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Engine Lubricants

and
Lubricating Systems
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Functions of Engine Oils
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Reduce wear
Reduce friction
Seal Compression
Reduce noise
Cool engine parts
Reduce rust
Keep parts clean

Organizations Providing
Uniform Standards for Oil

S.A.E.

A.P.I.

Society of Automotive Engineers
American Petroleum Institute

A.S.T.M.

American Society of Testing & Materials

American Automobile Manufacturers
Association
 Engine Manufacturers Association
 I.S.O.

International Standards Organizations

Properties of Motor Oils
 Viscosity
 Viscosity

Index (VI)
 Flash Point
 Pour Point
 Per cent sulfated ash
 Per cent zinc.

.Properties of Motor Oils  Viscosity  Viscosity Index (VI)  Flash Point  Pour Point  Per cent sulfated ash  Per cent zinc.

thick oils   Kinematic Dynamic Too high viscosity may not reach all parts Low viscosity – thin oil  Too low viscosity may not provide enough strength to keep parts from wearing .Viscosity  Measure of the "flowability“    Property –    Resistance to flow Shearing stress High viscosity .

Dynamic & Kinematic Viscosity .

Kinematic Viscosity Measurement Saybolt Viscometer Glass capillary viscometers .

Dynamic Viscosity Measurement Typical Brookfield Viscometer .

10. 20. 30.A. .E. The W means the oil meets specifications for viscosity at 0 F and is therefore suitable for Winter use.E.      correspond to "real" viscosity. 50 by the S. Oils that fall into a certain range are designated 5.Weight of oils Common term identifying viscosity for oils  Numbers assigned by the S. These measurements are taken at specific temperatures. as measured by accepted techniques.A. 40.

_______________________________________________________________ | | SAE Gear Viscosity Number | | | ________________________________________________________ | | |75W |80W | | | |____|_____|___|______________|________________________| | |85W| 90 | 140 | | SAE Crank Case Viscosity Number | | ____________________________ | | |10| 20 | | | |__|_____|____|_____|______| | | 30 | 40 | 50 ______________________________________________________________ 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 viscosity cSt @ 100 degrees C .

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Properties of Motor Oils  Viscosity  Viscosity Index (VI)  Flash Point  Pour Point  Per cent sulfated ash  Per cent zinc. .

   As temperature increases viscosity decreases.Viscosity index  The measure of an oil's ability to resist changes in viscosity when subjected to changes in temperature. Low temperatures – High viscosity High temperature – Low viscosity .

SAE l0W-40).. Also know as multiweight oil.  .  Oil that meets certain lowtemperature and hightemperature requirements simultaneously  (e.g.Multi-viscosity/Multi-grade Oil Oil meeting SAE requirements for both low-temperature requirements of light oil and hightemperature requirements.

Per cent sulfated ash  Per cent zinc.Properties of Motor Oils  Viscosity Viscosity Index (VI)  Flash Point    Minimum sample temperature at which vapor is produced at a sufficient rate to yield a combustible mixture.  . Pour Point  The lowest temperature at which oil will pour.

A high ash content will tend to form more sludge and deposits in the engine. . Look for oils with a low ash content.Properties of Motor Oils  Viscosity Viscosity Index (VI) Flash Point Pour Point  Percent sulfated ash        how much solid material is left when the oil burns. Per cent zinc. Low ash content also seems to promote long valve life.

11% is enough to protect an automobile engine for the extended oil drain interval.Properties of Motor Oils  Viscosity Viscosity Index (VI) Flash Point Pour Point Per cent sulfated ash  Percent zinc        the amount of zinc used as an extreme pressure. the zinc compounds react with the metal to prevent scuffing and wear. A level of 0. anti-wear additive. The zinc is only used when there is actual metal to metal contact in the engine. under normal use. . Hopefully the oil will do its job and this will rarely occur. but if it does.

. and consequently lower the oil's pour point (temperature at which it pours).  Pour-point  prevent depressants crystals from forming in extreme cold conditions. and to keep the oil from thinning too much as heat increases.Common motor oil additives  Viscosity index improvers  used to enhance the base qualities of the oil.

If this corrosion were to happen. some complex acids would form and other sludge problems would occur. It also produces sludge deposits and traps corrosive acids.Common motor oil additives  Oxidation inhibitors  help prevent the oil from oxidizing (in other words. it loses its ability to protect the engine.  Rust-corrosion  help inhibitors prevent and neutralize water and oxygen from acid-etching the metals in the engine and forming rust particles. burning). When oil oxidizes. .

They don't only clean up a dirty engine.  Detergents  help to remove contaminants from the engine components and hold them in the oil until it reaches a filter. . where the contaminants are trapped.Common motor oil additives  Dispersants  help the oil to absorb and retain contaminants such as dirt or tiny metal particles (from engine wear) until the oil passes through the oil filter. or until it is changed the next time.

 Foam inhibitors (Antifoamants)  prevent the oil from being whipped into many tiny air bubbles. This also helps prevent sludge formation when the emulsion process is a possible threat in an engine. Air bubbles don't lubricate. Oils with the "energy conserving" labels contain friction modifiers. . reducing friction and improving fuel economy.Common motor oil additives  Friction  modifiers/wear inhibitors "stick" to engine surfaces better.

Types of Motor Oils  Petroleum Based    Refined from crude oil Supplemented with additives Synthetic   Lubricants chemically engineered from pure chemicals rather than refined from crude oil.     Longer oil change intervals Longer engine life Increase gas mileage More expensive . Can provide significant advantages over refined oils.

What the h___ is he talking about? Items that tell us about selecting an oil! .

What the h___ is he talking about?  How to select an oil for different purposes. .  What to look for on an oil container.

What Oil Should You Use .

API “Donut” .

Gasoline Service Classification .

Diesel Engine Classification .

Lubrication Systems  Splash  Dipper  Slinger  Force Feed & Splash  Full Force Feed .

Splash Lubrication .

Force Feed and Splash .

Full Force Feed .

Oil Pump .

Oil pump intake screen .

Engine Oil Degradation and Contamination  Oil thickening    Fuel       Hydrocarbon compounds Combustion Products   Oxidation Vaporization of lighter components Carbon Water Sulphur Oxides Fuel chemical additives Dust and Dirt Metal – from wear of components .

Oil Filtration Systems  By-Pass  Full –Flow  Shunt .

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Engine Lubrication System with both by-pass and full-flow filtration .

Two filters provide ability to filter smaller particles .

Filter elements  Surface    Pleated paper Metal screen Depth  Cotton waste .

Changing oil and filters renews engine protection Dirty oil reduces life of an engine. .  Reduce maintenance and increase engine life by changing engine oil and filters on a regularly scheduled basis.  Interval between changes depends on operating conditions.  Oil analysis provides management of oil change intervals   Recommend for fleet operations.

Oil Pressure – Important Sensor Low pressure light indicator .

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Lubrication Links on the Web    Motor oils and more Motor Oil Functions & Properties Selecting motor oils     Motor Oil Additives Lubrication Systems Filtration Systems      API Starburst and Donut Sources of oil contaminants Filters & filter media Synthetic oil base stocks Synthetic oil history Oil Analysis –   Example 1 Example 2 .