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A camera is a device used to take pictures (usually
photographs), either singly or in sequence, with or without
sound recording, such as with video cameras. A camera that
takes pictures singly is sometimes called a photo camera to
distinguish it from a video camera. The name is derived from
camera obscura, Latin for "dark chamber", an early mechanism
for projecting images in which an entire room functioned much
as the internal workings of a modern photographic camera,
except there was no way at this time to record the image short
of manually tracing it. Cameras may work with the visual
spectrum or other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Every camera consists of some kind of enclosed chamber, with
an opening or aperture at one end for light to enter, and a
recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the
other end. Most cameras have a lens positioned in front of the
camera's opening to gather the incoming light and to focus the
image, or part of the image, on the recording surface. The
diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm
mechanism, but some cameras have a fixed-size aperture.
The size of the aperture and the brightness of the scene
control the amount of light that enters the camera during a
Camera Obscura (DARK ROOM)
It is not known who the first people to
discover the “dark room” were. The word
“camera” means room in Latin and the
word “obscura” means dark. A camera
obscura is just that – a dark room with a
hole in one side. The hole focuses the light
to produce an image of what is outside.
The image is produced upside down on the
wall opposite the hole.
The first people to understand how light
worked may have been the Chinese or the
How It Works
Greeks around the 4th or 5th centuries
The Chinese
B.C. camera philosopher
obscura is simply a room, or
Mo-Ti described a even a box, with a
hole in obscura,
camera one side.and
hole actsunderstood
like an aperture in a camera,
the the light. The day must be bright, and the room must
be dark, but the image will appear clearly on the wall opposite
the hole. Because the sun’s rays travel in a straight line, they
produce an image on the wall that is reversed (upside down).
Step 1: Obtain Oatmeal Box.
Step 2: Cut 2” x 2” hole in the side.
Step 3: cover paint inside of box black. Also cover the lid, inside
and out, black.
Step 4: Test to make sure there are no light leaks.
Step 5: Use a heavy aluminum foil or tin from a pie plate to
make the pin-hole. Cut a square that is slightly larger than the
hole in your oatmeal box.
Step 6: Use a pin to make a hole in the center. Carefully smooth
out the edges of the pin-hole by pressing the aluminum against
a desk or table until it is flat.
Step 7: Use black permanent magic marker to color the pie tin
Step 8: Be sure not to “cloud” the pin-hole with ink.
Step 9: Use black electrical tape to tape the pie tin to the inside
of the oatmeal box. Be sure that the tin completely covers the
hole and that there are no light leaks!
Step 10: Use heavy black paper to create a cover for the pin-
hole. Tape it to the side of the pin-hole and use rubber bands to
secure it.
Step 11: Now you’re ready to load your camera!
Step 12: In a darkroom, under red light, put a fresh sheet of
The photographic camera thus involved is light-tight
chamber / box with a lens at one end and film or plate
holder at other end with focusing system, diaphragm,
shutter, view - finder etc.
VIEW FINDER:- The viewfinder is the "window" or frame on a
camera showing the scene that will appear in the picture. Or The
viewfinder shows you the entire scene that will be recoded on
the film / memory and indicates which part of the scene is
focused most sharply.
1- Optical Viewfinder on a Digital Compact
The optical viewfinder on a digital compact
camera consists of a simple optical system
that zooms at the same time as the main lens
and has an optical path that runs parallel to
the camera's main lens. These viewfinders
are small and their biggest problem is
framing inaccuracy. Since the viewfinder is
positioned above the actual lens (often there
2- LCD
is alsoona ahorizontal
Digital Compact
what (TTL):-
you see
The LCD on
through thea digital
is different
shows in
real time
from whatwhat
the is
the lens
This "parallax
and therefore
error" is avoids
most obvious
the aboveat
parallax errors.
relatively small subject
This isdistances.
also called "TTL" or
"Through-The-Lens" viewing. Using the LCD
for framing will shorten battery life and it may
be difficult to frame accurately in very bright
sunlight conditions, in which case you will
have to resort to the optical or electronic
viewfinder . The LCDs on virtually all digital
SLRs will only show the image after it is taken
and give no live previews.
3- Optical Viewfinder on a Digital SLR Camera
The optical viewfinder of a digital SLR shows what
the lens will project on the sensor via a mirror
and a prism and has therefore no parallax error.
When you depress the shutter button, the mirror
flips up so the lens can expose the sensor. As a
consequence, and due to sensor limitations, the
LCD on most digital SLRs will only show the image
after it is taken and give no live previews. In
some models this is resolved by replacing the
mirror by a prism (at the expense of incoming
The optical viewfinder normally also features an
LCD "status bar" along the bottom of the
viewfinder relaying exposure and camera setting
4- Electronic Viewfinder (EVF) on a Digital
Compact Camera (TTL):-
An electronic viewfinder (EVF) functions like the
LCD on a digital compact camera and shows in
real time what is projected onto the sensor by the
lens. It is basically a small LCD (typically
The lens is one of the most important vital parts of the camera
which consists one or more pieces of glass that focuses and
frame an image within the camera. Lens control begins with an
understanding of basic optics.

A Lens is a curved piece of glass that causes Light rays to

bend. Because glass is denser than air. Light glows down at
the Point where it enters the Lens. Lenses bend light so that it
can be controlled and Projected in Proper focus and size at a
specific Point behind the Lens where a Light-Sensitive material
can record or transmit the image. Simply Single Lenses fall
into two basic categories: Concave and Convex.
Concave Lenses which are thinner at the
Center than at the edges bend Light rays
away from the center of the Lens. On the
other hand Convex Lenses are thickest at
the center and bend light toward the
center of the Lens.
Modern film and video camera Lenses are
composed of more than one piece of glass
and are called Compound Lenses.
Compound Lenses – Combine several
concave and convex lenses.
The two basic features of Camera Lenses
are their focal length and f stop ratings.
The f stop is the ratio of focal length to the
diameter of the lens. And focal length
determines the “taking angle" of the lens.
The lenswith short
fitted focaloflengths
on most are camera
the 35 mm used covers an angle of
for wide
45°to 55°angle
whichshot and Long Focal
is equivavalent Length angle of view of a
to working
human are
and telephoto
called aslenses.
“Normal or Standard lens”. The
standard lens for 16mm size film is 20 mm.
Angle of View
Angle of View is the amount of a scene a photograph captures
and can be measured vertically, horizontally or diagonally. Also
known as angle of coverage or field of view, angle of view
changes given the type of lens a photographer uses to take a
While wide-angle lens tend to capture more of a scene than any
other lenses, longer lenses generally get about two degrees of a
scene within their angle of view.
The further away an image that a photographer is attempting to
capture within their angle of view, the longer and more narrow
the lens should be. For instance, a picture of the stars or far-off
marine life would be taken with a longer, narrower lens than one
that has an image with an angle of view that is twenty feet away.
Similarly, if a photographer wants to include more or less light
within an angle of view, they can use a petal or a hooded lens
Focal length:
The distance between the film and the optical center of the
lens when the lens is focused on infinity. The focal length of
the lens on most adjustable cameras is marked in millimeters
on the lens mount.

Very simply, it is the distance from the lens to the film, when
focused on a subject at infinity. In other words, focal length
equals image distance for a far subject. To focus on something
closer than infinity, the lens is moved farther away from the
film. This is why most lenses get longer when you turn the
focusing ring. The distances follow this formula:
Points related to focal length of lens:

 Focal length controls magnification and also controls angle of view.

 A normal focal length lens also called standard lens, approximates the
impression human vision gives.

 A normal lens has certain advantages over wide- angle or tele-photo

lenses. Most normal lenses faster, compact, light weight and less

 Tele photo or long- focal-length lens provides greater image

magnification and a narrower angle of view than a normal lens.

 Wide angle or short focal length lens increase the angle of view and
shows more of scene than a normal lens from the same position.

 Wide angle lens have considerable depth of field.

 Zoom lenses are variable focal length lenses are popular because they
combine a range of focal length into the camera.
Terms related to Lens:
1- Optical Center: it is point on
the lens through which the ray
of light passed un-deviated.
2- Principle axis: it is a straight
line passing through the centre
of curvature of all the lens
elements, and normal to the
plane surfaces.
3- Focus: The rays of light
parallel to the principle axis
passing through the lens
converge from a point (in case
of convex lens) or seem to
diverge from point (in case of
concave lens) on the principle
axis. This point is called Focus.
4 - Focal Plain: A plane passing
through the focus of the lens
horizontally to the principal
axis is called the focal plane of
Film chamber
A pattern of black and metallic leak proof (light) squares on the cassette
makes contact with contacts in the film chamber that pass information to
the camera with regard to film speed, film type and film length
The rewind crank: lets you wind your
film back into the canister. It's usually
on the left-hand-side, and more often
than not has a little flip-out lever to
make it easier to turn.
The rewind release: allows you to
rewind your film. Normally, while
shooting the film is locked so that it can
only move forwards and not backwards
into the canister, for obvious reasons.
The rewind release simply unlocks this
safety mechanism. This is usually a
small button located on the base of the
The ISO dial: which may be marked as
ASA, tells the camera the speed of your
film. This may not be a dial at all; it
might be a series of button presses.

The discovery and invention of photographic film starts with

one of those wonderful events in science: a complete
accident. In 1727, a German scientist named Johan Heinrich
Photographic film is a sheet of plastic (polyester,
nitrocellulose or cellulose acetate) coated with an emulsion
containing light-sensitive silver halide salts (bonded by
gelatin) with variable crystal sizes that determine the
sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film. When the
emulsion is sufficiently exposed to light (or other forms of
electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays), it forms a latent
(invisible) image. Chemical processes can then be applied to
the film to create a visible image, in a process called film
Photographic film is photosensitive — it changes its
properties when it’s hit by light. The trick of the photographer
is to expose only certain parts of the film to the light. That’s
the reason the camera goes “click” — the camera’s shutter is
opening and closing very quickly to let in just a little bit of
light to impact the film. That’s also why photographers
develop their film in a “dark room” — they don’t want any
extra light impacting the film until it is “fixed”. Keep that
door closed!
Black and white film has one light sensitive chemical emulsion
sandwiched between transparent coatings. In black-and-white
photographic film there is usually one layer of silver salts.
When the exposed grains are developed, the silver salts are
converted to metallic silver, which block light and appear as
the black part of the film negative

Colour film has three chemical emulsions, each sensitive to a

different colour of light. Color film uses at least three
layers.Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by
the green and red layers. During development, the exposed
silver salts are converted to metallic silver, just as with black
and white film. But in a color film, the by-products of the
development reaction simultaneously combine with chemicals
known as color couplers that are included either in the film
itselfimage on undeveloped
or in the film istoextremely
developer solution faint
form colored — too faint
to see, in fact. The stabilizing solution reacts with the silver
compounds to make the image visible. After rinsing off the
stabilizing solution, the developer next places the film in the
fixing bath. The chemicals in the fixing bath react with the
unexposed silver compounds, leaving only the image behind.
After this step, the film is no longer sensitive to light. Now you
An image sensor is a device that
converts an optical image to an
electric signal. It is used mostly in
digital cameras and other imaging
devices. Early sensors were video
camera tubes but a modern one is
typically a charge-coupled device
Today, or a complementary
most metal–
digital still cameras use either a CCD image sensor
oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)
or a CMOS sensor. Both types of sensor accomplish the same
active-pixel sensor.
task of capturing light and converting it into electrical signals.
A CCD is an analog device. When light strikes the chip it is held
as a small electrical charge in each photo sensor. The charges
are converted to voltage one pixel at a time as they are read
from the chip. Additional circuitry in the camera converts the
voltage into digital information.
A CMOS chip is a type of active pixel sensor made using the
CMOS semiconductor process. Extra circuitry next to each
photo sensor converts the light energy to a voltage. Additional
circuitry on the chip may be included to convert the voltage to
digital data.
Neither technology has a clear advantage in image quality.
CMOS can potentially be implemented with fewer components,
CCD sensors have been used in cameras for more than 20
years and present many advantageous qualities; among them,
better light sensitivity than CMOS sensors. This higher light
sensitivity translates into better images in low light
conditions. CCD sensors are, however, more expensive as they
are made in a non-standard process and more complex to
incorporate into a camera.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of
electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area
where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion
into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals
between stages within the device one at a time. Technically,
CCDs are implemented as shift registers that move charge
between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing
for the transfer of charge between bins.
The device is integrated with a sensor, such as a photoelectric
device to produce the charge that is being read, thus making
the CCD a major technology where the conversion of images
into a digital signal is required. Although CCDs are not the only
technology to allow for light detection, CCDs are widely used in
professional, medical, and scientific applications where high-
quality image data is required.
HOW CCD WORKS: In a CCD for capturing images, there is
a photoactive region (an layer of silicon), and a transmission
region made out of a shift register (the CCD, properly
An image is projected through a lens onto the capacitor array
(the photoactive region), causing each capacitor to
accumulate an electric charge proportional to the light
intensity at that location. A one-dimensional array, used in
line-scan cameras, captures a single slice of the image, while
a two-dimensional array, used in video and still cameras,
captures a two-dimensional picture corresponding to the
scene projected onto the focal plane of the sensor. Once the
array has been exposed to the image, a control circuit causes
each capacitor to transfer its contents to its neighbor
(operating as a shift register). The last capacitor in the array
dumps its charge into a charge amplifier, which converts the
charge into a voltage. By repeating this process, the
controlling circuit converts the entire contents of the array in
the semiconductor to a sequence of voltages, which it
samples, digitizes, and stores in memory.
Recent advances in CMOS sensors bring them closer to their
CCD counterparts in terms of image quality. CMOS sensors
provide a lower total cost for the cameras since they contain
all the logics needed to build cameras around them. They
make it possible to produce smaller-sized cameras. Large-
sized sensors are available, providing mega pixel resolution
to a variety of network cameras. A current limitation with
CMOS sensors is their lower light sensitivity.
CMOS sensors use
multiple transistors to
amplify and move the
charge provided by
incoming photons of light,
enabling the pixels to be
read individually. The
CMOS manufacturing
process uses standard
technology, which
increases memory photo
sites, lowers the
production cost
significantly, and can
AdvantagesCMOS image sensors have improved by leaps over
the last few years. Resolutions are now high enough and run
at fast enough frame rates to enable advanced-camera
features like electronic pan, tilt, and zoom or image
stabilization. CMOS architecture allows for random pixel
access and window-of-interest readout for applications
requiring image compression, motion detection, or target
CMOS imagers are now designed in to generations of DSCs, IP
security cameras, and even intelligent vehicle systems. Their
portability and low power consumption have driven these
sensors to dominance in markets like mobile handset camera
systems; digital SLRs; and high-speed, machine-vision

High dynamic range:
High dynamic range sensors capture complete scene
information, enabling sophisticated processing applications.
Low-light and near-IR sensitivity:
Acutely sensitive or near-IR sensors perform in very low-light,
capturing seemingly obscured details.
High speed:
Both CCD (charge-coupled device) and CMOS (complimentary
metal-oxide semiconductor) image sensors start at the same
point -- they have to convert light into electrons. If you have
read the article How Solar Cells Work, you understand one
technology that is used to perform the conversion. One
simplified way to think about the sensor used in a digital
camera (or camcorder) is to think of it as having a 2-D array of
thousands or millions of tiny solar cells, each of which
transforms the light from one small portion of the image into
electrons. Both CCD and CMOS devices perform this task using
a variety of technologies.
CCD sensors, as mentioned above, create high-quality, low-
noise images. CMOS sensors, traditionally, are more
susceptible to noise.
Because each pixel on a CMOS sensor has several transistors
located next to it, the light sensitivity of a CMOS chip tends to
be lower. Many of the photons hitting the chip hit the
transistors instead of the photodiode.
CMOS traditionally consumes little power. Implementing a
sensor in CMOS yields a low-power sensor.
CCDs use a process that consumes lots of power. CCDs
consume as much as 100 times more power than an
The iris is the diaphragm, and the
opening in the iris of the eye (the
pupil) is the aperture. An
analogous device in a
photographic lens is called an iris
The aperture of a lens is the
diameter of the lens opening and
is usually controlled by an iris.
The larger the diameter of the
aperture, the more light reaches
the film / image sensor.
In optics, a diaphragm is a thin
solid structure with an opening
(aperture) at its centre. The role
of the diaphragm is to stop the
passage of light, except for the
light passing through the
aperture. Or The aperture (the
size of the lens opening) controls
the brightness of the light that
reaches the film. The size of the
aperture is indicated by its f-
An automatic mechanical device, which allows and controls the
light passing through the lens and acts on the sensitive
emulsion (film) or A mechanism that opens and close to admit
light into a camera for a measured length of time. so as to
proper exposure is known as “shutter”. The earliest shutter
was hardly more than a piece of card or tape held over the
‘lens’ or pinhole which was removed for a set period. The time
normally ran into seconds or minutes due to the low sensitivity
of film Shutters
and the are
smallnormally between-the-lens
apertures used. These shutters move
slow or Focal sec.)
(1 sec.,1/2 Plane.or extremely fast (1/1000 sec.), as per
Leaf typesof can
the situation.
usually be found in older
cameras, film compacts and medium format
camera lenses.
2. Focal plane shutters are generally used on
SLR’s.Focal plane shutter – vertically running,
this gives more opportunity for higher speeds
as there is less travel for the blades.
The main differences between the two is the
range of speeds and the highest flash (sync)
speed. Leaf shutters can sync over their
complete range of  1/500sec to 4 or 8 sec.
Shutter Speed

The Shutter Speed controls the amount of light by the

length of time it remains opens.

The faster the shutter speed, the more likely a moving

subject will be sharp.

 Shutter and subject speed also affect the amount of blurring

in a photograph.
Relation of Shutter speed and aperture:
Shutter speed and Aperture are the two controls a camera
uses to make an exposure on the film when we “take a
picture”. Shutter speed is the speed with which the camera’s
shutter opens when the picture is taken and aperture is the
size of the hole light passes through in camera lens before it
gets to the shutter. it is important to control the amount of
light to the film by using the aperture and shutter speed to
get a correct exposure.

 Both the shutter speed and aperture affect the amount of light entering
the camera.
 Shutter speed and aperture also affect sharpness.
Things consider to choosing a shutter speed:
 Subject need to be extremely still/steady in order to not
show motion / blur in the image with the shutter speed of
1/30 of a second or slower.
 Fast moving subjects tend to need shutter speed of 1/250
of a second or faster into order to freeze motion or prohibit
Things consider to choosing a aperture:

 Choosing an aperture can dictate the amount of distance in

front and behind
your subject that is in acceptable focus.
 The larger the aperture number, the smaller the aperture
hole, and the better the depth of field.
 The smaller the aperture number, the larger the aperture
hole the less depth
of field.
 Wide angle lenses,35mm-15mm have more depth of field
per aperture.
 Tele photo lenses,80mm-200mm have less depth of field
per aperture.
 Low level of light may require a large aperture hole.

Co-relation of shutter speed and aperture hole:

 Slow shutter speed creates un- sharp pictures, hence

requires tripod.
Fast shutter speed freezes action and motion and creates
sharp picture without Any tripod.
 Smallest aperture or hole gives best depth of field.
A pentaprism is a five-sided reflecting prism used to deviate a beam
of light by 90°. The beam reflects inside the prism twice, allowing
the transmission of an image through a right angle without inverting
it (that is, without changing the image's handedness) as an ordinary
right-angle prism or mirror would.
The reflections inside the prism are not caused by total internal
reflection, since the beams are incident at an angle less than the
critical angle, or minimum angle for total internal reflection. Instead,
the two faces are coated to provide mirror surfaces. The two
opposite transmitting faces are often coated with an antireflection
coating to reduce spurious reflections. The fifth face of the prism is
not used optically, but truncates what would otherwise be an
awkward angle joining the two mirrored faces.

A variant of this prism is the roof pentaprism which is commonly

used in the viewfinder of single-lens reflex cameras. In this case,
the image needs to be reflected left-to-right, as the prism transmits
the image formed on the camera's focusing screen, which is itself
reflected by the reflex mirror in the camera body. This reflection is
done by replacing one of the reflective faces of a normal pentaprism
with a "roof" section, with two additional surfaces angled towards
each other and meeting at a 90° angle. This form of the prism
changes the handedness of the image
Memory (Internal & External)
Digital camera memory is an essential and often
overlooked piece of digital photography
equipment. There are two types of memory in the
camera one is internal memory or built-in
memory and second is External memory.
Internal Memory is the built-in memory. You can't alter it. Let's say a
camera with 4 GB of internal memory, it means the camera has 4 GB
of memory comes with the camera. if the camera has no SD slot for
memory expansion then you're stuck with 4 GB, it's all you can get.
Once you reach the 4 GB limit, you'd need to delete off files to gain
back space.

External memory is something like a SD card, you can physically plug

it in to add more Although memory cards are reusable, they don't
have a limitless capacity and it's always good to have more than you
actually need.