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Mgmt . Project
GIS (Geographic Information System) 1
GIS (Global Information
G IS ( G e o g ra p h ic In fo rm a tio n
S y ste m )

GIS (Geographic Information System) 2

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What is GIS ?

• GIS stands for ‘geographic

information System’. GIS has been
developed in recent years for the
purpose of using and studying
geographic information. It
integrates hardware, software, and
data for capturing, managing,
analyzing, and displaying all forms
of geographically referenced
GIS (Geographic Information System) 4
• T h e ye a r 1 9 6 2 sa w th e d e ve lo p m e n t
o f th e w o rld 's first tru e o p e ra tio n a l
G IS in  O tta w a , O n ta rio , C a n a d a b y
th e fe d e ra lD e p a rtm e n t o f Fo re stry
a n d R u ra lD e ve lo p m e n t. D e ve lo p e d
b y D r.  R o g e r To m lin so n

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How do we create a GIS ?
• Essentially, geographic
information states what is where. So
to create geographic information, we
have to record these two elements
somehow. They can be captured
through many different types of
observations, measurements and
surveys. Data can be sourced from
aerial photography, satellite images,
field samples, land surveying,
population censuses, global
positioning systems (GPS) and
government administrative records
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A GIS Creation

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Types of GIS ?
• There are mainly 3 types of GIS Systems :
• The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the
world—a geographic database (geodatabase). It is an
"Information System for Geography.“ GIS is based on a
structured database that describes the world in geographic

• The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views
that show features and feature relationships on the earth's
surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be
constructed and used as "windows into the database" to
support queries, analysis, and editing of the information.

• The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation
tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing
datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information from
existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results
into new derived GIS
(Geographic Information System) 8
Essential Elements Of a

A n y syste m th a t is ca p a b le o f w o rkin g w ith g e o g ra p h ic in fo rm a tio n m u st,

th e re fo re , a lso b e a b le to :

1 . C re a te a sp a ce in th e w h ich lo ca tio n s o f fe a tu re s ca n b e p lo tte d

2 . P lo t a n d sto re in fo rm a tio n th a t d e scrib e s th e sh a p e s o f th e fe a tu re s in th e
lo ca tio n sp a ce
3 . S to re in fo rm a tio n th a t d e scrib e s w h a t th e sh a p e s re p re se n t

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Functions Of a GIS?
• M a p p in g a n d ca rto g ra p h y : Visualize features and manipulate symbology
a n d co lo u rs to cre a te a n o u tp u t m a p w ith title , sca le b a r, n o rth a rro w
e tc .

• Q u e ry : Ask questions of feature attributes such as : where is… ? What ’ s the
n e a re st… ? W h a t in te rse cts w ith … ?

• S e le ct: Id e n tify fe a tu re s a n d th e ir a ttrib u te s th a t m e e t so m e crite ria .

• D ista n ce : Calculates the distance between features .

• B u ffe rs : Rings drawn around features at a specified distance from the
fe a tu re s.

• O v e rla y : The display of multiple layers of information at one location.

• C lip : Cuts an input layer to the size and extent of a selected layer.

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• 3 D : Data can be viewed with ‘ height ’ in 3 -dimensions for powerful
Where is GIS used ?
  Uses
• Forestry Inventory and management of
• Police resources.
Crime mapping to target resources.
• Transport
Monitoring route.
• Utilities
Managing pipe networks.
• Oil
Monitoring ships.
• Health
Planning services and health impact.
• Military
Troop movement.
• Agriculture
Analyzing crop yield.
• Insurance
Identifying risk : eg:risk of flooding


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y im p o rta n t te ch n o lo g y fo r th e n e w g

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a n S a ve T h e E n viro n m e n t, It Ju st N e e d ’ s To B e M a n a


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