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JadavpurUniversity

Faculty of Engineering
Civil engineering Department
Prepared by:
Bimal kanti Pal
Submitted to:
Sibrapriya Mukherjee
2015
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Methods for Soil Improvement?


Ground
Reinforcement
Stone Columns

Soil Nails
Deep Soil Nailing
Micro piles (Mini-piles)
Jet Grouting
Ground Anchors
Geosynthetics
Fiber Reinforcement
Lime Columns
Vibro-Concrete Column
Mechanically Stabilized
Earth
Biotechnical

Ground
Improvement
Deep Dynamic
Compaction
Drainage/Surcharge
Electro-osmosis
Compaction grouting
Blasting
Surface Compaction

Ground
Treatment

Soil Cement
Lime Admixtures
Fly ash
Dewatering
Heating/Freezing
Verification

Stone
Columns??
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Soil
Improvement
&
Reinforcement
Stone Columns
Method
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What is Stone Column?


stone columns are a ground improvement technique
to improve the load bearing capacity of the soil.
The stone column consists of crushed coarse
aggregates of various sizes.
The ratio in which the stones of different sizes will
be mixed is decided by design criteria.

What is Stone Column? (Cont.)


Vibro-Replacement Stone Columns extends the range of soils that can be
improved by vibratory techniques to include cohesive soils.
Densification and/or reinforcement of the soil with compacted
granular columns or stone columns is accomplished by either topfeed or the bottom-feed method.
Cohesive, mixed and layered soils generally do not densify easily when
subjected to vibration alone. The Vibro-Replacement Stone Column
technique was developed specifically for these soils, effectively
extending the range of soil types that can be improved with the deep
vibratory process. With Vibro-Replacement Stone Columns, columns
of dense, crushed stone are designed to increase bearing capacity,
reduce settlement, aid densification and mitigate the potential for
liquefaction, and improve shear resistance.
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The Vibro-Replacement Stone


Column Process!
1. Reduces shallow foundation settlement.
2. Increases bearing capacity, allowing reduction in
footing size.
3. Mitigates liquefaction potential.
4. Provides slope stabilization.
5. Permits construction on fills.
6. Permits shallow footing construction.
7. Prevents earthquake-induced lateral spreading.

Stone Column Construction


methods!
The two primary methods of Vibro Stone Column
construction are:
1. Wet, Top Feed Method (Replacement and
Displacement).
2. Dry, Bottom Feed Method (Displacement).

Stone Column Construction


(cont.)
**Wet, Top Feed Method (Replacement and Displacement):
In this technique, jetting water is used to remove soft
material, stabilize the probe hole, and ensure that the
stone backfill reaches the tip of the vibrator.
This is the most commonly used and most cost-efficient of
the deep vibratory methods. However, handling of the
spoil generated by the process may make this method
more difficult to use on confined sites or in
environmentally sensitive areas.

Stone Column Construction


(cont.)
**Top-Feed Construction Method:

Stone Column Construction


(cont.)
**Dry, Bottom Feed Method (Displacement):
This technique uses the same vibrator probes as standard
Vibro-Replacement Stone Columns, but with the addition
of a hopper and supply tube to feed the stone backfill
directly to the tip of the vibrator.
Bottom Feed Vibro-Replacement is a completely dry
operation where the vibrator remains in the ground
during the construction process.
The elimination of flushing water in turn eliminates the
generation of spoil, extending the range of sites that can
be treated. Treatment is possible up to a depth of 80 feet
and is not inhibited by the presence of groundwater.
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Important Stone Columns


Parameters?
1. Ground conditions.
2. Relative density (RD).
3. Degree of saturation.
4. Permeation.

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Stone Columns Acceptance


Testing?
1. Standard Penetration Testing (SPT).
2. Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT).
3. Dilatometer Testing (DMT).
4. Load Testing.
5. Shear Wave Velocity Profiling .
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Stone Columns Quality


Control!
1. Stone column location ( the spacing between the
stone column usually 1.5-3 m c/c).
2. Resistance level as measured by amp meter
(Vibrator draws more current in denser sols).
3. Quality and quantity of stone added -- friction
angle and size of stone columns.

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Stone Columns Design Steps:


1. Perform site investigation
Soil type, gradation, consolidation, and strength important.
2. Calculate predicted improvement.
(Problem understood)
3. Establish requirements of ground improvement
(What settlements, factor of safety, etc., are allowable).
4. Design Vibro-Replacement scheme
(Number of stone columns, diameter of stone column
and/or performance requirements required to achieve
desired results).
5. Establish testing criteria
(Load test, SPT, area of stone columns).
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Fig. Step Construction procedure of


aggregate
pier element!
Drill cavity
using augers, install casing
IF cave-ins occur.
Place crushed stone

at the bottom of
the cavity.
Ram bottom stone with beveled

tamper to produce bulb.


densify crushed stone

in layers of 30cm
with tamper.
Preload top of rap element.
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Method to Estimate Settlement


Reduction Using Stone Columns
in Cohesive Soils !!

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Vibroflotation and stone


column??
Vibroflotation is a technique for
in situ densification of thick
layers of loose granular soil
deposits. It was developed in
Germany in the 1930s.
Stone column can be used
instead of sand drains and it is
the same as Vibroflotation.

From Das, 1998

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Pictures for stone column?

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Pictures for stone column


(cont.)

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Pictures for stone column


(cont.)

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Expected Stone Columns


Results!!

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DO YOU HAVE
ANY
QUESTIONS??
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THANK YOU
FOR
YOUR ATTENTION!
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