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1.

1 Introduction to
Language and Culture
Key concepts and Definitions
-Culture (symbols, language, values,
norms and objects)
Evolution of Culture and Society
-Hunting and gathering society
-Horticulture and pastoralism
-Agriculture
-Industry

Section B: Structured
Question
Culture is the values, beliefs, symbols, language,
norms and material objects that together form a
peoples way of life.
Define symbols and give examples.
(5
marks)
Answer:
-anything that carries a particular meaning
-recognized by people who share the same
culture
-eg: a word, a whistle, a wall covered with
graffiti, a flashing red light, a raised fist

Answer:
1(b) Explain briefly the differences between
symbols and objects.
(5 marks)
Symbols
do change with time
in the past , symbol of beauty in China is chubby
deserves a better life
nowadays, slim woman will consider as a beauty

Objects
do not change in meaning and usage with time.
chopsticks is used by Chinese during meal time
today, it remains as a symbol of Chinese culture
besides using Western cutlery

Symbols and objects are the two


components of culture.
2.

Identify another two components of culture and discuss with referene


to the hunting and gathering societies. (5 marks)
(a)

Language
Enable people to work and communicate together.
To aid in the process of hunting, gathering and sharing food.

Art
Early human had worn portable art such as jewelry and figurine
has religious meaning and brings wealth
To convey a message through drawings on the cave walls

2 (b) Based on the stimulus given, analyze how it creates social inequality in horticultural
and pastoral societies.

social hierarchy was created since horticultural and pastoral societies.


base on the wealth of a family
amount of animals and crops determine the wealth
the more crops and animals, the more wealthier
wealthy family has high position in social hierarchy but in small portion
the poor occupied a big portion in social hierarchy.

People in hunting and gathering societies have different


behaviour compared to horticultural and pastoral societies .

3.
According to the statement above, explain the reason that leads to
difference in behaviour in both societies.
(5 marks)
Answer:
Hunting-and-gathering people
tend to be very peaceful.
cooperate and share with each other.
sharing of food is a key norm in hunting-and-gathering societies.
Horticultural and pastoral people
tend to be more aggressive.
differences in wealth leads to disputes and fighting over land and
animals.

3 a) Compare and contrast the


stimulus given above with reference
to horticultural and pastoral society
in the past and the 21st Century's
agriculture. Justify your answer with
suitable evidence.
(5 marks)

Both focus on planting and


rearing.

Horticultural and Pastoral in


the Past
use of simple tools and
techniques

21st Century's Agriculture


use of advance technologies and
techniques

eg: irrigation sprinklers, embryo


transfer and cloning (reproductive
technologies)

eg: hoe and digging stick

large population which has a


system

small population

the yield is affected by external


factors
eg: pest, drought, disease

mass production : small

the yield does not affected by


external factors because of the
presence of R&D departments

mass production: large

Essay Question
Industrial societies emerged in the 1700s as
the development of machines. The growth of
industrial societies marked such a great
transformation in many of the worlds
societies.
What are the positive and negative
effects of industrialization on the society?
(15 marks)

Introduction
Industrialisation is the process in which a
society or country (or world) transforms
itself from a primarily agricultural society
into one based on the manufacturing of
goods and services.
Industrial society refers to a society
driven by the use of technology to
enable mass production, supporting a
large population with a high capacity for
division of labour.

BODY
Positive

Technological advances that improved peoples


health and expanded their life
Greater emphasis in industrial societies on
individualism and people.
Societies typically enjoy greater political freedom
than those in older societies.
Created jobs- it created wealth.
More specialized jobs
More awareness of other cultures because of the
ease of traveling

Negative
Rise and growth of large cities as well as
concentrated poverty and degrading morales.
Led to riots and other urban violence. Helped
fuel the rise of the modern crisis.
Consume most of the worlds resources and
pollute its conditions in these cities.
Many people leave farming areas for
industrial areas thus changing the
demographic of the communities.
Cities became crowded.
Gap in knowledge and wealth is apparent
between rural and urban areas

Conclusion
Industrialization is essential to the
evolution of a society to improve the
lifestyle of society.
Therefore, we should take measures to
preserve and conserve mother Earth so
that the future generation can reap the
benefits of industrialization of society.
There are pros and cons in everything
hence the society should be responsible
for every action that they took.