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Instructor: Mahwish Khokhar



mortgage market is a collection of

markets, which includes a primary (or
origination) market and a secondary market
where mortgages trade.


definition, a mortgage is a pledge of property to

secure payment of a debt. Typically, property refers
to real estate, which is often in the form of a house;
the debt is the loan given to the buyer of the house
by the lender.
Thus, a mortgage might be a pledge of a house to
secure payment of a loan. If a homeowner (the
mortgagor) fails to pay the lender (the mortgagee),
the lender has the right to foreclose the loan and
seize the property in order to ensure that it is repaid.


the loan is solely based on the credit of the

borrower and on the collateral for the mortgage, the
mortgage is said to be a conventional mortgage. The
lender also may take out mortgage insurance to provide
a guarantee for the fulfilment of the borrowers
There are three forms of mortgage insurance guaranteed
by the US government if the borrower can qualify:
Federal Housing Administration FHA, Veterans
Administration VA, and Rural Housing Service
Insurance RHS.


are also private mortgage insurers such as

Mortgage Guaranty Insurance Company (owned by Sears,
Roebuck). The cost of the mortgage is paid to the
guarantor by mortgage originator but passed along to the
borrower in the form of higher mortgage payments.
The types of real estate properties that can be mortgaged
are divided into two broad categories:
Single-family (one-to-four-family) residential and commercial

properties. It includes houses, condominiums, cooperatives, and

Multifamily properties(apartments, office buildings, industrial
properties, shopping centres, hotels and health care properties).


original lender is called the mortgage originator.

The principal originators of residential mortgage loans
are thrifts, commercial banks, and mortgage bankers.
Other private mortgage originators are life insurance
companies and to a much lesser extent, pension funds.
The mortgage originators may generate income from
mortgage activity in one or more ways. First, they
typically charge an origination fee. This fee is
expressed in terms of points, where each point
represents 1% of the borrowed funds.


example, an origination fee of two points on a

$100,000 mortgage loan is $2000. Originators also may
charge application fees and certain processing fees. The
second source of revenue is the profit that might be
generated from selling a mortgage at a higher price than it
originally cost. This profit is called secondary market
profit. If the mortgage rates rise, the originator will realize
loss when the mortgage is sold in the secondary market.
The originators may also service the mortgage they
originate, for which they obtain a servicing fee. It
involves collecting monthly payments from mortgagors
and forwarding proceeds to the original owner of the loan.


who wants to borrow funds to purchase

home will apply for a loan from a mortgage
originator. The potential homeowner will complete
the application form, which provides financial
information about the applicant, and pays an
application fees; then the mortgage originator
performs a credit evaluation of the applicant.
The two primary factors in determining whether or
not the funds will be lent are the:
Payment to income PTI ratio
Loan to value LTV ratio


first is the ratio of monthly payments to

monthly income, which measures the ability of
the applicant to make monthly payments. The
lower this ratio, greater the likelihood of the
applicant to meet the required payments.
The LTV is the ratio of the amount of the loan
to the market value of the property. The lower
this ratio, greater the protection for the lender
if the applicant defaults on the payments and
the lender must repossess and sell the property.



loan applications being processed and the

commitments made by a mortgage originator
together are called its pipeline.
Pipeline risk refers to the risks associated
with originating mortgages. This risk has two
Price Risk
Fallout Risk


risk refers to the adverse effects on the value

of the pipeline if mortgage rates rise. If mortgage
rates rise, the mortgage originator has made
commitments at lower mortgage rate, it will either
have to sell the mortgages when they close at a
value below the funds lent to homeowners, or
retain the mortgages as a portfolio investment
earning a below market mortgage rate. The
mortgagor faces the same risk when the borrower
fix the rate at the time of application is submitted.


risk is a risk that the applicant or

those who were issued commitments letters
will not close the transaction. The chief reason
that the potential borrowers will cancel the
commitments or withdraw their mortgage
application is that mortgage rates have
declined sufficiently so that it is viable to find
other sources of the funds.


fallout risk results from the fact that the

mortgage originator gives the right not the
obligation to the borrower to close the
transaction. There are other factors too like
unfavourable property inspection report or
purchase could have been predicted on a change
in the employment but it did not happen.
The mortgage originators protect themselves
from the pipeline risks discussed above by
signing the commitment from the borrower.



the 1930s and early 1970s, only one

type of mortgage loan was available in the
US: Fixed-Rate, Level-Payment, Fully
Amortized Mortgages. The deficiencies of this
mortgage design commonly referred to as the
traditional mortgage, led to the introduction
of new mortgage designs.


Level-Payment, Fully
Amortized Mortgages
The basic idea behind the design of traditional

mortgage is that the borrower pays interest and

repays principal in equal instalments over an
agreed-upon period of time called the maturity or
the term of the mortgage.
Thus, at the end the loan has to be fully amortizedmeans there is no mortgage balance remaining. The
interest rate is usually above the risk free rate
because of the servicing costs.


of Traditional Mortgage:
Each monthly mortgage payment for a levelpayment, fixed-rate mortgage is due on first
of each month and consists of:
Interest of 1/12th of the fixed annual interest rate
times the amount of the outstanding mortgage,
A repayment of a portion of the outstanding
mortgage balance (Principal)


are two significant problems associated

with the traditional mortgage design. In the
presence of high and variable inflation this
mortgage design suffers from two problems:
Mismatch problem
Tilt problem
The mismatch problem occurred in post-World
War-II period when depository institutions
borrowed short and lent very long. With the rise
in inflation rate the mismatch problem occurred.


mismatch problem is caused by the

Balance sheet and income statement. The difference
between the lending and borrowing rates will cause
the lending institutions to become technically
insolvent, in the sense that the market value of its
assets will be insufficient to cover its liabilities.
The tilt problem refers to what happens to the real
burden of the mortgage payments over the life of
the mortgage as a result of inflation. If the general
price level rises, the real value of the mortgage
payments will decline over time.




One way to resolve the mismatch problem is to

redesign the traditional mortgage so as to produce

an asset, whose return would match the short-term
market rates, thus better matching the cost of the
liabilities. One instrument that satisfies these
requirements and has won considerable popularity
is called the Adjustable-Rate Mortgage.


of the Adjustable-Rate

ARM calls for resetting the interest rate

periodically, in accordance with some

appropriately chosen index reflecting short term
market rates.
The ARM contracts currently popular in the US
call for resetting the interest rate every month, six
months, years, two years or three years.



Another type of ARM is the balloon/reset mortgage.

The main difference between a balloon/reset

mortgage design and the traditional mortgage is that
the mortgage rate is reset less frequently.
It is long been used in Canada with the name of
rollover mortgage. In this type of mortgage the
borrower is given long-term financing by the lender
but at specified future dates the contract rate is


GPM is one whose nominal monthly
payments grow at a constant rate during the
life of the contract, thereafter levelling off.
The mortgage rate is fixed for the life of the
mortgage loan, despite the fact that the
monthly payments increase gradually. (Read
page 434)



This mortgage design is similar to the traditional

mortgage except that monthly payments are

designed to be the level of purchasing power terms
rather than in nominal terms, and that the fixed
rate is the real rate rather than the nominal rate.
To compute the monthly payments under PLAM the
terms of the contract must be specified as:
The real interest rate
The term of the loan
The index to be used (the CPI index)



Also known as inflation-proof mortgage, the dual-

rate mortgage DRM is similar in spirit and

objective of PLAM: payments start low at
current mortgage rates of around 10%,
payments would start around 30% to 40%
below those required by the traditional mortgage
or by ARM. They then rise smoothly to the
inflation rate.