examples of public web portals
are AOL, Excite, iGoogle, MSN, Netvibes, and Yahoo!.

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Types of portals
Horizontal Vs. Vertical Portals
Two broad categorizations of portals are
horizontal portals, which cover many areas, and
vertical portals, which are focused on one
functional area. Another definition for a horizontal
portal is, that it is used as a platform to several
companies in the same economic sector or to the
same type of manufacturers or distributors. A
vertical portal consequently is a specialized entry
point to a specific market or industry niche,
subject area, or interest, also called vortal.
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Kinds of portals
Personal portals
A personal portal is a site on the World Wide
Web that typically provides personalized
capabilities to its visitors, providing a pathway to
other content. It is designed to use distributed
applications, different numbers and types
of middleware and hardware to provide services
from a number of different sources. In addition,
business portals are designed for sharing and
collaboration in workplaces.
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News portal
The traditional media rooms all around the
world are fast adapting to the new age
technologies. This marks the beginning of
news portals by media houses across the
globe. This new media channels give them the
opportunity to reach the viewers in a shorter
span of time than their print media counter
parts.

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Government Web Portals


At the end of the dot-com boom in the 1990s, many governments had already
committed to creating portal sites for their citizens. These included primary
portals to the Governments as well as portals developed for specific audiences.
Examples of Government web portals include;
australia.gov.au for Australia.
USA.gov for the United States (in English) & GobiernoUSA.gov (in Spanish).
Disability.gov for citizens with disabilities in the United States.
Directgov for citizens & businesslink.gov.uk for businesses in the United
Kingdom.
india.gov.in for India.
Europa (web portal) links to all EU agencies and institutions in addition to press
releases and audiovisual content from press conferences.
Health-EU portal gathers all relevant health topics from across Europe.
National Resource Directory links to resources for United States Service
Members, Veterans and their families (NRD.gov).

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Search portals
Search portals aggregate results from several
search engines into one page.

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Internet search engines and portals


The Major Web Directories and Portals on the
Internet.docx

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UPLOADING OVER THE INTERNET


Tutorial How to Upload Your Website Into
Your Web Hosting Server
Upload Your Website Into Internet From
Your Computer
If I said "upload your website into internet"
meaning that you need to upload your
website onto your web hosting server then
your website can be accessed through
internet.
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Once your site is created whether your personal website, sales page or online
store to sell your own products online, definitely you want it accessible on the
internet around the world. Well, in order to do this you need another 3 extra
items. There are domain name, web hosting server (web host) and FTP. Domain
name is your specific website address or your website URL like www.yourdomain-name.com (http://www.your-domain-name.com). Web hosting server is a
place to create or to keep your own website. Once you place your website into
your web hosting server then it can be accessibled on the internet around the
world.
FTP is File Transfer Protocol which will be used to connect your computer and
your web hosting server. The FTP software (program) which will be used to
transfer or upload your website from your computer into your web hosting server
called FTP Client. This tutorial will show you how to upload your website step by
step using Quickconnect button from your computer into your web hosting server
using FileZilla Client FTP. FileZilla Client FTP is distributed under the GNU
GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSEand the content is available under GNU Free. You
can download the free FileZilla Client FTP from filezilla-project.org and install it
on your computer.

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How to Upload Your Website Into Your Web Host Step by Step
Using Quickconnect

Step 1
Visit filezilla-project.org to download the free FileZilla Client FTP and
install it on your computer. If you need help visit how to download
FileZilla Client and how to install FileZilla Client on your computer
Step 2
When the installation of free FileZilla Client FTP on your computer is
completed then look for the FileZilla Client icon on your computer
screen as shown below and double click it.
Step 3
The FileZilla Client FTP software will be opened as shown below
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Step 4
Getting to know the FileZilla display areas.

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There are 5 most important areas you need


to identify when use free FileZilla Client FTP.
1. Login Area
In order to communicate with your web
hosting server, you need to type in
your host,username, password, port and
press the Quickconnect button as shown
below

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2. Login Status Area


Accepted login status as shown below
- Directory listing successful

Error login status as shown below - Could


not connect to server
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3. Your Computer Display Area


This area will display the hard drives, files name and folders on
your computer (called local site) as shown below. When you
click on any directory on A1 section, the files and folders inside
the directory will be shown on the A2 section. To upload your
website from your computer into your web hosting server,
double click on your website directory on A1 section. All the files
and folders inside your website directory will be displayed on A2
section. Select all the files and folders on A2 section and drag it
into your web hosting server on B2 or C2 section. Getting
confuse... it's okey, I will explain it more details on Step 6
onwards.

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4. Your Web Hosting Server (Remote site) Display


Area
This area a bit tricky, the web hosting server which has
the capability to host multiple domain names, this area
will display all your domain names as shown on B1
section below. When you click on any domain name on
B1 section the files and folder inside the domain name
directory will be shown on the B2 section. To upload
the website, just double click the prefer domain name
on B1 section and transfer or upload your website from
your computer into B2 section.

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The web hosting server which has the


capability to host only single domain name,
the display area will be like this as shown
below. When you click on any directory on C1
section as shown below, the files and folders
inside that directory will be shown on the C2
section. To upload your website, double click
the public_html directory and transfer your
website from your computer into C2 section

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5. Upload or Download Status Display


Area
Upload or download status will be
displayed here as shown below

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Step 5
Well, before you can use FileZilla Client FTP to upload your website
into your web hosting server you need to make sure you know 4 most
important keys here. Host, username, password and port.
1. Host is your domain name.
If your website address is http://www.free-demo.net then
your host name will befree-demo.net
2. Username is your web hosting ftp username and
3. Password is your web hosting ftp password
Whenever you buy the web hosting package (web host + domain
name), the username and password will be emailed to you. These will
be your web hosting ftp username and password. Unless you did create
the new one. You will also use this username and password to login into
your web hosting control panel.

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4. What is port? Port is a specific channel to identify


a specific inquiry to web hosting server software.
When the inquiry arrives at the web hosting server,
the web hosting server software will forward a
massage to the requestor whether to accept or to
reject the inquiry. If the inquiry is accepted then the
requestor and web hosting server can communicate
each other through this port.
The standard port for FTP is 21

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Step 6
Here, I will show you how to transfer your website from your computer
into your web hosting server. The tutorials below is using the web
hosting server that has the capability to host multiple domain name.
but wait!...
I just bought this web hosting package from Cheap Web
Hosting Service. The web hosting package cost was USD $106 per
year (Corporate Web Hosting Package + 1 domain). The features are
2500 GB disk space, 25000 GB Bandwidth, host up to 30 domain
names + more features. The cheaper web hosting package is Business
web hosting package + 1 domain only USD $51 per year. The features
are 15 GB disk space, 300 GB bandwidth, host up to 3 domain names
+ more features. Visit Cheap Web Hosting Service to view all the web
hosting package features available.

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Lets start the uploading...


To upload your website into your web hosting server, you need
to login into your web hosting server using free FileZilla Client
FTP. Type in your host, username, password and port = 21 as
shown below and press the Quickconnect button. When the
login status area indicate directory listing successful,
meaning that you are login into your web hosting server
successfully.
*Here I will choose my http://www.free-demo.net domain
name then the host will be free-demo.net, my username is
jahimin123, my password is **secret** and port is 21 as shown
below.

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*Note: For safety purpose the jahimin123 username and password will be
deleted when the tutorials demo is completed.
the easyebookmoneyreseller.zip also will be deleted

Step 7: On Your Computer


On your computer (local site), choose and click your website directory. The
website directory contents will be displayed under the filename as shown
below.
I just bought Easy Ebook Money with master resale rights and put it on myweb-sitedirectory. I am going to sell this ebook on resale rights ebook or
www.resalerightsebook.net. But for this tutorial, I will show you the demo how
to upload Easy Ebook Money into my http://www.free-demo.net domain name.
The my-web-site directory contents 1 folder (images folder),
easyebookmoneyreseller.zip, index.htm and thankyou.htm files as shown
below.

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Step 8: On Your Web Hosting Server


Choose and click the domain name directory
on your web hosting server (remote site) to
which your website will be uploaded to. In this
tutorial, I will choose free-demo.net domain
name directory as shown below. The contents
will be displayed under the filename but this
directory contents is empty <empty directory
listing> as shown below.
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Step 9: Back Again On Your Computer


On your computer, choose the files that you want to
upload into your web hosting server. How to choose all
the files? It is easy... Use your mouse to click on the
images folder (or first file) as shown below and press
the Shift button on your keyboard then use your mouse
again to click the last file (keep pressing the Shift button
while selecting other files)... done.
If you want to select only some of the files... Just do what
I did, press the Ctrlbutton on your keyboard (keep
pressing the Ctrl button) then use your mouse to select
any wanted files... done.
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Step 10: Still On Your Computer


There are two ways to upload your files or website into your web
hosting server.
1. Upload
How to do that... Point your mouse on any chosen file and press
the right buttonmouse. A mini window appears as shown below. On
the mini window, choose Uploadand click... done.
2. Drag and drop.
How to drag and drop the files... Point your mouse on any chosen file
and press theleft button mouse (keep pressing the left button mouse
while dragging the files) then drag the files into the <Empty directory
listing> on the right side and drop the files into it... done. The drag and
drop features might be disabled or changed in new FileZilla Client FTP
upgraded version.

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Step 11: Upload Status


The upload progress will be displayed on the
upload /download status area as shown
below

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Step 12: Upload Completed


All the chosen files and folder are uploaded
successfully from my computer into my web
hosting server. The chosen files and folder on
my computer are the same as uploaded into
my chosen domain name on my web hosting
server as shown below.

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e- commerce\How to upload your website on


the internet.flv

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Summary
TCP/IP
Protocol suite used to create and transport
information packets across the Internet

POP, SMTP, and IMAP


Protocols that help manage e-mail

Languages derived from SGML


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
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Summary
Intranets
Private internal networks

Extranet
Used when companies want to collaborate with
suppliers, partners, or customers

Internet2
Experimental network built by a consortium of
research universities and businesses
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