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Determination of Soil Stiffness

Parameters

Short Course on Computational Geotechnics + Dynamics


Boulder, Colorado
January 5-8, 2004
Stein Sture
Professor of Civil Engineering
University of Colorado at Boulder

Contents
General concepts and stiffness of sand
Hookes law
E-moduli from triaxial testing
E-moduli from oedometer testing
Examples on the estimation of E

Stiffness of clays
Undrained clay behavior
Drained clay behavior
Examples on the estimation of E
Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Idealized and real stressstrain behavior of soils

Idealizedtypesofstressstrainbehaviors:(a)nonlinearelastic
Model,(b)linearelasticmodel,and(c)elastoplasticmodel

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Idealized and real stressstrain behavior of soils

Various types of elastoplastic behaviors: (a) strain hardening, (b)


perfectly plastic, (c) strain softening, and (d) combination of a to c .
Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Hookes Law of Isotropic


Elasticity

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Hookes Law of Isotropic Elasticity

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Standard Drained Triaxial Test on


Sand

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Standard Drained Triaxial Test on


Sand

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand


Hooke:

1
2
E
(1 2 ) Eoed Eoed
1
3

Loose:

E
2
150
ref
p
3

y
ref
p

E
2
500
ref
p
3

y
ref
p

Dense:

Computational Geotechnics

( 13 )

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Oedometer Test on Sand


'

'y x 2 'x
K0

Loose:

E
2
x
x

150

150
p ref
3
p ref
p ref

Dense:

E
2
x
x
500
2
500 ref
ref
ref
p
3
p
p

Thisimplies:
Computational Geotechnics

E E 50

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Summary on Stiffness Parameters:


Sand
(Laboratorybasedexperience)
E E 50

Loose:

2
E oed
3

13

150
ref
p
p

'
x
ref

Dense:

500
ref
p
p

'
x
ref

p ref 100kPa

Computational Geotechnics

EE

ref

'x
p ref

'x
Loose: E 15MPa ref
p

'

x
Dense: E 50MPa
p ref

Unloading:About4timesstiffer.small

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation


Example 1 (loading):

Layer1(extremelyloosesand
MohrCoulombmodel:
/
Layer1: y 0 70kPa

Average

Computational Geotechnics

'y 95kPa

ref
E 50
15MPa

'y 50kPa

'x 50kPa

E 50 15000
0.5 10000kPa

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Selection of Moduli for FEM-Computation


Example 2 (unloading):

Layer 1 (dense): E 50 45MPa


ref

Unloading:

Layer 3 (medium):

Eurref 4 E50ref , 0.15

for both layers

Mohr-Coulomb
model:
Layer 1:

2 1.5 55kPa
'
y

E 4 45000

Layer 3:

Computational Geotechnics

'x 10kPa

E 50ref 30MPa

'

27.5
100

'x 27.5kPa

95000kPa

E 4 30000 0.10 38000kPa

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Eoed from Cone Penetration Test in


Sands
Cone Resistance:

qc

Correlation: E oed qc
Literature
NC-Sand: = 1 to 3

Vermeers
Experience: = 3
Alternatively: Eoed (30 10) qc p ref

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Undrained Triaxial Test on


Clay

15000Cu
Ip%

Normallyconsolidatedclay:

E u50

Cu=undrainedshearstrength(orSu)

E u50 3G50

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Idealized and real stress-strain


behavior of soils

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Idealized and real stress-strain


behavior of soils

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Plate Loading Tests

Computational Geotechnics

Duncan&Buchignani(1976)
Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Plate Loading Tests

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Summary on Stiffness Parameters:


Clay
Undrained Conditions

Do not use empirical relationships only. Get good quality experimental data from lab tests, cone
penetration tests and vane tests

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Drained Behavior for Clays

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters

Drained Behavior for Clays

Computational Geotechnics

Determination of Soil Stiffness Parameters