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Curriculum schedule

Time: Every Tuesday and Thursday in 10~15 week (10 12 Section)


Classroom: Wentian 509
Special Topic on Environmental Science and Engineering
May 5

May 7
Teacher: Xuyin
Teacher: Yi Li
Yuan

May 12
Teacher:
Lixiao Ni

May 14
Teacher:
Xiaodong Liu

May 19
Teacher:
Yixian Song

Advance in
water resource
Managements

Soil
characteristics
and soil
pollution

Advance in
wastewater
treatment

Water
environmental
model and
inverse
problem

May 26
Teacher:
Songhe Zhang

May 28
Teacher: Jing
Zhang

June 2
Teacher:
Deqiang Chen

June 4
Teacher:
Yiping Li

June 9
Teacher:
Jingyu Huang

Advance in
aquatic
toxicology

Advance in
water
treatment

Advance in
environmental
microbiology

Water
diversion

Monitoring of
trace organic
matter

May 21
Teacher: Yong
Guo

Applicant of
Application of
isotopes in
photocatalysis
environmental
in environment
tracer study

Advance in Water Resource Management

Wastewater reuse in China

Zhang Wenlong & Li Yi


College of Environment
2015.5.3

Outline
Background
Present Situation of wastewater reuse in China
Past History of wastewater reuse in China
Future Optimization for wastewater reuse in China
Issues on wastewater reuse refining and recommendations

1. Background
Water crisis in china (By 2010)
Two-thirds of 669 cities in China have water shortages

More than 40 % of rivers are severely polluted and 80 % of lakes suffer from eutrophication
Water consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product is three times the world average
About 300 million rural residents lack access to safe drinking water
The rapid development of industrialization and urbanization and natural water distribution
significantly aggravates Chinas water crisis

1. Background
The way for alleviating water shortage
Water diversion South-to-North water diversion, Yangtze-Taihu Water Diversion
Development of unconventional water resources Wastewater reuse, Desalination

Wastewater reuse
City miscellaneous

regeneration

wastewater

unconventional
water resource

Conventional
treatment

River feeding
Industry utilization
Others

The effluent could pollute natural water

Advantages of wastewater reuse


Stable resource
Pollutants reduction

Abundant reuse way


Weather protected

2.Present
Situation of wastewater reuse
in China

Total scale 2.83 billion tons


Wastewater reuse ratio 9%

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Sh Jia Zh An Fu Jian Sh He Hu Hu Gu Gu Ha Cho Sic Gu Yu Sha Ga Qin Nin Xi
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Beijing

Shandong
Liaoning

Guangdong

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Groundwater recharge

Industry

Irrigation

City
miscellaneous

River feeding

Northern China The Northwest

The Southwest

Eastern China

Central China Southern China The Southwest

China

343
Mostly included in wastewater
treatment plants

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11

Shandong

Liaoning

Beijing
Shanxi

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12

Coagulation and
sedimentation

Filtration

Biofilter

Membrane
treatment

Ozonation

Disinfection

Others
13

Coagulation and
sedimentation

Filtration

Biofilter

Membrane
treatment

Ozonation

Disinfection

Others
14
14

Unit technologies used in the 343 reclaimed wastewater treatment plants


Quantity of
RWTP

Proportion
%

Traditional process
lime-base process
ActifloTM
Deep Bed filtration
rotating disc filtration
Cloth-base filtration
Disc filtration
biological aerated filter
denitrifying biofilter
Active
sand
denitrification filter
microfiltration
ultrafiltration
nanofiltration
reverse osmosis
MBR

221
48
14
170
9
25
14
34
10

64.4
14.0
4.1
49.6
2.6
7.3
4.1
9.9
2.9

2.0

28
10
4
13
23

8.2
2.9
1.2
3.8
6.7

Ozonation

57

16.6

liquid chlorine
NaClO
ClO2
UV
O3

139
44
61
87
24

40.5
12.8
17.8
25.4
7.0

New thehnologies

69

20.1

Technologies
Coagulation
sedimentation
283, 82.5%
Filtration
218, 63.6%

Biofilter
51, 14.9%

Membrane
treatment 78,
22.7%
Ozonation
57, 16.6%

Disinfection
343, 100.0%

Others
69, 20.1%

15

3.Past
History of wastewater reuse in
China

16

3.Past: History of wastewater reuse in China


Emerging stage
Before 1985
The sixth
Five-Year
Plan period

Wastewater reuse
was
first
time
included in the
national
science
and
technology
programs by the
Ministry
of
Construction
(dissolved) .

Demonstration stage
1986~2000

The Seventh
Five-Year
Plan period

The Eighth
Five-Year Plan
period

The Ninth
Five-Year Plan
period

Technology of Water Pollution Control


and Urban Wastewater Resourcization
Technology of Wastewater Purification
and Resourcization
Key Technology of Wastewater Treatment
and Water Industry

Developing stage
2001~Now
The Tenth
Five-Year Plan
period

The Eleventh
Five-Year Plan
period

Technology and
Demonstration of Wastewater
Resourcization
Key Technology of urban
wastewater reuse for
landscape environment

17

3.1 Emerging stage


Wastewater irrigation was firstly included
in the national scientific research plan
A
positive
and
cautious approach and
a tentative water quality
standard for wastewater
irrigation

A bench-scale test on
wastewater reclamation
were carried out in
Dalian. It was the first
attempt involving the
improved quality of
reclaimed water in
China

1957

1972

1983

The end of emerging stage

1984

A pilot project on wastewater


reclamation were successfully
carried out in Dalian.
18

3.2 Demonstration stage


Seventh
1985-1990

Eighth
1991-1995

Ninth
1996-2000

Projects

Secondary effluent from


Jizhuangzi
wastewater
treatment plant in Tianjin
was firstly using for
landscape environment

A series of projects using


reclaimed wastewater in
landscape irrigation and
replenish
environmental
water were carried out.

Reclaimed wastewater
was used for industries in
Tianjin.
Reclaimed wastewater
was used for groundwater
recharge in Beijing.

Policies

A trial implementation of
reclaimed wastewater was
promulgated in Beijing in
1987. first local regulation

Interim Measures of
Urban Reclaimed Water
Facilities Management was
promulgated in 1995. first
national regulation

Encouragement of
wastewater reuse was
included in Jiangsu Water
Resources Management
Regulations in 1997.

Water Quality Standards


of Scenic River was
developed in Tianjin.

The price of reclaimed


wastewater was set as 1
Yuan per cubic meter by
Beijing for the first time in
China.

Standards

19

3.3 Developing stage


Tenth
2000-2005

Eleventh
2006-2010

Projects

A series of demonstration projects


were developed in Beijing, Dalian,
Tianjin, and Qingdao.

Wastewater reuse was included in the


urban planning in many megacities

Policies

Wastewater reuse was written in the


revised Water Law of the People's
Republic of China in 2002.

The three red lines policy was


promulgated by Chinas Communist
Party Central Committee and State
Council in 2010.

Urban Wastewater Reuse Category


Standards and correspondingly five national
standards were established.

Urban Wastewater Reuse Water


Quality Standard for Farmland
Irrigation Water was established.
20

3.4 Spatial-temporal distribution of wastewater reuse in China

Figure 1 Contributions of different time periods on wastewater reuse scales and ratios in
China, 2002-2015. A: Northern China, B: Northeast, C: Eastern China, D: Central China,
E: Southwest, F: Southern China, G: Northwest, H: China. a: increase of wastewater
reuse scale, b: increase of wastewater reuse ratio.
21

3.4 Spatial-temporal distribution of wastewater reuse in China

Northern China is the China's most water-stressed region with 647.51 cubic meters per
capita water resources per year. Reclaimed wastewater as the regional secondary water
resource has been increasing in the past ten years. Although the ratio of wastewater reuse
would slightly reduce in the next five years (i.e. form 59.74 % to 46.76 %), it is much
higher that the goal of Twelfth Five-Year Plan (15%).

22

3.4 Spatial-temporal distribution of wastewater reuse in China

Agricultural irrigation and scenic environment were the main pattern of wastewater reuse
before 2002 in Northeast, Eastern China, Central China, and Southern China. With the
rapid development of wastewater collection and treatment, as well as establishment of
national reclaimed wastewater quality requirements for farmland irrigation and scenic
environment, the ratio of wastewater reuse had been steadily decreasing in the past 10
years.

23

3.4 Spatial-temporal distribution of wastewater reuse in China

Southwest is the most water-rich region in China with more than 3000 cubic meters per
capita water resources per year. However, the regional wastewater reuse ratio (4.07 %) is
higher than those in Central China (1.41 %), and Southern China (0.91 %). This is due to
sufficient of policies and regulations on the encouragement of wastewater reuse were
promulgated by the regional governments.

24

4.Future
Optimization for wastewater
reuse in China

26

4. Future Optimization for wastewater reuse in


China
For economic profit
One of the noticeable studies as such is by Jining Chen in 2004, in which a
linear programming (LP) model was applied to examine trade-offs between
wastewater reuse supplies and demands, as well as the related costs and profits in
China.

Report on the Work of Government on 2005


Environmental protection and ecological conservation have been another
central task of China. Wastewater reclamation and reuse should be one of the most
important measures for point source pollution control, especially in Yangtze and
Pearl River basins, where most cities are suffering from quality-related water
scarcity.
27

4. Future Optimization for wastewater reuse in


Sustainable design and implementation of wastewater reuse in China has
China

to achieve an optimum compromise among water resources augmenting,


pollutants reduction and positive economic profit. A systematic framework
with a multi-objective optimization model was firstly developed considering
the trade-offs among wastewater reuse supplies and demands, costs and
profits, as well as pollutants reduction.
off
e
d
t ra

economy

Pollutants
reduction

reuse

trade
-off

f
trade-of

Wastewater

water
resources
augmenting

Wenlong Zhang, Environ. Sci. Technol, 2013, 48(2), 1094-1102 (SCI, IF:5.481)

28

4.1 Methodology and Data


Start

Methodology

Physical constraints
Generate initial population

Multi-objective optimization through NSGA II.

S1

Randomly initialize the population P (0) of size N;

Fast non-domination sorting on P (0);

For every generation t;

Select a parent population Pp (t) from P(t) using a


binary tournament selection;

Crossover and mutations

Objective functions
6
Min F11(Qjj) =
F1 (Q j ) TC j

Max F33(Qjj) = F3 (Q j ) Q j
j 1

Non-dominated solutions
(Qj) in the first level

population Pi (t);

Place the best N individuals from Pi (t) to P (t+1);

End loop

Q6

D1

D2

D6

Q3

Q4

Q5

j 1
6

Combine P (t) and Pc (t) into an intermediate

Fast non-domination sorting on Pi (t);

Q2

j 1

Create a child population Pc (t) from Pp (t) through

Q1

Max F22(Qjj) = F (Q ) 6 ( Pd Ps ) * Q
j
2
j
j
j

crossover and mutation operators;

S2

Choose superior solutions


(Qj) for the next generation

No

Meet with the


end condition?

D1 Va Av Ev

D3+4

D5

D2 Ce Ee K e

D3 4 Ag K g Eg Tg Ar K r Er Ac K c Ec
D5 k1Vd

D6 Rw

S1 b1Wd b2Wi

S2 b1Wd

Q1 Min (S1, D1)

Q2 Min (S1, D2)

Q3 Min (S1, D3+4)

Q4 Min (S2, D3+4)

Q5 Min (S2, D5)

Q6 Min (S1, D6)

Q1+Q2+Q3+Q6 S1

Q4+Q5 S2

Qj 0, j = 1~6

Yes
End

29

4.1 Methodology and Data


Data

On-site Survey : 254


reclaimed wastewater
treatment plants in 33
cities were surveyed.

Statistical

reports:

MWR, MEP, MHUD,


SETC, NBS.

literature investigation:
related

technical

parameters

on

wastewater reuse
30

4.2 Optimization of wastewater reuse in Beijing


Pareto optimal solutions for wastewater reuse in Beijing

The solution reddened is selected as the best solution with the wastewater
reuse scale of 984.27 MCM and BOD5 reduction of 9585.18 tons, and
31
economic profit of 610.36 million RMB Yuan

4.2 Optimization of wastewater reuse in Beijing


Wastewater reuse scales and allocations of Beijing
Approximately 71.4 % of optimal
wastewater reuse scale had been
achieved for Beijing.
The result indicates that the driving
forces of water resources augmenting
and water pollution control play more
important roles than positive economic
profit

during

wastewater

reuse

expanding in Beijing.
Beijing Jingcheng reclaimed water co.,
Ltd sold approximate 500 MCM of
reclaimed wastewater but lost more
than 30 MRY in 2007.
32

4.3 Optimization of wastewater reuse in Jiangsu


Pareto optimal solutions for wastewater reuse in Jiangsu province

The solution reddened is selected as the best solution with the wastewater
reuse scale of 1.28 BCM and BOD5 reduction of 12800 tons, and economic
33
profit of 0.72 billion RMB Yuan

4.3 Optimization of wastewater reuse in Jiangsu


Wastewater reuse scales and allocations of Jiangsu province
Almost 99 % of reclaimed wastewater
was allocated to industrial reuse.
In Jiangsu province, especially in the
southern region, a large amount of
industrial effluents are discharged into
urban WWTPs due to the large-scale
township and village enterprises (i.e.
Sunan model).
Such

reclaimed

wastewater

allocation with high proportion of


industrial reuse is in agreement with
the principles of sustainable water
resources management.
34

4.3 Optimization of wastewater reuse in Jiangsu


Reclaimed wastewater allocations in Beijing and Jiangsu province

Beijing

Jiangsu

For the regions suffering from quantity-related water scarcity reclaimed wastewater should be
intensively used in municipal, domestic, and recreative sectors, while for the regions suffering
from quality-related water scarcity reclaimed wastewater should be focused on industrial
users.

35

4.4 Optimization of wastewater reuse in China


Wastewater reuse scale 15.39 BCM

Million m3

4.4 Optimization of wastewater reuse in China


BOD5 reduction 176309.77 tons

Tons

4.4 Optimization of wastewater reuse in China


economic profit 9675.47 MRY

Million RMB Yuan

4.4 Optimization of wastewater reuse in China

The wastewater reuse ratio


calculated by Chen was 6.3%.
The wastewater reuse ratio is
now up to 10.8%.
The wastewater reuse ratio
calculated in this study could
be up to 35.06 %.

The driving forces of water resources augmenting and water pollution


control play more important roles than positive economic profit during
wastewater reuse expanding in China.
40

Thanks for attention