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Solution to Black hole Attack

in wireless Networks

BY
NARESH KUMMARI

Contents
Introduction
Wireless

Networks

Manets
Routings
Types

In Manets

Of Attacks

Blackhole Attack
Network

Simulator

Analysis
Conclusion

Introduction

Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc networks to


provide protected communication between mobile nodes. Due to
unique characteristics of MANETS, it creates a number of
consequential challenges to its security design.

To overcome the challenges, there is a need to build a multi-level


security solution that achieves both broad protection and desirable
network performance.

Wireless network

The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or


more computers to communicate using standard network protocols, but
without network cabling.

Wireless communication is used to transfer data among users without a


wired infrastructure.

Using electromagnetic waves, mobile users transmit and receive data


over the air. Wireless communication spreads from home RF to
satellites, from cellular phones to walkie-talkies.

Types

of the networks

personal Area networks

Local Area networks

Wide Area networks

WLAN

Modes

Infrastructure Network

Ad-hoc Network

Ad-Hoc Network

Ad hoc is a Latin word and meaning is For the specific purpose, case, or situation
at hand and for no other

On wireless computer networks, Ad-hoc mode is a method for wireless devices to


directly communicate with each other. Operating in ad-hoc mode allows all
wireless devices within range of each other to discover and communicate in peerto-peer fashion without involving central access points

MOBILE Ad-hoc Network (MANET)

Is a self-configuring network that is formed automatically by a collection of mobile


nodes with out a centralised management.

Features

Multi-hop communication

Dynamic topology

Constrained resources

No physical security

Applications

Military and Rescue operations

Civilian application

Routing in MANET

Network layer

Routing: Route discovery and route maintenance

Data forwarding

Destination node
Intermediate nodes

AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL

Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AODV):

Intermediate nodes are responsible for finding a fresh path to the


destination.

Offers quick adaptation to dynamic network conditions, low processing and


memory overhead, low network bandwidth utilization.

Uses a destination sequence number for each route entry.

Makes sure the route to the destination does not contain a loop and is
shortest path.

Route discovery

Route discovery

Attack in Networks

Network attack is usually defined as an intrusion on your network


infrastructure that will first analyses your environment and collect
information in order to exploit the existing open ports or
vulnerabilities - this may include as well unauthorized access to your
resources.

Attack types

Passive eavesdropping

Selective Existence (Selfish Nodes)

Gray Hole Attack (Routing Misbehavior)

Black Hole Attack

Black hole attack

An imaginary place in which things are lost.

Malicious nodes responds immediately to source node with false information as


though it has fresh enough path to destination.

Source node sends data packets via malicious node assuming it is a true path.

Finally malicious node absorbs all data packets it self. So data is lost.

MOTIVATION

The main motivation of this project is to deal with black hole


attack in wireless Adhoc network.

Attack is defined as an attempt to overcome the security provisions


of the network of a computer network.
Active

attack.

Passive

attack.

Black hole attack comes under active attack.

OBJECTIVES

To create the intruder in the network by manipulating the AODV routing


protocol.

To write the code for intrusion detection system that can detect the active
attacks.

IDS system for active attacks like Resource Consumption, Sequence


Number and Packet Drop is to be developed.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS


Hardware Requirements

Processor : Mobile Pentium III (750/600 MHz) processor

RAM: 128Mb.

Hard Disk: 5 GB.

Input Device: Standard keyboard and Mouse.

Output Device: VGA and High Resolution Monitor.

Software Requirements

Software : NS-2.34

Operating System: Ubuntu10.04.

NS NETWORK SIMULATOR

NS is an event driven network simulator program

Includes many network objects such as protocols, applications and traffic source
behavior

simulations

Simulation Of Aodv Protocol

Simulation Of Black Hole Attack And Its Effects

Simulation Of Idsaodv And Evaluation Of Results

Simulation of AODV protocol

SIMULATION OF BLACK HOLE ATTACK AND


ITS EFFECTS

Since the nodes behave as a Black Hole they have to use a new routing
protocol

Cloning AODV protocol in this directory and change the name of


directory as blackholeaodv.

To implement the black hole change the receive RREP function


(recvRequest) of the blackholeaodv.cc file

Simulation of IDSAODV and Evaluation of


results

ANALYSIS

AODV network has normally 3.21 % data loss

Black Hole Node is introducing in this network data loss is increased to


92.59 %.

When we used IDSAODV protocol in the same network, the data loss
decreased to 65 %.

These two results show that our solution reduces the Black Hole effects
by 24.38 % as packet loss in a network using