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Unit Six

Time Management, Stress


Management, and Delegation

Learning objectives
At the end of this unit, the learner will be
able to;
1.Define time, stress, and delegation
2.List the benefit of time management
3.Discuss the nature stressors
4.Describe the advantages delegation
5.Identify the barriers of delegation
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Time management

Time

Is not often thought as a resource.


It is non-renewable resource.
No event can take place unless there is
time for it.

Time Management
Using time effectively is a management skill
and can be seen from two angles:
1. Finding out how staff uses time:

Time spent on different activities by individual


staff can be answered by keeping a daily- dairy
for a few days.
It useful to know what proportions of time is
spent on certain activities. This will help to
make the best use of time.
Events are written in daily, weekly , monthly or
yearly time periods, depending on their
frequency or regularity.

Time Management

Time plans are written in various common


forms;
Timetable: For daily/weekly regular
recurring events.
Schedule: For intermittent, irregular or
variable events, including details of where
the events take place.
Roaster: For duties planned for different
staff members, for different times in turn.
Program: For long term arrangements of
several different events or activities.

Time Management
2. Time plans in a health service
A well-managed health unit may need the
following time- plans:
A weekly time table: showing the time of
the week when certain regular events always
occur, e.g. staff meetings.
Several schedules: showing the detailed
dates on which intermittent events occur and
where they occur ,e.g. Visits to peripheral
health centers.
Several duty rosters: for different sections
of the work, e.g. night call, out patient duties.
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Time Management
Duty rosters are Common in all types of health
work.
They are needed for three purposes:
1. To distribute work fairly and evenly out side
normal working hours. E.g. night, weekends etc
2. To distribute uninteresting or difficult work,
and interesting or varied work, equally among
the various members of the units, e.g. Maternity
work.
3. To divide extra duties among the whole staff

Time Management
Unless they are arranged very carefully they can
cause a great deal of trouble and quarrelling.
Therefore, rosters have to be changed frequently.
Two rules for duty rosters:
A. The length of time of each duty period must be
the same as for all other types of duty period.
B. The number of people /Groups working in turn
must divide evenly in to the number of duty
station/ duty periods.

Time management

A Program: is a plan that out lines a series


of events or activities that will take place
in the future. A Program usually includes:

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What will be done?


Where it will take place?
Who will do it? &
When it will occur?

There are several ways to make a program


chart. A Convenient way is to list the
activities, in the order in which they must
occur.

Benefits of time management


Efficient/Effective
Successful
Healthy

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Obstacles to effective time


management
Unclear

objectives

Disorganization

Inability
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to say no

Obstacles to effective time


management
Interruptions

More

interruptions

Periods

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of inactivity

Obstacles to effective time


management
Too

many things at once

Stress

All
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and fatigue

work and no play

Techniques of effective time


management
Recognize that obstacles exist
Identify them
Employ strategies to overcome

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Techniques of effective time


management

Set goals-SMART
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time-based

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Techniques of effective time


management
Prioritize

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Do
Delegate
Delay
Delete

Techniques of effective time


management
Organize

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Techniques of effective time


management
Learn

when to say NO

You cant do everything


Dont undertake things
you cant complete
Remain consistent to
your goals

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Techniques of effective time


management
Use

your waiting time

On public transportation
At the doctors office
Waiting for your plane
On hold/waiting on
telephone call/
When you are early

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Techniques of effective time


management
Concentrate

on the task at

hand

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Focus on your goal


Tune out interruptions

Techniques of effective time


management
o Consider your personal prime
time
Morning?
Evening?
Late night?

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Techniques of effective time


management
o Celebrate your success

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The Ethiopian Context


The daily attendance of staff is taken
by using different formats and each
staff has to sign over the format
Usually it is done twice per day during
the morning and afternoon sessions.
The Personnel office does the over all
check up.
Discuss other issues!!!

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Stress management

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Definition of stress

John M. Ivancevich and Michael T.


Matterson have defined stress as

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adoptive response, mediated by


individual characteristics and/ or
psychological processes, that is a
consequence of any external action,
situation or event that places special
physical and/or psychological demands
upon a person.

Definition of stress

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It is the wear and tear our minds and


bodies experience as we attempt to
cope with our continually changing
environment.

Stressor/Cause of Stress/

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Are an internal or external event,


condition or situation that has the
potential to bring about significant
physical or psychological reaction.

Nature of stressors

The nature of the stressor is variable. i.e


An

event or change that is stressful for


one person may not be stressful for
another.
An event that produces stress at one
time and place may not also at another
time and place.

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Can be External or Internal

1. External stressors

Physical Environment
Social Interaction
Organisational
Major Life Events
Daily Hassles

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1. External stressors

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Physical environment
Noise
Bright Lights
Heat
Confined Spaces

1. External stressors

Social Interaction
Aggressiveness by others
Rudeness/Disrespect/
Bossiness/Authocratic/
Bullying/harassment/

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1. External stressors

Organisational
Rules
Regulations
Red-Tape
Deadlines

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1. External stressors

Major life events


Birth
Death
Lost job
Promotion
Marital status
change

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1. External stressors

Daily hassles
Commuting
Misplaced keys
Mechanical breakdowns

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2. Internal stressors
Lifestyle choices
Negative self - talk
Mind traps
Personality traits

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2. Internal stressors
Lifestyle choices

Caffeine
Lack of sleep
Overloaded
schedule

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2. Internal stressors
Negative self - talk

Pessimistic thinking
Self criticism
Over analyzing

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2. Internal stressors

Mind traps

Unrealistic expectations
Taking things personally
All or nothing thinking
Exaggeration
Rigid thinking

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2. Internal stressors
Personality traits

Perfectionists
Workaholics

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Factors influencing work


stress
The drive for
success
Changing work
patterns
Working conditions
Overwork
Under-work

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Uncertainty
Conflict
Responsibility
Relationships at
work
Change at work

Sources of job stress

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Sources of job stress


1.

2.

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Environment Stressors:-societal, economic,


financial, cultural, familial and technological
factors which have tremendous influence on
mental health of the employees.
Organizational Stressors:-mission
statement, strategies, policies, organizational
structure and design, reporting channels,
communication, various processes, systems
and last but not the least the working
conditions.

Sources of job stress


3. Group Stressors:- group cohesiveness,
group norms and importance of group
objective for attainment of organizational
goals.
4. Individual Stressors:-Personal life and
events of official life cannot be separated.
Events of marriage, divorce, death in the
family has a remarkable impact on work
situation. Personal life difficulties are highly
stressful. It includes;
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Sources of job stress


(a) Job Security :- A person must have a job
commensurate with his qualification.
(b) Relocation:- Relocation is related to
transfer of a person to a different place.
(c) Changes in life structure:- Span of life
has many facets. Some of these are
socio-economic environment, culture,
systems, religion, race, education and
persons interaction with society in
different roles.
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Contd
(d) Stress and Behavior

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Role stressors

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Stressful events in the nursing function


/role stressors/
Work over load
Conflict b/n staff members
In appropriate salary income
Limited resource
In appropriate infrastructure
Limited man power

Role stressors
Lack

of promotion
Job dissatisfaction
Loss of job
Inadequate knowledge
New working environment
New health policy
Un-programmed work load
Failure in achievement of work
Upgrade to higher position
Lack of educational opportunity
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Management of stress
A.

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Individual Level Strategies


1.
Define objective for Self
2.
Plan your life
3.
Social Support
4.
Physical Fitness
5.
Biofeedback
6.
Yoga
7.
Meditation
8.
Time Management
9.
Live a simple Life

Management of stress
B. Organizational Level Strategies
(a) Organizational goals must be in realms of
achievement.
(b) Employees must be empowered.
(c) Corporate policies, physical work environment
should be suitable for higher productivity.
(d) An updated systems and processes increases
efficiency.
(e) Management must create an healthy working
environment.

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Management of stress
ABC strategy
A= Awareness
What causes you stress?
How do you react?

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Contd
B= Balance
There is a fine line between positive /
negative stress
How much can you cope with before it
becomes negative ?
C= Control
What can you do to help yourself combat
the negative effects of stress?
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Delegation
The secret of success is not in doing
your own work but in recognizing the
right [person] to do it.
~Andrew Carnegie
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Delegation

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It is the process of assigning part or all of


one persons responsibility to another
person or persons.
Delegating is an effective management
competency by which nurse managers get
the work done through the employees.
The purpose of delegation is efficiency; no
one person can do all the work that must
be done; therefore, some work must be
passed on, or delegated to others.

Delegation

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Nurse managers need to be able to


delegate some of their own duties, tasks,
and responsibilities as a solution to
overwork, which lead to stress, anger,
and aggression.
As nurse managers learn to accept the
principle of delegation, they become
more productive and come to enjoy
relationships with the staff.

Ways of successful delegation

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The following list suggests ways for


nurse managers to successfully
delegate.
Train and develop subordinates. It
is an investment. Give them reasons
for the task, authority, details,
opportunity for growth, and written
instructions if needed.

Ways of successful
delegation
Control

and coordinate the work of


subordinates, but do not go over their
shoulders. To prevent errors, develop
ways of measuring the
accomplishment of objectives with
communication, standards,
measurements, feedback and credit.

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Ways of successful
delegation
Follow

up by visiting subordinates
frequently. Expect employees to make
suggestions to improve work and use
the feasible ones.
Encourage employees to solve their
own problems, and then give them the
autonomy and freedom to do.

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Ways of successful
delegation
Assess

results. The nurse manager


should accept the fact that employees
will perform delegated tasks in their
own style.
Give appropriate rewards
Do not take back delegated tasks.

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Advantages of delegation
Delegating some decision-making
saves time for other duties.
When work is spread over a large
area, the health workers on the spot
must be able to make decisions
according to circumstances.

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Advantages of delegation

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Delegations of responsibility save long


delays that occur then awaiting
decisions from a central office or other
distant authority.
Health workers who are allowed to make
decisions enjoy their work more and
become more knowledgeable and
skilful.

Disadvantages of delegation

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If wrong decisions are made, the work is


not done or it may be done less well.
A leader who does not delegate properly
may pass all the work on to the team
members, leaving very little more to
do.
A leader may delegate decisions to
people with insufficient experience.

Rules for delegating authority


and responsibility

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Be clear about exactly what is


delegated.
Select the person who you are sure can
do the work.
Explain to others that you have
delegated work and to whom.
Do not interfere unless asked to, and
be prepared for some mistakes.
Give support as needed and follow up
the progress of work.

Steps in Delegation
IDEALS steps
I Introduce the task
D-Demonstrate clearly what needs to be done
E-Ensure understanding
A-Allocate authority, information and
resources
L-Let go
S-Support and monitor
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Steps in Delegation
I-Introduce the Task

Determine task to be delegated


Those

tasks you completed prior to


assuming new role
Those tasks your delegates have
more experience with
Routine activities
Those things not in your core
competency
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Steps in Delegation
I-Introduce the Task

Determine tasks to retain


Supervision

of subordinates
Long-term planning
Tasks only you can do
Assurance of program compliance
Dismissal of
volunteers/members/parents, etc.

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Steps in Delegation
I-Introduce the Task

Select delegate
Look

at individual
strengths/weaknesses
Determine interest areas
Determine need for development of
delegate
Use What-Why Statements: I want
you to do.. Because you
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Steps in Delegation
D-Demonstrate Clearly
Show examples of previous work
Explain objectives
Discuss timetable, set deadlines

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Steps in Delegation
E-Ensuring Understanding
Clear communication
Ask for clarification
Secure commitment
Dont say no for them
Collaboratively determine methods for
follow-up

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Steps in Delegation
A-Allocate authority, information,
resources
Grant authority to determine process,
not desired outcomes
Provide access to all information
sources
Refer delegate to contact persons or
specific resources that have assisted
previously
Provide appropriate training to ensure
success

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Steps in Delegation
L-Let go
Communicate delegates authority
Step back, let them work
Use constrained access
Dont allow for reverse delegation

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Steps in Delegation
S-Support and Monitor
Schedule follow-up meetings
Review progress
Assist, when requested
Avoid interference
Publicly praise progress and
completion
Encourage problem solving

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Delegation Stressors

Loss of control?
If

you train your subordinates to apply


the same criteria as you would
yourself, then they will be exercising
your control on your behalf.

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Delegation Stressors

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Compromising your own value


By successfully utilizing appropriate
delegation, your value to the
group/organization will grow at a
greater rate as you will have more
time to do more things

Delegation Stressors

Too much time spent on explaining


tasks
The

amount of time spent up front is,


in fact, great. But, continued use of
delegation may free you up to
complete more complex tasks and/or
gain you some time for yourself.

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Consequences of poor
delegating

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Information and decision-making not


shared by the group
When leaders leave groups, no one has
experience to carry on
Group morale becomes low and people
become frustrated and feel powerless

Consequences of poor
delegating

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The skills and knowledge of the


group/organization are concentrated in a
few people
New members dont find any ways to
contribute to the work of the group.
Leaders become tired out

Barriers to Delegating
Barriers in the Delegator
Preference for operating by oneself
Demand that everyone know all the
details
I can do it better myself fallacy
Lack of experience in the job or in
delegating.

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Barriers to Delegating
Barriers in the Delegator
Insecurity
Fear of being disliked
Refusal to allow mistakes
Lack of confidence in subordinates
Perfectionism, leading to excessive
control
Lack of organizational skill in balancing
workloads
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Barriers to Delegating
Barriers in the Delegator
Failure to delegate authority
commensurate with responsibility
Uncertainty over tasks and inability to
explain
Disinclination to develop subordinates
Failure to establish effective controls and
to follow up
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Barriers to Delegating
Barriers in the Delegatee
Lack of experience
Lack of competence
Avoidance of responsibility
Over dependence on the boss
Overload of work
Immersion in trivia
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