Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
DNA usually exists as a doublestranded structure, with both strands
coiled together to form the
characteristic double-helix.
Each single strand of DNA is a chain
of four types of nucleotides having
the bases:

di-. two. that is. a deoxyribose sugar is attached to one. creating the phosphatedeoxyribose backbone of the DNA double helix with the bases pointing inward.A nucleotide is a mono-. or triphosphate deoxyribonucleoside.   Chemical interaction of these nucleotides forms phosphodiester linkages.   . or three phosphates.


Adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine .Nucleotides (bases) are matched between strands through hydrogen bonds to form base pairs.

These terms refer to the carbon atom in deoxyribose to which the next phosphate in the chain attaches.DNA strands have a directionality. because . The strands of the helix are anti-parallel with one being 5 prime to 3 then the opposite strand 3 prime to 5. Directionality has consequences in DNA synthesis. and the different ends of a single strand are called the "3' (three-prime) end" and the "5' (fiveprime) end" with the direction of the naming going 5 prime to the 3 prime region.

.The pairing of bases in DNA through hydrogen bonding means that the information contained within each strand is redundant. The nucleotides on a single strand can be used to reconstruct nucleotides on a newly synthesized partner strand.

DNA Replication .

It is the basis for biological inheritance.DNA REPLICATION DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their exact DNA. .

  Helicase is the enzyme that splits the two strands. The structure that is created is known as "Replication Fork". . The unwounding of the two strands is the starting point. That is because there are only two bonds between Adenine and Thymine (there are three hydrogen bonds between Cytosine and Guanine).The first major step for the DNA Replication to take place is the breaking of hydrogen bonds between bases of the two antiparallel strands. The splitting happens in places of the chains which are rich in A-T.

the double stranded DNA helix must must first be opened. Helicase unwinds the two single strands . The sites where this process first occurs are called replication origins.In order for DNA replication to begin.

work to bind individuals strands in a DNA double stranded helix and aid the helicases in opening it up into single strands. SSB for short. They are particularly useful in stabilizing the unwound single-stranded formation.Single-Strand Binding Proteins Single-Strand DNA Binding Proteins. .

Replication Fork The replication fork is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication. which break the hydrogen bonds holding the two DNA strands together. each one made up of a single strand of DNA. which will be created as DNA polymerase matches complementary nucleotides to the templates. These two strands serve as the template for the leading and lagging strands. It is created by helicases. The resulting structure has two branching "prongs". The templates may be .

  . RNA nucleotides are the primers (starters) for the binding of DNA nucleotides.One of the most important steps of DNA Replication is the binding of RNA Primase in the initiation point of the 3'-5' parent chain.  RNA Primase can attract RNA nucleotides which bind to the DNA nucleotides of the 3'-5' strand due to the hydrogen bonds between the bases.

.RNA PRIMASE RNA Primase lays down the RNA primers so that the Polymerase III can get to work or can function.

The elongation process is different for the 5'-3' and 3'-5' template. a)5'-3' Template: The 3'-5' proceeding daughter strand -that uses a 5'-3' template. for example Adenine opposite to Thymine etc).  .is called leading strand because DNA Polymerase III can "read" the template and continuously adds nucleotides (complementary to the nucleotides of the template.

To complete the process. DNA Polymerase I replaces the RNA Primer with DNA. . the DNA Polymerase III can build the second strand continuously and in the same direction that the double helix is being opened. Once a RNA primer has been laid down by Primase.The leading strand requires fewer steps and therefore is synthesized the quickest.

3'-5'Template: The 3'-5' template cannot be "read" by DNA Polymerase III. DNA polymerase III reads the template and lengthens the bursts. The replication of this template is complicated and the new strand is called lagging strand. In the lagging strand the RNA Primase adds more RNA Primers. The gap between two RNA primers is called "Okazaki Fragments".  The RNA Primers are necessary for DNA Polymerase III to bind Nucleotides to the 3' end of them. The daughter strand is elongated with the binding of more DNA .

The process therefore has to be done in pieces. . called Okazaki Fragments. the helix uncoiling occurs in the opposite direction to w/c Polymerase III works.In the synthesis of the lagging strand.

The gaps are closed with the action of DNA Polymerase which adds complementary nucleotides to the gaps and DNA Ligase which acts as a glue to attach the phosphate to the sugar by forming phosphodiester bond. .In the lagging strand the DNA Pol I -exonucleasereads the fragments and removes the RNA Primers.

This is what we call semiconservative replication. The total mechanism requires a cycle of repeating steps that include: 1) Creation of RNA Primers (Primase) 2) Synthesizing a short segment of DNA between the primers (Polymerase III) 3) Replacing the RNA primer with DNA (Polymerase I) and finally .Each new double helix is consisted of one old and one new chain.

a part of the telomere is removed in every cycle of DNA Replication. when the RNA primer is removed. As a result.The last step of DNA Replication is the Termination. it is not possible for the DNA Polymerase to seal the gap (because there is no primer). So. This process happens when the DNA Polymerase reaches to an end of the strands. We can easily understand that in the last section of the lagging strand. the end of the parental strand where the last primer binds isn't replicated.  . These ends of linear (chromosomal) DNA consists of noncoding DNA that contains repeat sequences and are called telomeres.

The DNA Replication is not completed before a mechanism of repair fixes possible errors caused during the replication. . Enzymes like nucleases remove the wrong nucleotides and the DNA Polymerase fills the gaps.