Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
DNA usually exists as a doublestranded structure, with both strands
coiled together to form the
characteristic double-helix.
Each single strand of DNA is a chain
of four types of nucleotides having
the bases:

that is.   . a deoxyribose sugar is attached to one. two. or three phosphates. di-.A nucleotide is a mono-. creating the phosphatedeoxyribose backbone of the DNA double helix with the bases pointing inward.   Chemical interaction of these nucleotides forms phosphodiester linkages. or triphosphate deoxyribonucleoside.


Adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine .Nucleotides (bases) are matched between strands through hydrogen bonds to form base pairs.

Directionality has consequences in DNA synthesis.DNA strands have a directionality. The strands of the helix are anti-parallel with one being 5 prime to 3 then the opposite strand 3 prime to 5. and the different ends of a single strand are called the "3' (three-prime) end" and the "5' (fiveprime) end" with the direction of the naming going 5 prime to the 3 prime region. because . These terms refer to the carbon atom in deoxyribose to which the next phosphate in the chain attaches.

. The nucleotides on a single strand can be used to reconstruct nucleotides on a newly synthesized partner strand.The pairing of bases in DNA through hydrogen bonding means that the information contained within each strand is redundant.

DNA Replication .

It is the basis for biological inheritance.DNA REPLICATION DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their exact DNA. .

The structure that is created is known as "Replication Fork".The first major step for the DNA Replication to take place is the breaking of hydrogen bonds between bases of the two antiparallel strands.  Helicase is the enzyme that splits the two strands. . The splitting happens in places of the chains which are rich in A-T. The unwounding of the two strands is the starting point. That is because there are only two bonds between Adenine and Thymine (there are three hydrogen bonds between Cytosine and Guanine).

the double stranded DNA helix must must first be opened. Helicase unwinds the two single strands . The sites where this process first occurs are called replication origins.In order for DNA replication to begin.

. SSB for short.Single-Strand Binding Proteins Single-Strand DNA Binding Proteins. They are particularly useful in stabilizing the unwound single-stranded formation. work to bind individuals strands in a DNA double stranded helix and aid the helicases in opening it up into single strands.

These two strands serve as the template for the leading and lagging strands. each one made up of a single strand of DNA. It is created by helicases. The templates may be . which break the hydrogen bonds holding the two DNA strands together. which will be created as DNA polymerase matches complementary nucleotides to the templates.Replication Fork The replication fork is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication. The resulting structure has two branching "prongs".

One of the most important steps of DNA Replication is the binding of RNA Primase in the initiation point of the 3'-5' parent chain. RNA nucleotides are the primers (starters) for the binding of DNA nucleotides.  .  RNA Primase can attract RNA nucleotides which bind to the DNA nucleotides of the 3'-5' strand due to the hydrogen bonds between the bases.

RNA PRIMASE RNA Primase lays down the RNA primers so that the Polymerase III can get to work or can function. .

for example Adenine opposite to Thymine etc).is called leading strand because DNA Polymerase III can "read" the template and continuously adds nucleotides (complementary to the nucleotides of the template.The elongation process is different for the 5'-3' and 3'-5' template. a)5'-3' Template: The 3'-5' proceeding daughter strand -that uses a 5'-3' template.  .

. To complete the process. the DNA Polymerase III can build the second strand continuously and in the same direction that the double helix is being opened.The leading strand requires fewer steps and therefore is synthesized the quickest. Once a RNA primer has been laid down by Primase. DNA Polymerase I replaces the RNA Primer with DNA.

The replication of this template is complicated and the new strand is called lagging strand. The gap between two RNA primers is called "Okazaki Fragments". DNA polymerase III reads the template and lengthens the bursts. In the lagging strand the RNA Primase adds more RNA Primers.  The RNA Primers are necessary for DNA Polymerase III to bind Nucleotides to the 3' end of them.3'-5'Template: The 3'-5' template cannot be "read" by DNA Polymerase III. The daughter strand is elongated with the binding of more DNA .

the helix uncoiling occurs in the opposite direction to w/c Polymerase III works. The process therefore has to be done in pieces. .In the synthesis of the lagging strand. called Okazaki Fragments.

In the lagging strand the DNA Pol I -exonucleasereads the fragments and removes the RNA Primers. The gaps are closed with the action of DNA Polymerase which adds complementary nucleotides to the gaps and DNA Ligase which acts as a glue to attach the phosphate to the sugar by forming phosphodiester bond. .

This is what we call semiconservative replication.Each new double helix is consisted of one old and one new chain. The total mechanism requires a cycle of repeating steps that include: 1) Creation of RNA Primers (Primase) 2) Synthesizing a short segment of DNA between the primers (Polymerase III) 3) Replacing the RNA primer with DNA (Polymerase I) and finally .

These ends of linear (chromosomal) DNA consists of noncoding DNA that contains repeat sequences and are called telomeres.  . So. the end of the parental strand where the last primer binds isn't replicated. We can easily understand that in the last section of the lagging strand. a part of the telomere is removed in every cycle of DNA Replication.The last step of DNA Replication is the Termination. when the RNA primer is removed. it is not possible for the DNA Polymerase to seal the gap (because there is no primer). This process happens when the DNA Polymerase reaches to an end of the strands. As a result.

The DNA Replication is not completed before a mechanism of repair fixes possible errors caused during the replication. . Enzymes like nucleases remove the wrong nucleotides and the DNA Polymerase fills the gaps.