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Chemical Bonding

Covalent Bonding
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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds
Resonance
Fajans rules
Properties and parameters
Structures
Molecular orbitals
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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds
Resonance
Fajans rules
Properties and parameters
Structures
Molecular orbitals
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Covalent bonding in compounds


Covalent bonding can take place between atoms of different
elements to create molecules of covalent compounds.
These covalent bonds can be single, double or triple.
Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) need 1 more electron
to fill their outer shell. By sharing one electron each, they can
fill their outer shells and become stable.

Cl

HCl or H Cl
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Covalent bonding in water


Oxygen (2.6) needs 2 more electrons, but hydrogen (1) only
needs 1 more. How can these two elements be covalently
bonded?
The oxygen atom shares 1 electron with 1 hydrogen atom,
and a second electron with another hydrogen atom.

O
H

H
H2O or H O H

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Covalent bonding in ammonia


How are nitrogen and hydrogen bonded in ammonia?

Electron
2.5
configuration

H
1

Electrons
needed

Ratio of
atoms

H
NH3 or H N H
H
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Covalent bonding in methane

Electron
2.4
configuration

H
1

Electrons
needed

Ratio of
atoms

CH4
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H
or H C H
H

How are carbon and hydrogen


bonded in methane?

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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds
Resonance
Fajans rules
Properties and parameters
Structures
Molecular orbitals
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Delocalized bonding: Resonance


Resonance is electron delocalization on a particular molecule or
polyatomic ion which bonds cannot be rendered in a single structure
of Lewis.

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Resonance of Ozone
The structure of ozone, O3, can be represented by two
different Lewis electron-dot formulas.

Experiments show, however, that both bonds are


identical.

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Resonance of Ozone
According to theory, one pair of bonding electrons is
spread over the region of all three atoms.

This is called delocalized bonding, in which a


bonding pair of electrons is spread over a
number of atoms.

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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds
Fajans rules
Properties and parameters
Structures
Molecular orbitals
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Fajans rules

There is no perfect ionic bonding.


Hetero nuclear bonding Mixed of ionic and covalent
character
Dominant Covalent Covalent bond
Dominant Ionic Ionic bond
So that there is an intermediate between the two.
Covalent character The power of polarization
of cation and anion.
Polarization The nucleus of the cation/anion may
affect or pull the electron cloud of the anion/cation

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Fajans rules
Fajans said that a small cations able to polarize the electron cloud of
an anion that forms ions no longer spheric but elipsoid (distortion)

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Fajans rules
:

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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds

Properties and parameters


Molecular orbitals
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PROPERTIES OF COVALENT BOND


Most covalent compounds have relatively low
melting points and boiling points.
Covalent compounds usually have lower enthalpies
of fusion and vaporization than ionic compounds.
Covalent compounds tend to be soft and relatively
flexible.
Covalent compounds tend to be more flammable
than ionic compounds.

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When dissolved in water, covalent


compounds don't conduct electricity.
Many covalent compounds don't dissolve
well in water.

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Covalent bonds can be divided into several


types, namely as follows:

1) a single covalent bond


Single covalent bond is a bond that involves the
use of shared pairs of electrons by two bonded
atoms. This bond usually occurs between the
non-metallic elements with non-metallic
elements in the main group. Covalent bonds
occur between groups IVA.VA, VIA, VIIA.

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Example: The bond between the H atom and the Cl


atom in HCl
Electron configurations between H and Cl is: H1 = 1
Cl17 = 2 8 7
Each H and Cl atoms require one electron. Thus, 1 H
atom pairs with one Cl atom.
HCl bond formation
H + Cl: H-Cl: HCl

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2) double covalent bond and triple covalent bond


Double covalent bond involves the joint use of more than
one pair of electrons by two bonded atoms. example:
a) the double bond of the O2 molecule
The electron configuration of O = 2 6, the oxygen has 6
valence elekron, so it takes two electrons to satisfy the
octet rule O2 bond formation.
O: +: O O = O O2

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3) Triple Bond
The electron configuration of N (Ar = 7) was
2.5, so that nitrogen has 5 valence electrons, so it
should pair 3 electrons to be stable.
N2 bond formation.

: N : +: N: N N N2

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MOMENT DIPOLE

The dipole moment ()


Is a quantity used to express the polarity of a covalent
bond.
formulated:
= Q x r; 1 D = 3.33 x 10 -30 C.m
description:
= dipole moment, Debye units (D)
Q = the difference in the charge, the units of
coulombs (C)
r = distance between the positive charge with a
negative charge, units meters (m)

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Based on the difference in electronegativity of two


atoms that form the molecule dwiatom raises polar
molecules.

1. polar covalent bond


Polar covalent bond occurs when one element
that binds the electrons have a greater
attractiveness (the electronegativity is not the
same).
Examples of bonding in compounds HCl,
H2O, NH3, HF, HBr, HI
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2. The non-polar covalent bond


Non-polar covalent bond occurs when elements
that bind have pull the same electron (the
electronegativity of each atom are same).
For example ikatam in Cl2, H2, Br2, I2, N2,
BeCl2, Bcl2, O2

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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds

Properties and parameters


Structures
Molecular orbitals
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Molecular solids iodine


Iodine is a molecular solid at room temperature.
Two iodine atoms form a single covalent
bond to become an iodine molecule.

I
I

Millions of iodine molecules


are held together by weak
forces of attraction to create
a 3D molecular lattice.
weak forces
of attraction
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Simple covalent structures


Atoms that join together by covalent bonding can form
different types of covalent structure.
Oxygen, water and carbon dioxide are molecules. They have
a simple structure because they only contain a few atoms.

O
H

Most molecular substances are gas or liquid at room


temperature. A few are solid and these are called
molecular solids.

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Properties of molecular solids


The weak forces of attraction between molecules in
molecular solids only require a small amount of energy to be
broken. This means that molecular solids:
have low melting and boiling points;
are usually soft and brittle they shatter when hit.
In addition, molecular solids:
are usually insoluble in water but soluble in other solvents
such as petrol;
cannot conduct electricity there are no free electrons to
carry an electrical charge.

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Giant covalent structures


In some substances, millions of atoms join together by
covalent bonding. This produces giant covalent structures,
not molecules.

All the bonds are covalent,


which means that giant
covalent structures have a
very high melting and boiling
point, and are usually hard.

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Allotropes of carbon
In the element carbon, atoms bond in different ways,
creating different kinds of giant structures.
Two of these structures are diamond and graphite.
They are called allotropes of carbon.
Allotropes have the same chemical properties because
they have the same number of electrons.
However, they have different physical properties because
the electrons are shared in different ways with other atoms.

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The structure of diamond


Diamond is a rare form of
carbon in which each atom
is covalently bonded to four
others.

This pattern arrangement is


repeated millions of times to
create a giant lattice.

C
C
C

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The properties of diamond


All the electrons in the outer shell of the carbon atom (2.4) are
used in covalent bonds. This affects diamonds properties.
Diamond is very hard the
hardest natural substance on Earth.
Diamond has a very high melting
and boiling point a lot of energy is
needed to break the covalent bonds.
Diamond cannot conduct
electricity there are no free
electrons or ions to carry a
charge
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The structure of graphite


Graphite is a much more
common form of carbon. in
which each atom is
covalently bonded to three
others.

This forms rings of six atoms,


creating a giant structure
containing many layers. These
layers are held together by
weak forces of attraction.

C
C

C
weak forces of attraction

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The properties of graphite


Only three of the four electrons in the outer shell of the
carbon atom (2.4) are used in covalent bonds. This affects
graphites properties.
Graphite is soft and slippery
layers can easily slide over each
other because the weak forces of
attraction are easily broken. This is
why graphite is used as a lubricant.
Graphite can conduct
electricity the only
non-metal to do. There is a
free electron from each atom
to carry a charge.
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Other allotropes of carbon


Other allotropes of carbon have been discovered in the last
30 years. They are large but not really giant structures.
One allotrope is buckminsterfullerene. It contains 60 carbon
atoms, each of which bonds with three others by forming two
single bonds and one double bond.
These atoms are arranged in 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons
to form spheres, which are sometimes called bucky balls.

C
C
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C
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Sand
Sand is an impure form of silicon dioxide (quartz). It has a
giant covalent structure with certain similarities to diamond.
Each silicon atom (2.8.4) is bonded to four
oxygen atoms, and each oxygen atom (2.6)
is bonded to two silicon atoms.
O

Si
O
O

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Multiple-choice quiz

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Contents

Covalent Bonding
In elements
In compounds

Properties and parameters


Molecular orbitals
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Bonding theories

So far, the orbitals we have been discussing


are atomic orbitals (s, p, d, f) for each atom
When two atoms combine, their atomic orbitals
overlap and they make molecular orbitals
A Molecular Orbital is an orbital that applies to the
entire molecule, instead of just one atom

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Molecular orbitals

A molecular orbital belongs to molecules as a whole


Each orbital is filled with 2 electrons
A Bonding Orbital is an orbital that can be occupied by
two electrons of a covalent bond (its the space in
between the two atoms)
There are 2 types of bonding orbitals : sigma and pi

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Sigma bond ()
A Sigma Bond is when 2 atomic orbitals combine to form a
molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis

S orbitals
overlapping

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P orbitals overlapping
end-to-end

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Pi bond ()
Pi bonding electrons are likely to be found in a sausageshape above and below the axis

Pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds because they


overlap less

P orbitals overlapping side-by-side

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