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Reactions in Aqueous

Solution

Chapter 5

Compounds in Aqueous Solution


HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
This is a reaction in which reactants are in solution
Solution homogeneous mixture composed of two
parts:
solute the medium which is dissolved
solvent the medium which dissolves the solute.

Chapter 5

Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Compounds in Water
Some compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in
water electrolytes
Those compounds which do not conduct electricity when
dissolved in water are called nonelectrolytes
a. Nonelectrolyte
b. Weak electrolyte
c. Strong electrolyte

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Ionic Compounds in Water (Electrolytes)
The conductivity of the solution is due to the formation
of ions when the compound dissolves in water

NaCl ( s ) H 2O Na ( aq ) Cl ( aq )
These ions are not the result of a chemical reaction, they
are the result of a dissociation of the molecule into ions
that compose the solid.

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Ionic Compounds in Water

Chapter 5

Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Molecular Compounds in Water(Nonelectrolytes)
In this case no ions are formed, the molecules just
disperse throughout the solvent.

sugar ( s ) sugar ( aq)


H 2O

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Strong and Weak Electrolytes
Strong electrolytes A substance which completely
ionizes in water.
For example:

HCl H 2O H 3O Cl

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Strong and Weak Electrolytes
Weak electrolyte: A substance which partially ionizes
when dissolved in water.
For example:

CH 3CO2 H H 2O CH 3CO2 H 3O

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Strong and Weak Electrolytes

CH 3CO2 H H 2O CH 3CO2 H 3O
Notice that the arrow in this reaction has two heads,
this indicates that two opposing reactions are
occurring simultaneously.

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Strong and Weak Electrolytes

CH 3CO2 H H 2O CH 3CO2 H 3O
and

CH 3CO2 H 3O CH 3CO2 H H 2O

Since both reactions occur at the same time, this is


called a chemical equilibrium.

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Precipitation Reaction

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Precipitation Reaction
- A reaction which forms a solid (precipitate)
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
- AgCl is classified as an insoluble substance

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Precipitation Reaction
Net Ionic Equation
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
- AgNO3 and NaNO3 are electrolytes in solution so they
actually occur as free ions.
Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq)

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Precipitation Reaction
Net Ionic Equation
Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
- Notice that NO3-(aq) and Na+(aq) occur in both the left
and right side of the equation.
-These are called spectator ions.

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Precipitation Reaction
Net Ionic Equation
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)
- With the spectator ions removed, the resulting
equation shows only the ions involved in the reaction
remain.
- This is a net ionic equation.

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
1. Predict the solubility of the following compounds:
PbSO4
AgCH3CO2
(NH4)3PO4
KClO4

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
Predict the solubility of the following compounds:
PbSO4

Insoluble

AgCH3CO2
(NH4)3PO4
KClO4

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
Predict the solubility of the following compounds:
PbSO4

Insoluble

AgCH3CO2

Soluble

(NH4)3PO4
KClO4

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
Predict the solubility of the following compounds:
PbSO4

Insoluble

AgCH3CO2

Soluble

(NH4)3PO4

Soluble

KClO4

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Compounds in Aqueous Solution


Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
1. Predict the solubility of the following compounds:
PbSO4

Insoluble

AgCH3CO2

Soluble

(NH4)3PO4

Soluble

KClO4

Soluble

2. Predict the precipitate produced by mixing an Al(NO3)3 solution


with NaOH solution. Write the net ionic equation for the reaction.
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Acids and Bases

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Acids and Bases


Acid - substance which ionizes to form hydrogen cations
(H+) in solution
Examples:
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
Nitric Acid
HNO3
Acetic Acid
CH3CO2H
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
Sulfuric acid can provide two H+s - Diprotic acid,
The other acids can provide only one H+
- Monoprotic acid.
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Acids and Bases


Diprotic acid
H2SO4 H+ + HSO4HSO4-

H+ + SO42-

H2SO4 merupakan asam kuat atau elektrolit kuat (tahap ionisasi


pertama berlangsung sempurna), tetapi HSO4- adalah asam lemah
atau elektrolit lemah (diperlukan panah dua arah untuk
menunjukkan ionisasi tak sempurna)

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Acids and Bases


Triprotic acid
H3PO4 H+ + H2PO4H2PO4- H+ + HPO42HPO42- H+ + PO43Keberadaan asam triprotik relatif sedikit, sebagai contohnya adalah
asam fosfat. H3PO4 , H2PO4- , dan HPO42- merupakan asam lemah
(dibutuhkan panah dua arah untuk menunjukkan tahap-tahap
ionisasi)

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Acids and Bases


Base - substance which ionizes to form OH- ions in
solution
substance which reacts with H+ ions.

Examples:
ammonia
sodium hydroxide
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NH3
NaOH
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Acids and Bases


Acid-Base Reaction
H+ + OH- H2O
- It is clear that the metal hydroxides (NaOH for
example) provide OH- by disassociation.
- Bases like ammonia make OH- by reacting with water
(ionization)
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

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Acids and Bases


Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes.
Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes.

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Acids and Bases


Strong Acids
- The strength of acids and bases are concerned with
the ionization (or dissociation) of the substance, not its
chemical reactivity.
Example:
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a weak acid, but it is very
chemically reactive.
- this substance cant be stored in glass bottles
because it reacts with glass (silicon dioxide).
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Acids and Bases


Common Strong Acids and Bases
Common Strong Acids
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrobromic Acid
Hydroiodic acid
Nitric Acid
Perchloric Acid
Sulfuric Acid

HCl
HBr
HI
HNO3
HClO4
H2SO4

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Acids and Bases


Common Strong Acids and Bases
Common Strong Bases
Lithium Hydroxide
Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide

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LiOH
NaOH
KOH

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Acids, Bases, and Salts


Neutralization Reaction

- Reaction between an acid and a base.


HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
The neutralization between acid and metal hydroxide
produces water and a salt
Salt an ionic compound whose cation comes from a
base and anion from an acid.

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Acids, Bases, and Salts


Neutralization Reaction
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
- despite the appearance of the equation, the reaction
actually takes place between the ions.
Total Ionic Equation
H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

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Acids, Bases, and Salts


Neutralization Reaction
Total Ionic Equation
H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Net Ionic Equation
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l)

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Gas-Forming Reactions
Metal Carbonates and Acid
2 HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2 NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) +
CO2(g)
- Metal carbonates (or bicarbonates) always form a salt,
water and carbon dioxide

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Gas-Forming Reactions
Metal Sulfide and Acid
2 HCl(aq) + Na2S(s) H2S(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Metal sulfides form a salt and hydrogen sulfide.

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Gas-Forming Reactions
Metal Sulfite and Acid
2 HCl(aq) + Na2SO3(s) SO2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq) +
H2O(l)
- Metal sulfites form a salt, sulfur dioxide and water.

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Gas-Forming Reactions
Ammonium Salt and Strong Base
NH4Cl(s) + NaOH(aq) NH3(g) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
- This reaction forms ammonia, salt and water

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
- Reaction where electrons are exchanged.
2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Na(s) Na+(aq) + 1 eoxidation loss of electrons
2 H+(g) + 2 e- H2(g)
reduction gain of electrons

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
- Reaction where electrons are exchanged.
2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
- An alternate approach is to describe how one reagent
effects another.
- Reducing Agent, a substance that causes another substance
to be reduced.
Na(s) Na+(aq) + 1 e- Oxidizing Agent, a substance that causes another substnace
to be oxidized.
2 H+(g) + 2 e- H2(g)
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
1. Each atom of a pure element has an oxidation number of
zero(0).
2. For monatomic ions, the oxidation number equals the charge
on the ion.
3. Fluorine always has an oxidation state of -1 in compounds.
4. Cl, Br, and I always have oxidation numbers of -1, except when
combined with oxygen or fluorine.
5. The oxidation number of H is +1 (exception in binary
compounds of metal-hidrogen, LiH, NaH, CaH2 -1) and O is
-2 in most compounds (exception in H2O2 and O22- -1).
6. The sum of the oxidation numbers must equal the charge on
the molecule or ion.
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Examples
PCl5
P 1( ) =
Cl 5( ) = ________
0

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
PCl5
P 1( ? ) =
?
Cl 5(-1) = __-5____
0

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
PCl5
P 1(+5) = +5
Cl 5(-1) = __-5____
0

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
CO32C 1( ) =
O 3( ) = _____
-2

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
CO32C 1(?) =
?
O 3(-2) = __-6__
-2

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
CO32C 1(+4) = +4
O 3(-2) = __-6__
-2

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
K2CrO4
K 2( ) =
O 4( ) =
Cr 1( ) = ________
0

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
K2CrO4
K 2(+1) =
+2
O 4(-2) =
-8
Cr 1( ? ) = ___?____
0

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Example
K2CrO4
K 2(+1) =
+2
O 4(-2) =
-8
Cr 1(+6) = ___+6__
0

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Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Types

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Types

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Types

a. Hydrogen displacement
b. Metal displacement
c. Halogen displacement

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Types

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Types

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Types

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Concentration of Solution
Molarity(M)

Unit of concentration, moles of solute per liter of


solution.

Moles of solute
Molarity
Liters of solution

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which contains
17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?
F.W. (NaCl): 58.45g/mol

17.51g
moles NaCl
58.45g / mol

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which
contains 17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?
F.W. (NaCl): 58.45g/mol

17.51g
moles NaCl
0.2996 mol
58.45g / mol

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which
contains 17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?
F.W. (NaCl): 58.45g/mol
17.51g
moles NaCl
0.2996 mol
58.45g / mol

Solution volume

1L
Liters of solution 751mL

1000mL

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which
contains 17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?
F.W. (NaCl): 58.45g/mol
17.51g
moles NaCl
0.2996 mol
58.45g / mol

Solution volume

1L
Liters of solution 751mL
0.751L
1000mL

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which
contains 17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?

Moles of solute
Molarity
Liters of solution

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which
contains 17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?

0.2996 mol
molarity
0.751 L

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Solutions
Example: What is the molarity(M) of a solution which
contains 17.51g of NaCl in 751mL of solution?

0.2996 mol
molarity
0.751 L
0.399 M

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Solutions
Molarity

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Solutions

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Solutions
Dilution

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Solutions
Dilution
Example: What volume of 6.00M NaOH is required to
make 500mL of 0.100M NaOH?
Mconcentrated = 6.00M
Vconcentrated = ?

Mdilute = 0.100M
Vdilute = 500mL

0.100M(500mL) = 6.00M(Vconcentrated)
Vconcentrated = 8.33mL
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pH Scale
Concentration scale for acids and bases.

pH log[ H ]
The square brackets around the H+ indicate that
the concentration of H+ is in molarity.
So, a change of 1 pH unit indicates a 10X change in
H+ concentration.

[ H ] 10 pH

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Solution Stoichiometry
- We can now use molarity to determine stoichiometric
quantities.
Example
How many grams of hydrogen gas are produced when
20.0 mL of 1.75M HCl is allowed to react with 15.0g of
sodium metal?
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Convert quantities to moles
moles HCl 1.75M 0.0200 L
moles Na

15.0 g

23.0 g / mol

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Convert quantities to moles
moles HCl 1.75M 0.0200 L 0.0350 mol
moles Na

15.0 g
0.652 mol
23.0 g / mol

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Convert quantities to moles
moles HCl 1.75M 0.0200 L 0.0350 mol
15.0 g
moles Na
0.652 mol
23.0 g / mol

- Determine limiting reagent


0.0350

2
0.652
Na

HCl

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Convert quantities to moles
moles HCl 1.75M 0.0200 L 0.0350 mol
15.0 g
moles Na
0.652 mol
23.0 g / mol

- Determine limiting reagent


0.0350
0.0175
2
0.652
Na
0.326
2

HCl

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Calculate moles of H2
1H2
x

2 HCl 0.0350 mol

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Calculate moles of H2

1H2
x

2 HCl 0.0350 mol


x 0.0175 mol H 2

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Calculate moles of H2

1H2
x

2 HCl 0.0350 mol


x 0.0175 mol H 2

g H 2 0.0175mol 2.02 g / mol

- Calculate grams of H2

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Solution Stoichiometry
2 HCl(aq) + 2 Na(s) H2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq)
- Calculate moles of H2

1H2
x

2 HCl 0.0350 mol


x 0.0175 mol H 2

g H 2 0.0175mol 2.02 g / mol 0.0353g

- Calculate grams of H2

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Solution Stoichiometry
Gravimetric Analysis

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Solution Stoichiometry
Gravimetric Analysis

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Solution Stoichiometry
Acid Base Titrations

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Solution Stoichiometry
Acid Base Titrations

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Solution Stoichiometry
Acid Base Titrations

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Practice Problems
4,10, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36, 38, 44, 60, 62, 68

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