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Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Digestive system

mouth

salivary glands

oesophagus
liver
gall bladder
duodenum
large intestine
anus
TRG Science Form 2

stomach
pancreas
small intestine
rectum
Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Physical Digestion Stage

Mouth

Digestion start here

Teeth chewed and breakdown the food into small pieces

Salivary amylase changes starch into maltose (complex sugar)


starch

salivary amylase

maltose

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Chemical Digestion Stage

Salivary gland

The salivary gland secretes saliva that is alkaline and contains salivary amylase
enzymes

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Oesophagus

Food passes through the oesophagus into the stomach by peristalsis

No digestion takes place in the oesophagus

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Stomach

Food is mixed with gastric juice

Gastric juices contain


hydrochloric acid

enzymes pepsin and rennin

Hydrochloric acid helps to


kills bacteria
provide an acidic medium for enzymes to take action
neutralize and stop the action of salivary amylase enzymes

Pepsin changes protein into peptones


protein

Rennin coagulates milk in the stomach


to help in the enzymic action of pepsin

liquid milk
protein

pepsin

rennin

peptones

solid milk
protein

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Duodenum

The first part of the small intestine

Receives pancreatic juice and bile

Pancreatic amylase changes


starch into maltose

starch

pancreatic amylase

Pancreatic protease changes


peptones into amino acid
peptones

Pancreatic lipase changes fat


into fatty acid and glycerol
fat

pancreatic
protease

pancreatic
lipase

maltose

amino acids

fatty acid + glycerol

The bile breaks down fats into small droplets for enzymic action

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Liver

Produces bile and stored in the gall bladder before it is flows into the
duodenum through the bile duct

Bile helps to prepared an alkaline medium for enzymic action

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Pancreas

Produces pancreatic juice that contains three types of enzymes


pancreatic amylase
protease
lipase

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Small intestine

The small intestine produces enzymes which changes maltose into glucose

Digestion is completed in here

The nutrients is absorbed through the thin walls of the small intestine into the
bloodstream

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TRG Science Form 2

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Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Large intestine

Water is reabsorbed here

Undigested and unabsorbed food goes to rectum

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Rectum

Undigested and unabsorbed food forms a semi solid waste called faeces

Temporarily stored the faeces

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TRG Science Form 2

Amazing Tunas Enterprise (001573407-U)

Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Chapter
2.3

Human Digestive System

Anus

Excreted the faeces out of the body

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TRG Science Form 2

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Chapter 2 : Nutrition

Q.R.
2.3

Quick Refresh

Digestion is the process of breaking down complex food into simple


diffusible molecules that can be absorbed by the body
Enzymes are proteins which speed up the process of digestion
Alimentary canal is the path of the food passes through the digestive
system. It start from mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large
intestine, and ends at the anus
Process of peristalsis is the movement of food by the muscular walls that
contract and expand alternately along the alimentary canal
As a result of digestion
Class of food

Final product

Carbohydrate

Glucose

Protein

Amino acid

Fat

Fatty and glycerol


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TRG Science Form 2

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