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# Course: Research Methodology-O192I

Week 8-9

Topics
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## Introduction to Research Methodology

Problem Definition : The Foundation of Business Research
Qualitative Research Tools
Survey Research
Measurement and Scaling Concepts
Sampling Designs and Sampling Procedures
Basic Data Analysis
Communicating Research Results

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Learning Outcome
LO 1: Describe the basics of research methodology and
the

research report

LO 3:

## scaling, and research proposal

LO 4: Interpret the results of statistics calculation

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REFERENCES
Zikmund, Babin, Carr, and Griffin.
(2009).
Business Research Methods. 8th edition.
Thomson
South-Western.
ISBN
:
9780324320626.

## (1) Descriptive Statistics

The Nature of Descriptive Analysis
Descriptive analysis
The
elementary
transformation of raw data
in a way that describes the
basic characteristics such
as
central
tendency,
distribution, and variability.

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Histogram
A graphical way of showing a
frequency distribution in which
the eight of a bar corresponds
to the observed frequency of
the category.

## Levels of Scale Measurement and

Suggested Descriptive Statistics

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Tabulation
Tabulation
The orderly arrangement of
data in a table or other
summary format showing
the number of responses to
each response category;
Tallying
1

Frequency table
A
table
showing
the
different ways respondents

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Tabulation

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Cross-Tabulation
Cross-Tabulation
The appropriate technique for addressing
research questions involving relationships among
multiple less-than interval variables; results in a
combined frequency table displaying one
variable in rows and another in columns.

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Contingency Tables
Contingency table
A data matrix that displays the
frequency of some combination of
possible responses to
multiple
variables; cross-tabulation results.

Marginals
Row and column totals in a
contingency table, which are shown in
its margins.

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Contingency Tables
Statistical base
The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column)
used as a basis for computing percentages.
Elaboration analysis
An analysis of the basic cross tabulation for each level of a variable
not previously considered, such as subgroups of the sample.
Moderator variable
A third variable that changes the nature of a relationship between
the original independent and dependent variables.

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## How Many Cross-Tabulations?

An extension of cross-tabulation in which responses
to two rating scale questions are plotted in four
quadrants of a two dimensional table.
Importance-performance analysis
Another name for quadrant analysis.

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Data Transformation
Data transformation
Process of changing the data from
their original form to a format suitable
for performing a data analysis

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Data Transformation

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## Problems with Data Transformations

Median split
Dividing a data set into two categories by
placing respondents below the median in
one category and respondents above the
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median in another.

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Index Numbers
Scores or observations recalibrated to
indicate how they relate to a base
number.

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Index Numbers

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## Tabular and Graphic Methods

of Displaying Data

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Questions
1.

## What are five descriptive statistics used to describe

the basic properties of variables?

2.

## What is a histogram? What is the advantage of

overlaying a normal distribution over a histogram?

3.

## A survey asks respondents to respond to the

statement My work is interesting. Interpret the
frequency distribution shown here (taken from an
SPSS output):

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Questions

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## (2) Univariate and Bivariate

Statistical Analysis
Empirical testing typically involves inferential statistics. This means that
an inference will be drawn about some population based on
observations of a sample representing that population.
Statistical analysis can be divided into several groups:
Univariate statistical analysis tests hypotheses involving only one
variable.
Bivariate statistical analysis tests hypotheses involving two
variables.
Multivariate statistical analysis tests hypotheses and models
involving multiple (three or more) variables or sets of variables.

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Hypothesis Testing

## Descriptive research and causal research designs often

climax with hypothesis tests.

Hypotheses

are

defined

explanations

stated

in

as
a

formal

testable

statements
form.

of

Generally,

## hypotheses should be stated in concrete fashion so that

the method of empirical testing seems almost obvious.

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## The Hypothesis-Testing Procedure

Hypotheses are tested by comparing the researchers educated guess with
empirical reality. The process can be described as follows:
1.First, the hypothesis is derived from the research objectives. The hypothesis
should be stated as specifically as possible.
2.Next, a sample is obtained and the relevant variable is measured.
3.The measured value obtained in the sample is compared to the value either
stated explicitly or implied in the hypothesis. If the value is consistent with the
hypothesis, the hypothesis is supported. If the value is not consistent with the
hypothesis, the hypothesis is not supported.

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## Significance Levels and p-Values

Significance level
A critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test
that indicates how likely an inference supporting a difference
between an observed value and some statistical expectation is
true. The acceptable level of Type I error.
p-value
Probability value, or the observed or computed
significance level; p-values are compared to
significance levels to test hypotheses.

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## Choosing the Appropriate

Statistical Technique
Numerous statistical techniques are available to assist the
researcher in interpreting data. Choosing the right tool for the job is
just as important to the researcher as to the mechanic. Making the
correct choice can be determined by considering
1.The type of question to be answered
2.The number of variables involved
3.The level of scale measurement

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## Parametric versus Nonparametric

Hypothesis Tests
Parametric statistics
Involve numbers with known, continuous
distributions; when the data are interval or ratio
scaled and the sample size is large, parametric
statistical procedures are appropriate.
Nonparametric statistics
Appropriate when the variables being
analyzed do not conform to any known
or continuous distribution.

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The t-Distribution
t-test
A hypothesis test that uses the tdistribution. A univariate t-test is
appropriate when the variable being
analyzed is interval or ratio.
Degrees of freedom (df )
The number of observations minus the
number of constraints or assumptions
needed to calculate a statistical term.
t-distribution
A symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution
that is contingent on sample size; has
a mean of 0 and a standard deviation
equal to 1.
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## The Chi-Square Test for Goodness

of Fit
Chi-square test
One of the basic tests for statistical
significance
that
is
particularly
appropriate for testing hypotheses
about frequencies arranged in a
frequency or contingency table.
Goodness-of-fit (GOF)
A general term representing how well
some computed table or matrix of
values matches some population or
predetermined table or matrix of the
same size.
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Questions
1. What is the purpose of a statistical hypothesis?
2. What

is

significance level?

How does a

## researcher choose a significance level?

3. What is the difference between a significance level
and a p-value?
4. How is a p-value used to test a hypothesis?
5. Distinguish between a Type I and Type II error.

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## The t-Test for Comparing Two

Means
Independent samples t-test
A test for hypotheses stating that the mean
scores for some interval- or ratio-scaled variable
grouped based on some less-than interval
classificatory variable.

1
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## The t-Test for Comparing Two

Means
Pooled estimate of the standard error
An estimate of the standard error for a t-test
of independent means that assumes the
variances of both groups are equal.
Paired-samples t-test
An appropriate test for comparing the
scores of two interval variables drawn
from related populations.

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## The Z-Test for Comparing Two

Proportions
Z-test for differences of proportions
A technique used to test the hypothesis that
proportions are significantly different for two
independent samples or groups.

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## Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis involving the investigation of the effects of one treatment
variable on an interval scaled dependent variable-a hypothesistesting technique to determine whether statistically significant
differences in means occur between two or more groups.

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Questions

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Questions

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Pictures
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