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# Determination of Soil Stiffness

Parameters

## Short Course on Computational Geotechnics + Dynamics

January 5-8, 2004
Stein Sture
Professor of Civil Engineering

Contents
General concepts and stiffness of sand
Hookes law
E-moduli from triaxial testing
E-moduli from oedometer testing
Examples on the estimation of E

Stiffness of clays
Undrained clay behavior
Drained clay behavior
Examples on the estimation of E
Computational Geotechnics

## Idealized and real stressstrain behavior of soils

Idealizedtypesofstressstrainbehaviors:(a)nonlinearelastic
Model,(b)linearelasticmodel,and(c)elastoplasticmodel

Computational Geotechnics

## Various types of elastoplastic behaviors: (a) strain hardening, (b)

perfectly plastic, (c) strain softening, and (d) combination of a to c .
Computational Geotechnics

## Hookes Law of Isotropic

Elasticity

Computational Geotechnics

## Hookes Law of Isotropic Elasticity

Computational Geotechnics

## Standard Drained Triaxial Test on

Sand

Computational Geotechnics

## Standard Drained Triaxial Test on

Sand

Computational Geotechnics

## Oedometer Test on Sand

Computational Geotechnics

## Oedometer Test on Sand

Computational Geotechnics

## Oedometer Test on Sand

Hooke:

1
2
E
(1 2 ) Eoed Eoed
1
3

Loose:

E
2
150
ref
p
3

y
ref
p

E
2
500
ref
p
3

y
ref
p

Dense:

Computational Geotechnics

( 13 )

## Oedometer Test on Sand

'

'y x 2 'x
K0

Loose:

E
2
x
x

150

150
p ref
3
p ref
p ref

Dense:

E
2
x
x
500
2
500 ref
ref
ref
p
3
p
p

Thisimplies:
Computational Geotechnics

E E 50

## Summary on Stiffness Parameters:

Sand
(Laboratorybasedexperience)
E E 50

Loose:

2
E oed
3

13

150
ref
p
p

'
x
ref

Dense:

500
ref
p
p

'
x
ref

p ref 100kPa

Computational Geotechnics

EE

ref

'x
p ref

'x
Loose: E 15MPa ref
p

'

x
Dense: E 50MPa
p ref

## Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation

Layer1(extremelyloosesand
MohrCoulombmodel:
/
Layer1: y 0 70kPa

Average

Computational Geotechnics

'y 95kPa

ref
E 50
15MPa

'y 50kPa

'x 50kPa

E 50 15000
0.5 10000kPa

## Layer 1 (dense): E 50 45MPa

ref

Layer 3 (medium):

## for both layers

Mohr-Coulomb
model:
Layer 1:

2 1.5 55kPa
'
y

E 4 45000

Layer 3:

Computational Geotechnics

'x 10kPa

E 50ref 30MPa

'

27.5
100

'x 27.5kPa

95000kPa

## Eoed from Cone Penetration Test in

Sands
Cone Resistance:

qc

Correlation: E oed qc
Literature
NC-Sand: = 1 to 3

Vermeers
Experience: = 3
Alternatively: Eoed (30 10) qc p ref

Computational Geotechnics

## Undrained Triaxial Test on

Clay

15000Cu
Ip%

Normallyconsolidatedclay:

E u50

Cu=undrainedshearstrength(orSu)

E u50 3G50

Computational Geotechnics

## Idealized and real stress-strain

behavior of soils

Computational Geotechnics

## Idealized and real stress-strain

behavior of soils

Computational Geotechnics

## Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Computational Geotechnics

Duncan&Buchignani(1976)
Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Computational Geotechnics

## Summary on Stiffness Parameters:

Clay
Undrained Conditions

Do not use empirical relationships only. Get good quality experimental data from lab tests, cone
penetration tests and vane tests

Computational Geotechnics

## Drained Behavior for Clays

Computational Geotechnics

## Drained Behavior for Clays

Computational Geotechnics