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Chapter 10

Electrochemist
ry
Electrochemist
ry
Is the study of the relationship between electricity
and chemical reaction

Chemical reactions involved in electrochemistry are :

Reduction
REDOX REACTION
Oxidation

One type of reaction cannot occur without


the other.
REDOX Reaction
REDUCTION OXIDATION
gain of electron loss of electron
Oxidation no. decrease Oxidation no. increase
Reaction at cathode Reaction at anode
Example:
Remember…
RED CAT Mg → Mg2+ + 2e-
= REDuction
RED at CAThode
CAT
Example: Oxidation no. ↑

Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu

Oxidation no. ↓
Electrochemical reaction consists of reduction
and oxidation.
These two reactions are called ‘half-cell
reactions’
The combination of 2 half reactions are called
‘cell reaction’
Example
Reduction : Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu(s)
Half-cell
Oxidation : Zn(s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e- reaction

Overall cell
reaction :
Cu2+
(aq) + Zn(s) → Cu(s) + Zn2+ (aq)
Cells
There are 2 type of cells

Electrochemical Electrolytic
Cells Cells

where chemical reaction Uses electricity to


produces electricity produce chemical
reaction

Also called;
Galvanic cell or Voltaic cell
Chemical Electrical Electrical Chemical
Energy Energy Energy Energy
Component and Operation
of Galvanic cell
Consists of :
1) Zn metal in an aqueous solution of Zn2+

2) Cu metal in an aqueous solution of Cu2+

- The 2 metals are connected by a wire


- The 2 containers are connected by a salt bridge.
- A voltmeter is used to detect voltage generated.
Galvanic cell

Voltmeter

Cu
Zn
electrode
electrode

Zn2+ Cu2+
CuSO4(aq)
ZnSO4(aq)
solution
solution Salt
bridge
What happens at the zinc
electrode ?
 Zinc is more electropositive than copper.
 Tendency to release electrons: Zn > Cu.

Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e-

 Zinc dissolves.
 Oxidation occurs at the Zn electrode.
 Zn2+ ions enter ZnSO4 solution.
 Zn is the –ve electrode since it is a source of
electrons → anode.
What happens at the copper
electrode ?

 The electron from the Zn metal moves out through


the wire enter the Cu metal
 Cu2+ ions from the solution accept electrons.

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)


 Copper is deposited.
 Reduction occurs at the Cu electrode.
 Cu is the +ve electrode → cathode
Reactions Involved:

Anode : Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e-


Cathode : Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)
Overall cell
Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu (s)
reaction :
Salt bridge

An inverted U tube containing a gel


permeated with solution of an inert
electrolyte such as KCl, Na2SO4, NH4NO3.

Functions
 Salt bridge helps to maintain electrical neutrality
 Completes the circuit by allowing ions carrying charge
to move from one half-cell to the other.
What happened if there is no salt bridge?

Zn Cu
e
e
e e
Zn2+ e e Cu2+
ZnSO4(aq) CuSO4(aq)

 As the zinc rod dissolves, the concentration of Zn2+


in the left beaker increase.
 The reaction stops because the nett increase in
positive charge is not neutralized.
This excess charge build-up can be reduced by adding a salt
bridge
Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e- Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)

ANODE (-) CATHODE (+)

E = +1.10 V

Zn - + Cu

e
Zn2+ e
ZnSO4(aq) Cu2+ CuSO4(aq)
Salt bridge
(KCl)
How does the cell maintains its electrical neutrality?

Left Cell Right Cell

Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e- Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)

Zn2+ ions enter the solution. Cu 2+ ions leave the solution.


Causing an overall excess of Causing an overall excess of
tve charge. -ve charge.

Cl- ions from salt K+ ions from salt


bridge move into Zn bridge move into Cu
half cell half cell

Electrical neutrality is maintained


Electrochemical Cells

anode cathode
oxidation reduction

spontaneous
redox reaction

half 19.2
Cell notation

Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) Cu (s) + Zn2+ (aq)

Also can be represented as:


Salt bridge
Phase boundary

Zn (s) | Zn2+ (aq) || Cu2+ (aq) | Cu (s)


anode cathode

Cell notation
Exercise
For the cell below, write the reaction at anode
and cathode and also the overall cell reaction.
Cell notation
Zn (s) | Zn2+ (aq) || Cr3+ (aq) | Cr (s)

Anode : 3 Zn(s) → 3Zn2+ (aq) + 2e


6e- - X3

Cathode : 2 Cr3+ (aq) + 3e


6e- → 2Cr(s) X2
Overall cell 3Zn(s) + 2Cr3+ (aq) + → 3Zn2+ (aq) +2Cr(s)
reaction:
The difference in electrical potential between the anode
and cathode is called:
• cell voltage
• electromotive force (emf)
measured by a voltmeter
• cell potential

Acts as ‘electrical pressure’ that


pushes electron through the wire.
Electrode Potential
A measure of the ability of a half-cell to attract electrons towards it.

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e → Cu(s) Eored = +0.34 V


Zn2+ (aq) + 2e → Zn(s) Eored = -0.76 V
Standard reduction
potential
•The more positive the half-cell’s electrode potential, the
stronger the attraction for electrons.
Tendency for reduction ↑
(cathode)

Standard reduction potential of copper half-cell is


more positive compared to zinc.
Zinc half-cell becomes anode.
Cu2+ (aq) + 2e → Cu(s) Eored = +0.34 V

Zn2+ (aq) + 2e → Zn(s) Eored = -0.76 V

Cell Potential (Eocell )= Eocatode — Eoanode

= +0.34 – (-0.76)
= +1.1 V
Zn2+ (aq) + 2e- → Zn (s) E0 = -0.76V

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s) E0 = +0.34V

E0cell = E0cathode - E0anode


= +0.34 – (-0.76)
= +1.10 V
or E0cell = E0red + E0ox Change the sign

= +0.34 + (+0.76)
= +1.10 V
Half-cell equation at:

Anode : Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e-


Cathode : Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)
Standard Electrode Potentials (Eo)
A measure of the ability of half-cell
to attract electrons towards it
at 25oC, the pressure is 1 atm (for
gases), and the concentration of
electrolyte is 1M.

The sign of E0 changes when the


reaction is reversed
•Changing the stoichiometric
coefficients of a half-cell reaction
does not change the value of E0
For example:

Cl2(g) + 2e- → 2Cl-(aq) E0 = +1.36 V

½Cl2(g) + e- → Cl-(aq) E0 = +1.36 V

Cl-(aq) → ½Cl2(g) + e- E0 = -1.36 V


Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)
Made up of a platinum electrode, immersed in an
aqueous solution of H+ (1 M) and bubbled with
hydrogen gas at 1 atm pressure, and temperature at
25oC

H2 gas
at 1 atm

Pt
H+ (aq) electrode
1 M
The standard reduction of SHE is 0 V
Standard reduction potential of Zinc half cell is
measured by setting up the electrochemical
cell as below.

E0 = +0.76
- V + E0 = 0
+
-
H2 (g), 25oC,1 atm.
Zn e
e
e H+(aq),1 M
Zn 2+ e

ZnSO4(aq) Pt
1M
Standard Electrode Potentials

Zn (s) | Zn2+ (1 M) || H+ (1 M) | H2 (1 atm) | Pt (s)


Anode (oxidation): Zn (s) Zn2+ (1 M) + 2e-
Cathode (reduction): 2e- + 2H+ (aq,1 M) H2 (g,1 atm)

Cell reaction Zn (s) + 2H+ (aq,1 M) Zn2+ (aq) + H2 (g,1 atm)

Ecell
0
= E0H+/H 2 - EZ0n /Z2+n

0.76 V = 0 - E0Zn 2+
/Zn

E0Zn /Z2+n = -0.76 V


Zn2+ + 2e- Zn E0 = -0.76 V
Standard reduction potential of Copper half cell is
measured by setting up the electrochemical
cell as below.

+ V- E0 = 0
- H2 (g) 25oC
+
1 atm.
Cu

H+
Cu 2
(aq)1
M
CuSO4(aq) Pt
1M
Pt (s) | H2 (1 atm) | H+ (1 M) || Cu2+ (1 M) | Cu (s)
Anode (oxidation): H2 (1 atm) 2H+ + 2e-
Cathode (reduction): 2e- + Cu2+ (1 M) Cu (s)
H2 + Cu2+ Cu (s) + 2H+

Ecell
0
= E0cathode - Ea0node
E0cell = E0Cu 2+
/Cu – EH0/H+ 2

0.34 = E0Cu 2+
/Cu -0
E0Cu 2+
/Cu = 0.34 V
The direction of half-reaction of SHE depends on the
other
half-cell connected on it.
The cell notation for SHE is either:
 H+(aq) | H2(g) | Pt(s) when it is cathode

 Pt(s) | H2(g) | H+ (aq) when it is anode

In either case, E0 of SHE remains 0


Zn2+ (aq) + 2e- → Zn (s) E0 = -0.76V

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s) E0 = +0.34V

E0cell = E0cathode - E0anode


= +0.34 – (-0.76)
= +1.10 V
or E0cell = E0red + E0ox Change the sign

= +0.34 + (+0.76)
= +1.10 V
Half-cell equation at:

Anode : Zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e-


Cathode : Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)
At standard-state condition

E0cell = E0cathode - E0anode

or

E0cell = E0red + E0ox


Exercise
Calculate the standard cell potential of the following
electrochemical cell.
Co(s) | Co2+ (aq) || Ag+(aq) | Ag(s)
Ag+(aq) + e- → Ag(aq) E0 = +0.80V

Answer Co2+ (aq) + 2e- → Co(s) E0 = -0.28V


Cathode (Red) : Ag (aq) + e → Ag(aq) E0 = +0.80V
+ -

Anode (Ox) : Co(s) → Co2+ (aq) + 2e- E0ox = +0.28V

E0cell = E0cathode - E0anode


= +0.80 – (-0.28)
= +1.08 V
Refer to the list of Standard Reduction Potential:
Oxidation agent → left of the half cell equation
Reduction agent → right of the half cell equation
Example :
Ni2+ (aq) + 2e- → Ni (s) E0 = -0.25 V Increase
strength as
Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s) E0 = +0.34 V
reducing
Ag+ (aq) + e- → Ag (s) E0 = +0.80 V agent
Oxidation Reducing
agent agent

The more -ve the value of E0 → the stronger


the reducing agent
The more +ve the value of E0 → the stronger
the oxidizing agent
Exercise
Arrange the 3 elements in order of increasing
strength of reducing agents

X3+ + 3e- → X E0 = -1.66 V

Y2+ + 2e- → Y E0 = -2.87 V

L2+ + 2e- → L E0 = +0.85 V

Answer :
L < X < Y
Example
Calculate the E0 cell for the reaction ::
Mg(p) | Mg2+ (ak) || Sn4+ (ak) ,Sn2+ (ak) | Pt(p)
Given :
E0cell = Ecathode - Eanode
Mg2+ (ak) + 2e→ Mg(p) Eθ = -2.38 V =+0.15- (-2.38)
Sn4+ (ak) + 2e → Sn2+ (ak) Eθ= +0.15 V
=+2.53V

Oxidation : Mg(p) → Mg2+ (ak) + 2e Eoox = +2.38 V


Reduction : Sn4+ (ak) + 2e → Sn2+ (ak) Eo = +0.15 V
Mg(p) + Sn4+ (ak) → Mg2+ (ak) + Sn2+ (ak) Ecell = +2.53 V

Eθcell = E o red + E o ox
= +2.38 + 0.15
= +2.53 V
Exercis
A cell is set up between ae
chlorine electrode and a
hydrogen electrode

Pt | H2(g, 1 atm) | H+(aq, 1M) || Cl2(g, 1atm) | Cl-(aq, 1M) | Pt

E0cell = +1.36 V

(a) Draw a diagram to show the apparatus and chemicals


used.
(a) Discuss the chemical reactions occurring in the
electrochemical cell.
Answer
E0cell =1.36V
H2 (g), - V + Cl2 (g),
1 atm. - +
1 atm.

Pt Pt

H+(aq), 1M Cl-(aq), 1M
1. Show the process occur at anode and
cathode
- Half-cell reaction

2. Overall reaction
Answer
 Reduction (cathode)
Cl2 (g) + 2e- → 2Cl- (aq)
 Oxidation(anode)
H2 (g) → 2H+ (aq) + 2e- E0 = 0

 Eocell =+1.36 V
Eocell = Eocathode - E0anode
+1.36 = Eocathode – 0
E0cathode = +1.36 V
So the standard reduction potential for
Cl2 is:
Eo = +1.36 V
• Spontaneous & Non-Spontaneous
reactions
- Redox reaction is spontaneous when
Ecell is +ve.
- Non spontaneous is when Ecell is –ve.

Eθ cell = 0 The reaction is at equilibrium


Predict whether the following reactions occur
spontaneously or non-spontaneously under standard
condition. EoSn4+ /Sn2+=+0.15V
Zn + Sn4+ → Sn2+ + Zn2+
Eo Zn/Zn2+ = - 0.76V.
The two half-cells involved are:-
Anod : Zn → Zn2+ + 2e Eoox = +0.76 V
Cathode: Sn4+ + 2e → Sn2+ Eo = +0.15 V

Zn + Sn4+ → Zn2+ + Sn2+

Eocell = Eo Sn /Sn
4+ 2+ → Eo Zn/Zn2+ Eocell = Eored + Eoox
= (+0.15) + (0.76)
= +0.15 – (-0.76 ) Or = +0.91 V
= +0.91 V

spontaneous
Predict : Spontaneous or non-
spontaneous?

Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) → Pb(s) + Cl2(g)


Reduction
Pb2+Pb
(aq)
2+ + 2Cl -
(aq) → Pb(s) + Cl
(aq) + 2Cl (aq) → Pb(s) + Cl (g)
- 2 (g)
2

Oxidation
cathode: Pb2+ (aq) + 2e → Pb(s) Eo = -0.13 V
anode: 2Cl-(aq) → Cl2(g) + 2e Eoox = -1.36

Pb2+ (aq) + 2Cl-(aq) → Pb(s) + Cl2( g)

Eocell = Eored + Eoox


= (-1.36) + (-0.13)

= -1.48 V
Non-spontaneous
No Reaction
Example :
Predict whether the following reactions occur
spontaneously :
2Ag(s) + Br2(aq) 2Ag+(aq) + 2Br-(aq)

E0Ag +/Ag = +0.8 V standard reduction


potential
E0Br 2/Br -= +1.07 V
Answer :
2Ag(s) 2Ag+(aq) + 2e Eθox = - 0.80 V

Br2(aq) + 2e 2Br -(aq) Eθ = +1.07 V

2Ag(s) + Br2(aq) 2Ag+(aq) + 2Br-(aq) Esel = + 0.27 V

The reaction is spontaneous


Exercise
A cell consists of silver and tin in a solution of 1 M
silver ions and tin (II) ions. Determine the spontaneity
of the reaction and calculate the cell voltage of this
reaction.

Ag+ (aq) + e- → Ag (s) E0 = +0.80 V (cathode)


Sn2+ (aq) + 2e- → Sn (s) E0 = -0.14 V (anode)
E0cell = E0cathode - E0anode
= +0.80 – (-0.14)
= +0.94 V
E0cell = +ve ( reaction is spontaneous)
Nernst equation
Nernst equation can be used to calculate the E cell
for any chosen concentration :

Ecell = Eocell – RT ln [ product ]x


nF [ reactant]y

At 298 K and R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 , 1 F = 96500 C

Ecell = Eocell – 0.0257 [ product ]x


2.303 log
n [ reactant]y
Ecell = Eocell – 0.0592 [ product ]x
log
n [ reactant]y

[ product ]x
= Q
[ reactant] y

Ecell = Eocell – 0.0592


log Q
n

n = no of e- that are involved


Q = reaction quotient
Example
1
Calculate the Ecell for the following cell

Zn(s) / Zn2+ (aq, 0.02M) // Cu2+ (aq, 0.40 M) / Cu(s)

Answer

Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

Eocell = Eored + Eoox @ Eocell = Eocathode – Eoanode


= +0.34 V + 0.76 V = +0.34 V - (- 0.76 V)
= +1.10 V = +1.10 V
E = Eo – 0.0592 log [ Zn2+ ]
n [ Cu2+ ]

E = +1.10 V – 0.0592 log (0.02 )


2 ( 0.40)

= +1.10 V – (-0.0385)
= +1.139 V
At equilibrium:
~ No net reaction occur (Q=K)
~ Ecell = 0

Ecell = Eocell – 0.0592


log K
n

0 = Eocell – 0.0592
log K
n

Eθcell = 0.0592
log K
n
Example
2
Calculate the equilibrium constant (K) for the
following reaction.

Cu(s) + 2Ag+(ak) Cu2+ (ak) + 2Ag(s)

Answer

At equilibrium, E cell = 0

Eocell = Eo cathode - Eo anode


= +0.80 – ( +0.34)
= +0.46 V
Ecell = Eocell – 0.0592 log K
2

0 = 0.46 – 0.0592 log K


2

0.0592 log K = 0.46


2

log K = 15.54
K = 3.467 x 1015
Electrolysis
Electrolysis is a chemical process that uses electricity
for a non-spontaneous redox reaction to occur.
Such reactions take place in electrolytic cells.

Electrolytic Cell
 It is made up of 2 electrodes immersed in an
electrolyte.
 A direct current is passed through the electrolyte
from an external source.
 Molten salt and aqueous ionic solution are commonly
used as electrolytes.
Electrolytic Cell
+ -

Oxidation Reduction

Electrolyte
(M+X-)
X-,OH- M+,H+

Anion Cation
A  Positive electrode
n  The electrode which is connected to the
o positive terminal of the battery
d
 Oxidation takes place
e
 Electrons flow from anode to cathode
C
a  Negative electrode
t  The electrode which is connected to the
h negative terminal of the battery
o  Reduction takes place
d
e
Electrode
 as circuit connectors
 as sites for the precipitation of insoluble
products
 example: Platinum , Graphite (inert electrode)

Electrolyte

 a liquid that conducts electricity due to


the presence of +ve and –ve ions
 must be in molten state or in aqueous
solution so that the ions can move freely
example: KCl(l), HCl(aq), CH3COOH(aq)
mparison between an electrochemical
and an electrolytic cell

Electrolytic Cell Electrochemical Cell


+ -
e- e- e- e-
+ - - +

Anode Cathode Anode Cathode


Electrolytic Cell Electrochemical Cell
 Cathode = negative  Cathode = positive
 Anode = positive  Anode = negative
 Non-spontaneous redox  Spontaneous redox
reaction requires energy reaction releases energy
to drive it
Similarities:
 Oxidation occurs at anode, reduction occurs
at cathode
 Anions move towards anode, cations move
towards cathode.
 Electrons flow from anode to cathode in an
external circuit.
Electrolysis of molten salt
 Electrolysis of molten salt requires high temp.
 Electrolysis of molten NaCl

Cation : Na+ Anion : Cl-

Anode : Cl- (l) → Cl2(g) + 2e-

Cathode : Na+ (l) + e- → Na (s)


2Na+ (l) + 2e- → 2Na (s)

Overall : 2Na+ (l) + 2Cl-(l) → Cl2(g) + 2Na(s)


 Electrolysis of molten NaCl gives sodium metal
deposited at cathode and chlorine gas evolved at
anode.
Electrolysis of molten NaCl is industrially important.
The industrial cell is called ‘Downs Cell’
Electrolysis of Aqueous Salt
 Electrolysis of aqueous salt is more complex
because the presence of water.
 Aqueous salt solutions contains anion, cation and water.
 Water is an electro-active substance that may be
oxidised or reduced in the process depending on
the condition of electrolysis.

Reduction :
2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V
Oxidation :
2H2O (l) 4H+ (aq) + O2 (g) + 4e- E0 = -1.23 V
Predicting the products of electrolysis

Factors influencing the products :


1. Reduction/oxidation potential of the
species in electrolyte
2. Concentrations of ions
3. Types of electrodes used – active or
inert
Electrolysis of Aqueous NaCl
NaCl aqueous solution contains Na+ cation, Cl- anion
and water molecules
On electrolysis,
 the cathode attracts Na+ ion and H2O molecules
 the anode attracts Cl- ion and H2O molecules

The electrolysis of aqueous NaCl depends on the


concentration of electrolyte.
Electrolysis of diluted NaCl solution
Cathode
Na+ (aq) + e- Na (s) E0 = -2.71 V
2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V
E0 for water molecules is more positive.
H2O easier to reduce.
Anode
Cl2 (g) + 2e- 2Cl- (aq) E0 = +1.36 V
O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e- 2H2O (l) E0 = +1.23 V
In dilute solution, water will be selected for
oxidation because of its lower Eo.
Reactions involved

Cathode: 2H2O (l) + 2e-


H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V
4H2O (l) + 4e- 2H2 (g) + 4OH- (aq)

Anode: 2H2O (l) O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e- E0 = -1.23 V

Cell 6H2O(l) O2(g) + 2H2(g) + 4OH-(aq) + 4H+(aq)


reaction:
4 H2O

2H2O(l) O2(g) + 2H2(g) E0cell = -2.06 V


ectrolysis of Concentrated NaCl solutio
Cathode
Na+ (aq) + e- Na (s) E0 = -2.71 V
2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V
 E0 for water molecules is more positive
 H2O easier to be reduce
Anode
Cl2 (g) + 2e- 2Cl- (aq) E0 = +1.36 V
O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e- 2H2O (l) E0 = +1.23 V
In concentrated solution, chloride ions will be
oxidised because of its high concentration.
Reactions involved
Cathode: 2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V

Anode: 2Cl- (aq) Cl2 (g) + 2e- E0 = -1.36 V

Cell 2H2O(l) + 2Cl- Cl2(g) + H2(g) + 2OH-(aq)


reaction:
E0cell = -2.19 V
Exercise
Predict the electrolysis reaction when
Na2SO4 solution is electrolysed using platinum electrodes.

Solution
 Na2SO4 aqueous solution contains Na+ ion, SO42- ion
and water molecules
 On electrolysis,
 the cathode attracts Na+ ion and H2O molecules

 the anode attracts SO42- ion and H2O molecules


Cathode
Na+ (aq) + e- Na (s) E0 = -2.71 V
2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V
 E0 for water molecules is more positive
H2O easier to reduce

Anode
S2O82- (aq) + 2e- 2SO42- (aq) E0 = +2.01 V
O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e- 2H2O (l) E0 = +1.23 V

 E0 for water molecules is less positive


H2O easier to oxidise
Equation
Cathode: 2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH- (aq) E0 = -0.83 V

Anode: 2H2O (l) O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e- E0 = -1.23 V

Cell 2H2O(l) O2(g) + 2H2(g) E0cell = -2.06 V


Reaction:

 Cathode = H2 gas is produced and solution become


basic at cathode because OH- ions are formed

 Anode = O2 gas is produced and solution become


acidic at anode because H+ ions are formed
Faraday’s Law of
Electrolysis
Describes the relationship between the amount of
electricity passed through an electrolytic cell and
the amount of substances produced at electrode.

Faraday’s First Law


tates that the quantity of substance formed at an
lectrode is directly proportional to the quantity o
electric charge supplied.
Faraday’s 1st Law

mαQ
Q = electric charge in coulombs (C)
m = mass of substance discharged
The End
Q = It
Q = electric charge in coulombs (C)
I = current in amperes (A)
t = time in second (s)

Faraday constant (F)


is the charge on 1 mole of electron

1 F = 96 500
C
Exampl
e is electrolysed using a
An aqueous solution of CuSO 4
current of 0.150 A for 5 hours. Calculate the mass
of copper deposited at the cathode.
Answer
Electric charge, Q = Current (I) x time (t)
Q = (0.150 A) x ( 5 x 60 x 60 )s
Q = 2700 C

1 mole of electron Ξ 1 F Ξ 96 500 C


2700
No. of e passed through =
- = 0.028 mol
96 500
Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu (s)
From equation:
2 mol electrons → 1 mol Cu
0.028 mol electrons → 0.014 mol Cu

Mr for Cu = 63.5
Mass of Copper deposited = 0.014 x 63.5
= 0.889 g